31

Because the Catholic Church doesn't teach that we attain salvation only through the reception of God's grace by faith. That's why the Protestant teaching is called sola fide! The Catholic Catechism says: CCC 2010 Since the initiative belongs to God in the order of grace, no one can merit the initial grace of forgiveness and justification, at the ...


25

Yes and no. In historical Christianity, the term for universal salvation is apocatastasis. Apocatastasis refers to the restoration of all things to their original state, which includes the notion of universal reconciliation (even going so far as to insist that Satan himself will eventually be reconciled to God). The word appears in Acts 3:21. "Repent ...


21

It seems to be down to an ambiguous instruction issued by Pope Innocent III around 1200. The Catholic Encyclopedia has this [extract]: [In the eleventh century] the manner of making [the sign of the Cross] in the West seems to have been identical with that followed at present in the East, i.e. only three fingers were used, and the hand traveled from the ...


20

Prolegomenon There is an assumption that needs to be addressed before an answer can be given, namely that 'scripture' is the basis for practices and beliefs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. It is not. Scripture is a part of Holy Tradition (the preeminent portion indeed), but not everything comes from this. Most important is maintaining and passing on the ...


17

Why do churches like the Catholic Church permit icons when idolatry is forbidden? The simple answer is that they do not consider all images to be idols (just think of photographs), and believe that members of the Church are able to distinguish between a work of art and God without the need for direct enforcement: after all, Catholics believe that the Word ...


17

Preface, this is a Protestant response. I'm not arguing the validity of it, or any claims here, just answering the question. the short Protestant response would be "Meh". A general Protestant response to each point would be: 1) Where in Scripture does it say there would be any such thing as Apostolic succession? The New Testament speaks of several ...


17

From the Orthodox POV, the answer is unequivocally yes. The Orthodox understand John 1:14 literally: And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth. (NKJV) [Emphasis mine] The Word of God, the Second Person of the Trinity, became flesh. Not had flesh. Not ...


16

The differences are almost too great to list in an answer like this! The real problem in answering your question is that it isn't just a list of "things Roman Catholics believe" and "things Greek Orthodox believe". (NB that "Greek" Orthodox probably isn't accurate here: it's more accurate to talk in terms of "Eastern" Orthodox.) The problems are much more ...


14

OK I'm finally getting around to answering this question. Unfortunately I'm limited on time so this is a summary of the Orthodox position. First of all, Orthodoxy's entire anthropology differs from Western Christianity (no original guilt/concupiscence). As such, their soteriology doesn't begin in the same place as Western Christianity and thus concludes ...


14

Most early Eastern theologians didn't believe in witches (technically, neither did Western theologians, as is evidenced by Canon Episcopi), but most common folk did. Without getting into the confounded history of witch-burning, it is generally held that theologians prior to the 10th century did not believe in witches. The 9th century Canon Episcopi that I ...


14

There seems to be two interpretations of the meaning of the skull at the base of the cross, the first is more symbolic and the second is more historical: The skull represents Adam, the first man, along with original sin. Jesus was sent to Earth to absolve us of our sins through His death. Jesus' blood is washing away our sins by flowing across the skull of ...


14

Origen was a great teacher, but he also had some non-Orthodox positions on Scripture and the faith in general. His teachings were specifically anathemitized by the Second Council of Constantinople in 1553, which inherently means you can't be a saint, since you are condemned, at least according to the Roman Catholic Church. That said, he was also an ardent ...


14

In essence you are asking an epistemological question: How can one side "know" that it is correct in a theological debate? The question could just as well apply to any Christian body, let alone the Eastern Orthodox Church. Within the eastern Church exists a notion called prelest. It is a Russian word that basically means "deception", but it is a kind of ...


13

It is almost certainly John Chrysostom. Compare your image with the middle figure of this icon of the Three Hierarchs The middle figure is labeled Chrysostom. To the left of him is Basil the Great. To the right is Gregory the Theologian.


12

I can tell you of the Russian Orthodox Church. There is a Synodal Commission which examines the issue and has the authority to glorify the person as a saint. There are locally venerated saints, which are venerated in a eparchy, and commonly venerated saints, which are inserted to the calendar common to all the church. The eparchial veneration is ...


12

First things first, there are no 'denominations' within Orthodoxy. The Orthodox believe in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church (as professed by the Nicene Creed), and they believe that the Orthodox Church is it. Therefore it would be inappropriate to speak of a doctrinal position of the Russian Orthodox that is not also true of other Orthodox. While ...


12

As far as both Catholics and Orthodox are concerned, you need a validly ordained priest to confect the Eucharist.(see e.g. CCC, ¶1411) As far as they are concerned, none of the churches that originate from the Reformation period have what is required for a valid priesthood (i.e. bishops in unbroken tactile succession from the Apostles(see CCC, ¶1576)), so ...


12

The phrase comes from the Bible. It’s a fairly wooden translation of the Greek idiom εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. Many English translations instead use “forever and ever” or something along those lines, which is more in line with English idiom. As for precisely where it originated, I haven’t been able to find any uses in classical Greek, though perhaps ...


11

As you are probably aware, there is not a high degree of unity in Eastern Orthodoxy in English-speaking nations, especially in North America (cf. Phyletism, autocephaly, controversy concerning autocephaly and the OCA, controversy over the broad appointment of metropolitans). However, there is somewhat general consensus on the orders. But it should be noted ...


11

Is an English translation of the letter publicly available, and where can I find it? If you are talking about finding it online, you aren't going to have any luck. These letters, as far as I know, are not available to read online. However, if you are willing to spend some money, an English book compilation of the letters by George Mastrantonis can be ...


11

There isn't really a bright line distinction, but John of Damascus (died ~750) is often cited as the last one. For example, Catholic.com: the death of St. John Damascene [cir. A.D. 750] is generally regarded as the close of the age of the Fathers The Catholic encyclopedia takes a somewhat nuanced approach, allowing for the suggestion of some later ...


10

I don't think I could improve upon the summary at the Orthodox Wiki: Objections on doctrinal grounds It is contrary to Scripture, particularly in John 15:26: "But when the Helper comes, whom I shall send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who proceeds from the Father, He will testify of Me." Thus, Christ never describes the Holy Spirit ...


10

I am one of Jehovah's Witnesses. Jehovah's Witnesses have not published any comment on a particular religious organization being behind the court cases. They are much more concerned about the outcome of the cases happening at present. Religious persecution is not new, and is rather seen as a sign of the Great Tribulation. There have been many interviews with ...


10

The Catholic Church permits the Orthodox to receive the Eucharist in a Catholic service, but cautions them to observe their own disciplines. For example, OSCCB offers: Members of the Orthodox Churches, the Assyrian Church of the East, and the Polish National Catholic Church are urged to respect the discipline of their own Churches. According to Roman ...


9

The commingling of states with Orthodoxy is a recent (19th century) historical phenomenon known as phyletism, and has to do with the rise of nationalism. This is why you see Macedonian, Greek, Russian, etc. Orthodox churches. Patrick J. Deneen explains how nationalism became a prominent ideology in western culture: “[There is] an impulse that can be dated ...


9

Full Disclaimer: I am an Eastern Orthodox Christian who is a former Protestant Christian. I have addressed how Protestants might respond to these points, with the understanding that Protestants are a very broad group with many differing beliefs on these issues. With that said, these responses must necessarily be broad and somewhat varied. According to Whom/...


9

The language has certainly changed. As such, translations into modern Greek are used. Today's Greek Bible is often used, and translations by the Hellenic Bible Society have the Blessing and Approval of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the Holy Synod of the Greek Church and the Patriarchates. There are other translations of the Bible into modern Greek, and it ...


9

The Vatican II document which talks about the Eastern Churches is Orientalium Ecclesiarium. In it, the Conciliar Fathers turn their attention to these Churches and their Orthodox counterparts. In particular, the Church deems it very important that the Eastern Churches maintain their own liturgical and spiritual tradition: All members of the Eastern ...


9

No. Perhaps the best statement of the current Roman Catholic position on the schism can be found in Unitatis Redintegratio from Vatican II. Essentially, the Roman Catholic Church holds that the doctrinal issues that exist are minor if not meaningless, and often result as different ways of expressing or experiencing the same understanding of God rather than ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible