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27

This kinda falls into general reference territory. There are two major groups of "Orthodox" churches. The Eastern Orthodox Church is one large group of churches that share a common theology. It separated from the Catholic Church (or vice versa, depending on your POV) in 1054 AD. Thus many Orthodox Churches adopt a national title (e.g. Albanian ...


25

Yes and no. In historical Christianity, the term for universal salvation is apocatastasis. Apocatastasis refers to the restoration of all things to their original state, which includes the notion of universal reconciliation (even going so far as to insist that Satan himself will eventually be reconciled to God). The word appears in Acts 3:21. "Repent ...


24

Evangelicalism is not in itself a "confession". It is more of a general grouping of similar confessions. As such, it is a bit hard to pin down on a specific point of doctrine like your question calls for. That being said, we could paint with a broad brush and describe some of general leanings. Every one of these will be wrong for at least some Evangelicals. ...


21

It seems to be down to an ambiguous instruction issued by Pope Innocent III around 1200. The Catholic Encyclopedia has this [extract]: [In the eleventh century] the manner of making [the sign of the Cross] in the West seems to have been identical with that followed at present in the East, i.e. only three fingers were used, and the hand traveled from the ...


20

Prolegomenon There is an assumption that needs to be addressed before an answer can be given, namely that 'scripture' is the basis for practices and beliefs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. It is not. Scripture is a part of Holy Tradition (the preeminent portion indeed), but not everything comes from this. Most important is maintaining and passing on the ...


17

Why do churches like the Catholic Church permit icons when idolatry is forbidden? The simple answer is that they do not consider all images to be idols (just think of photographs), and believe that members of the Church are able to distinguish between a work of art and God without the need for direct enforcement: after all, Catholics believe that the ...


17

Preface, this is a Protestant response. I'm not arguing the validity of it, or any claims here, just answering the question. the short Protestant response would be "Meh". A general Protestant response to each point would be: 1) Where in Scripture does it say there would be any such thing as Apostolic succession? The New Testament speaks of several ...


17

From the Orthodox POV, the answer is unequivocally yes. The Orthodox understand John 1:14 literally: And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth. (NKJV) [Emphasis mine] The Word of God, the Second Person of the Trinity, became flesh. Not had flesh. Not ...


16

As to the differences from a Catholic man's perspective: The metaphysical dispute over the Filioque, wherein is asked "whence comes The Holy Spirit"? A Catholic person says, when reciting the Nicene Creed, that The Holy Spirit "proceeds from The Father and The Son". Unofficially, this wording brings to mind the theory of procession put forth by St. ...


16

The differences are almost too great to list in an answer like this! The real problem in answering your question is that it isn't just a list of "things Roman Catholics believe" and "things Greek Orthodox believe". (NB that "Greek" Orthodox probably isn't accurate here: it's more accurate to talk in terms of "Eastern" Orthodox.) The problems are much more ...


15

Officially all the Eastern Orthodox Churches share "one Lord, one faith, one baptism," and this is manifested by intercommunion among, say, the sees of Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, Rome (before the Schism, she received the highest honor among the sees at councils), Constantinople, Georgia, Kiev, Moscow, Athens, Washington DC, Paris, London, Tokyo, ...


14

OK I'm finally getting around to answering this question. Unfortunately I'm limited on time so this is a summary of the Orthodox position. First of all, Orthodoxy's entire anthropology differs from Western Christianity (no original guilt/concupiscence). As such, their soteriology doesn't begin in the same place as Western Christianity and thus concludes ...


14

There seems to be two interpretations of the meaning of the skull at the base of the cross, the first is more symbolic and the second is more historical: The skull represents Adam, the first man, along with original sin. Jesus was sent to Earth to absolve us of our sins through His death. Jesus' blood is washing away our sins by flowing across the skull of ...


14

In essence you are asking an epistemological question: How can one side "know" that it is correct in a theological debate? The question could just as well apply to any Christian body, let alone the Eastern Orthodox Church. Within the eastern Church exists a notion called prelest. It is a Russian word that basically means "deception", but it is a kind of ...


13

This site has a good overview of the history from a Catholic viewpoint. Here is a high level overview based on that site and the article on Wikipedia (which currently stands in question of its neutrality). After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the church headquartered at Constantinople began to have ongoing squabbles with Rome due in some part to ...


13

Most early Eastern theologians didn't believe in witches (technically, neither did Western theologians, as is evidenced by Canon Episcopi), but most common folk did. Without getting into the confounded history of witch-burning, it is generally held that theologians prior to the 10th century did not believe in witches. The 9th century Canon Episcopi that I ...


13

Origen was a great teacher, but he also had some non-Orthodox positions on Scripture and the faith in general. His teachings were specifically anathemitized by the Second Council of Constantinople in 1553, which inherently means you can't be a saint, since you are condemned, at least according to the Roman Catholic Church. That said, he was also an ardent ...


13

It is almost certainly John Chrysostom. Compare your image with the middle figure of this icon of the Three Hierarchs The middle figure is labeled Chrysostom. To the left of him is Basil the Great. To the right is Gregory the Theologian.


12

I linked to this article in another question, but it's certainly relevant here: Luther Had His Chance Some Lutherans did make contact with Patriarch Jeremias II of Constantinople. They gave him a copy of the Augsburg Confession and requested his reaction. The Patriarch politely thanked them and, later, gave a detailed reply, indicating where the various ...


12

The basic between the two is over the Christological definition accepted at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, where Christ was recognized as being worshiped both 'in' two natures that exist 'inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably'. The Copts and other miaphysites believed that this definition was ambiguous and could be understood in a Nestorian ...


12

I can tell you of the Russian Orthodox Church. There is a Synodal Commission which examines the issue and has the authority to glorify the person as a saint. There are locally venerated saints, which are venerated in a eparchy, and commonly venerated saints, which are inserted to the calendar common to all the church. The eparchial veneration is ...


12

First things first, there are no 'denominations' within Orthodoxy. The Orthodox believe in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church (as professed by the Nicene Creed), and they believe that the Orthodox Church is it. Therefore it would be inappropriate to speak of a doctrinal position of the Russian Orthodox that is not also true of other Orthodox. While ...


12

The phrase comes from the Bible. It’s a fairly wooden translation of the Greek idiom εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. Many English translations instead use “forever and ever” or something along those lines, which is more in line with English idiom. As for precisely where it originated, I haven’t been able to find any uses in classical Greek, though perhaps ...


11

This is what Lewis has to say for himself in his introduction: I hope no reader will suppose that "mere" Christianity is here put forward as an alternative to the creeds of the existing communions—as if a man could adopt it in preference to Congregationalism or Greek Orthodoxy or anything else. It is more like a hall out of which doors open into ...


11

Is an English translation of the letter publicly available, and where can I find it? If you are talking about finding it online, you aren't going to have any luck. These letters, as far as I know, are not available to read online. However, if you are willing to spend some money, an English book compilation of the letters by George Mastrantonis can be ...


11

There isn't really a bright line distinction, but John of Damascus (died ~750) is often cited as the last one. For example, Catholic.com: the death of St. John Damascene [cir. A.D. 750] is generally regarded as the close of the age of the Fathers The Catholic encyclopedia takes a somewhat nuanced approach, allowing for the suggestion of some later ...


10

My simple answer: the Holy Spirit promised to guide the Church into all truth. The Orthodox believe that He has fulfilled His promise. Now for my lengthier response: There is somewhat of an implied dichotomy in Western thought that must be called out right off the bat: the distinction between Scripture and Tradition. In Eastern thought, there is no ...


10

Different communities adopted Arabic at various times. The earliest community to start using Arabic were the Greek Orthodox of Palestine, who started translating the liturgy and theological books into Arabic in the 8th century. For a more general history of Arab Christianity, I'd consult The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque by Sidney Griffith. For evidence ...


10

As you are probably aware, there is not a high degree of unity in Eastern Orthodoxy in English-speaking nations, especially in North America (cf. Phyletism, autocephaly, controversy concerning autocephaly and the OCA, controversy over the broad appointment of metropolitans). However, there is somewhat general consensus on the orders. But it should be noted ...


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