19

I would say that baptism is still highly "necessary", since Jesus Himself, in his final directions to His disciples, told them to: Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit (emphasis added) and the parallel: Go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation. ...


18

Catholics reconcile the two beliefs by being allowed to believe in evolution, but required to believe in the existence of Adam and Eve. For the purposes of this discussion, evolution is the scientific hypothesis that the physical bodies of various living beings have developed from those of other living beings of different species. To believe in evolution ...


14

The idea that "Jesus was plan B" doesn't make sense from a theological or a logical standpoint. If God is Omnisicient, then He knew what would happen before He created everything. He knew Adam and Eve would choose to disobey when tempted. To claim that Jesus was "Plan B" would indicate that God is not Omniscient, or that God failed. Both go against ...


11

All of Humanity is (Individually) Made in God's Image Genesis does not seem to leave the matter open to much interpretation. Genesis 1:26-27 NASB Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every ...


10

Martin Luther and John Calvin followed the tradition of St. Augustine in abhorring any theoretical belief in a state of sinlessness, whether for a moment, day, year, or whatever. They seem to have regarded sinless perfection as the vain imagination of human pride and a result of our sinfulness.  For example, commenting on Psalms  106:6, Calvin said: How ...


10

Paul does say that "the whole creation" (including animals, presumably) suffers because of the fall: For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of God. For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to corruption ...


9

Catholicism teaches that we were in a perpetual state of grace and "did something" that opposed God's commands, which took us out of that state of grace. The rest is just footnotes. For Catholics, we subscribe to the notion that much of the early Old Testament is not a literal "this happened, then that happened" scenario. Genesis is a prime example of ...


8

The way I understand it (and the way I've always seen it taught, whether at my Church, or in various other sermons/articles) is: We inherit a sinful nature, meaning that we have a predilection for sin. The evidence is pretty clear from observation. Nobody has to teach a baby how to be selfish, it's part of our nature. (Some would call it evolutionary ...


8

The Catholic answer, as best I can. Firstly, if your question means to ask, can the current lineage of humanity transition into a state of complete grace, free from the burden of original sin or the fallen nature of the world, the answer is a simple no. The doctrine of original sin precludes it: it's a fallen world. And God has already revealed a different ...


7

There's certainly no doctrine that says it's possible. The very idea would be in direct opposition to the concept of Original Sin, which states that we're all born sinners because we inherited our sinful nature. If the doctrine of original sin is true (and since it's the starting point of your question, let's assume, for the sake of this answer, that it ...


7

The biblical basis is repeated like a refrain throughout the first chapter of Genesis (Douay-Rheims translation, my emphases): [10] And God called the dry land, Earth; and the gathering together of the waters, he called Seas. And God saw that it was good. ... [12] And the earth brought forth the green herb, and such as yieldeth seed according to its ...


7

The passage was written after his conversion, and there is no indication whatsoever that Paul was speaking in the past tense. Therefore, following the basic rules of interpretation, (particularly #3, 5, and 8) he is speaking about after he was saved. Those eight rules are copied from the Apologetics Research page below: 1 The rule of DEFINITION: What ...


7

Reformed catechisms make it clear that all of Adam's (ordinary) descendants are conceived and born spiritually dead. First, a translation of Q&A 7 of the Heidelberg Catechism: Q. Then where does this corrupt human nature come from? A. The fall and disobedience of our first parents, Adam and Eve, in Paradise. This fall has so poisoned our nature that we ...


7

According to the Catholic Church (Council of Trent's Decree Concerning Original Sin): this sin of Adam…in its origin is one, and being transfused into all by propagation, not by imitation [of the parents' vices, bad example, etc.], is in each one as his own St. Thomas Aquinas, in Summa Theologica I-II q. 81 a. 1 ("Whether the first sin of our first ...


7

By yielding to the tempter, Adam and Eve committed a personal sin, but this sin affected the human nature that they would then transmit in a fallen state. It is a sin which will be transmitted by propagation to all mankind, that is, by the transmission of a human nature deprived of original holiness and justice [sic]. And that is why original sin is called &...


6

Some groups teach that baptism is not necessary because it is a work, and we are saved on Faith alone. Most of the time, these groups will instead use something called the "Sinner's Prayer", which is only shown in scripture at best a single time (Luke 18:10-14 ...and it's debatable whether this is even the same thing). Aside from this single mention, the ...


6

It is generally a very bad idea to be basing any kind of argument on a single bible verse. The meaning of verses depends very much on the context in which they are written. You always need to be looking at the surrounding passage, and often the whole book that they are written in. In this case the passage from Ezekiel is talking about punishment for ...


6

Orthodoxy has a Tradition of the Dormition of Mary wherein it is belived that she didn't die but merely fell asleep and was assumed into Heaven. Catholic teaching neither affirms nor contradicts the Dormition but we have another tradition which is written in one of the apocryphal gospels ascribed to St. Thomas but written hundreds of years a after his death. ...


6

Your hypothetical developing baby's first sin was disobeying God in eating the forbidden fruit. On a more fundamental level, you are conflating two different concepts here. According to Reformed Theology (and indeed most branches of Protestantism) there are two different concepts in play here. Original sin, or the state in which we are born is different ...


6

Was Mary's Immaculate Conception Absolutely Necessary for our Salvation? The short answer is no. Our salvation was guarantied by Our lord Jesus Christ on the Cross. The Catholic Church believes that it was not absolutely or intrinsically necessary for the Blessed Virgin Mary to be sinless; only fitting or appropriate (God making the choice). Thus, ...


5

While there is a certain amount of room for ambiguity, the consensus of scholars is that in Genesis 1:26-27 God is creating all of mankind in his own image, not just Adam (or Adam and Eve). It is agreed by most churches and denominations that each person retains at least part of the 'image of God' within him- or herself. Genesis 9:6 would tend to back this ...


5

There are biblical references to baptism as imparting new life in Christ on which to base the practice. And Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. For the promise is to you and to your children and to all that are far ...


5

if you want to understand Catholic teaching you really ought to consult the Catechism. Afterall, authentic teachings are always going to be more accurate than what you have 'heard'. The Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC) teaches that Adam and Eve were constituted in an original "state of holiness and justice" (CCC 375, 376 398), free from concupiscence (...


5

Besides David Stratton's comment, in Philippians 3, Paul plainly confesses he is not yet perfect: "Not that I have already obtained this or am already perfect..." (v12). And, what it the "this" that he has not obtained? It seems to be "the righteousness from God that depends on faith" (v9). Paul admits he still has progress to make. Thus, he continues ...


5

This question is to me is one of the top 10 all time questions that needs to be settled in order to have a correct view of the gospel and its application to our lives. Although possibly a minority, there have been several commentators who have assumed that Paul is taking about a sinner throughout this chapter and not a believer. In fact, when reviewing a ...


5

Catholics cannot believe in a "metaphorical Adam and Eve" for at least these reasons: The Fathers of the Church all taught that Adam and Eve were two, real people, the first parents of the entire human race (monogenism, contra polygenism, which says humanity has more than two first parents), and Catholics must interpret scripture according to the unanimous ...


5

I don't agree that this statement (that committing sin is contrary to human nature) is the basis of natural law. Natural law is a consequence of the way God constructed humans and the rest of the universe. It's what makes it wrong, for example, to kill someone; and we call it natural because everyone knows it, even if God hasn't directly revealed it to them. ...


5

The Augustinian tradition, going back to the early anti-Pelagian writing On Nature and Grace, distinguishes between the human nature and the defect of original sin. We have a defective nature, therefore, and that is what we pass on to our children, but Christ is still consubstantial with us even though He was always without sin. Sin is not part of human ...


5

Yes. In his book, The Problem of Pain, popular Christian author C.S. Lewis discusses Adam's sin in the context of Scientific understanding of his time, which included Darwinism. He presents an understanding in which those creatures, guided by the hand of God, became man. Despite Lewis' prominence in twentieth century Christianity, this particular viewpoint ...


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