24

There was no mandate that the gospels should appear in the order they were written once they were gathered into a collection. This is true of the rest of the New Testament as well. The order is the gospel accounts, the history of the early church, the letters of Paul to churches, to people, letters by other apostles, and prophecy. So, there ...


19

It's because the early church fathers thought that Matthew was written first. This is known as the Augustinian Hypothesis, and its namesake, Augustine, writes: Now, those four evangelists whose names have gained the most remarkable circulation over the whole world [...] are believed to have written in the order which follows: first Matthew, then Mark, ...


18

Without question, Theophilus of Antioch (d. 183) is your man. He wrote in Greek: [God's creations on the first three days--light, sky, and vegetation--] are types of the Trinity [Τριάδος], of God, and His Word, and His wisdom. And the fourth [day, the creation of the moon and stars,] is the type of man, who needs light, that so there may be God, the Word, ...


18

Tertullian One early, clear indication of the doctrine of the personhood of the Holy Spirit appears in Tertullian's work, Against Praxeas, dated around AD 215,1 saying: [W]hile the mystery of the dispensation is still guarded, which distributes the Unity into a Trinity, placing in their order the three Persons— the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost: ...


15

The earliest indication may be in the Didache, typically dated at the end of the first century. It describes the celebration of the Lord's Supper in terms of the cup and breaking bread, and then says: But every Lord's day gather yourselves together, and break bread, and give thanksgiving after having confessed your transgressions, that your sacrifice may ...


14

It's from Jerome's Commentary on Galatians, 6:10: The blessed John the Evangelist lived in Ephesus until extreme old age. His disciples could barely carry him to church and he could not muster the voice to speak many words. During individual gatherings he usually said nothing but, "Little children, love one another." The disciples and brothers in ...


13

The group you're referring to is known as the Apostolic Fathers. The exact number is unknown, because some writings cannot be dated precisely. These writings we can say with some confidence are from the Apostolic Fathers: 1 Clement, a letter written by Clement of Rome, a disciple of Peter. He may also be the same Clement mentioned by Paul in Philippians 4:...


13

No, it is not true. Luther was widely read in many works of theology and church history and and if you take into consideration his commentary on various church Fathers and the merit or issues with their theology it is ridiculous to make such a claim. It is true that he was sometimes critical of their works, but he clearly used them in his own studies. ...


13

The claim is false... Strictly speaking, the claim is easily proven false by searching a scripture index of the writings of the Ante-Nicene Fathers. While this particular index seems imperfect, it does show that many verses (particularly from the shorter letters) are not quoted or even referenced. We can also take advantage of the Philip Schaff ...


13

Origen was a great teacher, but he also had some non-Orthodox positions on Scripture and the faith in general. His teachings were specifically anathemitized by the Second Council of Constantinople in 1553, which inherently means you can't be a saint, since you are condemned, at least according to the Roman Catholic Church. That said, he was also an ardent ...


13

Piotr Ashwin-Siejkowski in his book, The Apostles's Creed: and its Early Christian Context, argues that Pilate was specifically mentioned primarily in order to argue for and defend the humanity and real death of Jesus. He first emphasizes the historical importance of Pilate to Christianity: Certainly the Scriptural detail that Jesus of Nazareth was ...


12

Having chased up the account provided in the answer that follows, I now find there is a full-blown and properly specialist study of precisely this question. Gratifyingly, the main contours are the same, and it looks like Benecke is indeed one of the "heroes" of the tale. Interested readers should therefore consult: Benjamin Schliesser, "‘Exegetical Amnesia’ ...


12

As bradimus has indicated, this is a tricky issue, because projecting the modern debate of cessationism vs. continuationism onto church fathers is anachronistic. That said, some figures in the early church do talk about or infer a decline or end in at least some types supernatural occurrences, sometimes to what are often referred to as "spiritual gifts." ...


11

This has been debated, so no one knows for sure. The consensus of the scholars seems to be that this was a malicious rumor about him, possibly started by Demetrios, the Bishop of Alexandria, a prosecutor of Origen. John McGuckin's Westminster Handbook to Origen states that someone who interpreted the Gospels so allegorically would be unlikely to have ...


11

Clement of Alexander likely was referring to Philippians 4:3 Yes, I ask you also, true companion (σύζυγε), help these women, who have labored side by side with me in the gospel together with Clement and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life. (ESV) The word σύζυγε (lexical form σύζυγος) is a hapax legomenon within the New ...


11

There isn't really a bright line distinction, but John of Damascus (died ~750) is often cited as the last one. For example, Catholic.com: the death of St. John Damascene [cir. A.D. 750] is generally regarded as the close of the age of the Fathers The Catholic encyclopedia takes a somewhat nuanced approach, allowing for the suggestion of some later ...


10

Tertullian: Earliest extant use of term Tertullian (155 - 240) was, famously, the first Latin writer to use the word "trinity" in his anti-Sabellian treatise Against Praxeas. It also contains the earliest known uses (16 total) of the word "persons" in reference to the Godhead. The mystery of the dispensation is still guarded, which distributes the Unity ...


10

It appears that Augustine believed that purgatory was real, but didn't believe the matter was settled. His agnosticism seems clearest in this passage: It is a matter that may be inquired into, and either ascertained or left doubtful, whether some believers shall pass through a kind of purgatorial fire, and in proportion as they have loved with more or ...


10

Thanks to books like Left Behind, the English word rapture often conjures up images of bodies mysteriously disappearing into thin air, followed by several years of severe tribulation, leading up to the final judgment and resurrection. Such a view is a product of dispensationalism, a relatively new theological framework, and not one that the church fathers ...


10

What an interesting find! The Biblical text in view is indeed 1 Cor 9. The key to understanding how they derived this interpretation is knowing what Clement and Eusebius meant by the words translated in the question as "greet" and "wife". Clement explains the relationship between the apostles and women (Stromatum III, 53; Greek, English): But the [...


10

A case could be made for Clement of Rome, considered by Irenaeus (Against Heresies III.3.3) and Eusebius (Church History V.6) to be the fourth Bishop of Rome (after Peter, Linus, and [Ana]cletus). (Apparently, there is some discussion as to whether Linus and Anacletus were essentially “auxiliary bishops” and Clement was Peter’s actual successor.) In any ...


9

As has been mentioned in answers to other questions, the prayer Sub tuum praesidium appeared around 250. It was originally written in Greek. Ὑπὸ τὴν σὴν εὐσπλαγχνίαν, καταφεύγομεν, Θεοτόκε. Τὰς ἡμῶν ἱκεσίας, μὴ παρίδῃς ἐν περιστάσει, ἀλλ᾽ ἐκ κινδύνων λύτρωσαι ἡμᾶς, μόνη Ἁγνή, μόνη εὐλογημένη. Beneath your compassion, We take refuge, O ...


9

As a supplement to David's answer, and in response to your second bullet in particular, let me offer the following. In "ΠΙΣΤΙΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ: Witness of the Fathers" (1994), Roy A. Harrisville reports on an examination of all the occurrences of this and similar phrases in the Greek Fathers. He lists a number of ambiguous cases, several examples of subjective ...


9

Perhaps not surprisingly, in light of Ephesians 5, church fathers widely connect Eve with Christ's Church. This seems to displace other interpretations, like a connection between Eve and the Holy Spirit. However, it is at least hinted at in Chrysostom, when he compares the Old Testament man to the New Testament man: Then [i.e., OT times] He said, “Let ...


9

As with many doctrines in the first few hundred years of the church, they tended not to be explicitly defined until heretics arose forcing the church to define doctrine. This is why history is scarce on people speaking of this doctrine until the Antidicomarites show up in the mid to late 300s. With that said, here's the records we have: ~100 AD: Ignatius ...


9

Ronald A. N. Kydd in his book Charismatic Gifts in the Early Church mentions several second-century quotes that he argues refer to glossolalia, what we call speaking in tongues. His work clearly deals with the first century as well, but in that period he mentions only prophecy, not tongues. The first evidence for speaking in tongues that Kydd mentions ...


9

The problem with references to church fathers is that they get paraphrased from time to time. Sometimes you will just have to look in Augustine for similar terminology and see if you can find the concept alluded to. That being said this seems the closest citation I've encountered to how you worded it, in Augustine's Marriage and Virginity from the Works of ...


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