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why was Christ depicted in catacomb paintings either with or without a beard?

And do you have any examples of frescoes of Christ with a beard? I will be very grateful
Tikhon's user avatar
  • 21
0 votes
0 answers
14 views

What is the size of the crowd outside the praetorium when Jesus and Barabbas was offered to be release?

What is the size of the crowd outside the praetorium when Jesus and Barabbas was offered to be release at the Passover feast? Are there any historical account to the size of the crowd?
Koh Yi Min Jason's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
8 views

Does the Catholic Church teach that the bread and wine are transubstantiated in Protestant churches?

According to the Catholic Church, do the bread and wine literally become the body and blood of Christ when a Protestant church observes the Lord's Supper? What if the church uses grape juice that does ...
Someone's user avatar
  • 570
0 votes
0 answers
5 views

This passage confuses me, did God literally create evil? [migrated]

Isaiah 45:7 (LEB): 7 I form light and I create darkness; I make peace and I create evil; I am Yahweh; I do all these things.
Pozeidon's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
42 views

What is significance of the pallbearers' red-black-red armbands during Navalny's funeral?

During Alexei Navalny's (Russian Orthodox) funeral on March 1, 2024, multiple photos show the pallbearers wearing the same red-black-red armbands on the left arm, as seen in Photos: Crowds attend ...
DK2AX's user avatar
  • 121
0 votes
0 answers
7 views

John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress and "The Lamb's book of Life" (Revelation 3:5; 13:8; 17:8) or "The Book of Remembrances in (Malachi 3:16)?

The Pilgrim's Progress by John Bunyan Ch, 2 “The Way of the World or the Narrow Way” • Pg. 52 – 53 • Quote: Starting on Pg 52 the last paragraph at the bottom “Then Christian asked. ”May we go into ...
Andrew's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
1 answer
39 views

What is the difference between sinning due to rebellion vs. sinning due to weakness?

I'm reading my NIV study bible in the book of Leviticus; Lev 4:3 to be exact. Anyway, the notes at the bottom was explaining a sin offering is for someone who committed a sin without realizing it or ...
Classified's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
1k views

What are Christian responses to Graham Oppy's argument for atheism from naturalism?

Short version I'm specifically referring to Graham Oppy's paper An Argument for Atheism from Naturalism: Abstract This paper outlines an argument for atheism from naturalism that I have developed in ...
Mark's user avatar
  • 2,986
-1 votes
1 answer
31 views

Question about Jesus and a book

Muslims says Jesus gave a book when he came as prophet and then over time Christians corrupted that book is that true?
user1295782's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
24 views

Does any Reference Bible include Apocrypha cross references?

I suppose that no popular version (ESV, NKJV, NIV) contain cross references that includes Apocrypha references,especially the ESV thinline reference bible? ESV is the most popular along with NKJV by ...
Michael16's user avatar
  • 1,560
2 votes
1 answer
15 views

What was John Wycliffe’s view of baptismal regeneration?

Did John Wycliffe affirm baptismal regeneration as a general rule of faith? Or did he hold a more symbolic view of baptism?
Luke Hill's user avatar
  • 4,886
3 votes
2 answers
82 views

Is Trinity in the Blessed Sacrament (the Blessed Host)

In the Catholic Church, we believe that Jesus Christ is present -- body, blood, soul and divinity -- in the Holy Eucharist (Blessed Sacrament/Blessed Host). I would like to know if it is only the ...
Zhuang Paulus's user avatar
-2 votes
0 answers
45 views

How do Christian Scientists explain the fact that human beings have to eat to survive?

Christian Scientists believe that all illnesses can be cured by prayer alone. But if so, why can't hunger be cured by prayer alone too? Why do human beings have to eat to survive?
FlatAssembler's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
89 views

Where do I start learning the Bible, as someone coming from a non-western background?

I live in Nepal. I have no background in any of the Abrahamic religions. I want to study the Bible in simple language with the aid of a book that provides context, and suitable for self study.
Sophie Clad's user avatar
11 votes
4 answers
4k views

How do Young Earth Creationists respond to the 'Last Thursdayism' objection?

Last Thursdayism (alternately Last Tuesdayism or Last Wednesdayism) is the idea that the universe was created last Thursday, but with the physical appearance of being billions of years old. It's also ...
Mark's user avatar
  • 2,986
1 vote
0 answers
14 views

Did Simeon Stylites commit a mortal sin by missing mass?

Since being stuck up on a pillar intentionally entails missing mass, did this saint commit a mortal sin according to Catholics / Orthodox Christians?
Ken - Enough about Monica's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
51 views

Whom and/or what did Moses and Elijah represent in the Transfiguration?

We read in Mtt 17:1-3 (NKJV): Now after six days Jesus took Peter, James, and John his brother, led them up on a high mountain by themselves; and He was transfigured before them. His face shone like ...
Kadalikatt Joseph Sibichan's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
37 views

When Jesus walks on water how did he get back to shore? [closed]

These Gospel passages relate how Jesus walked on water: Matthew 14:22-36 Mark 6:45-56 John 6:16-24 John says that after Jesus got into the boat, they "immediately got to the shore they were ...
John Carter's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
72 views

In Christian epistemology, how is Reformed Epistemology different from mysticism?

Note: For context, please see my recently asked question Can Reformed Epistemology be considered a special variant of mysticism? on Philosophy Stack Exchange. It includes many useful references and ...
Mark's user avatar
  • 2,986
1 vote
1 answer
38 views

Are there any churches which still honor the distinction between homolegoumena and antilegomena?

In the ancient church there were two categories in the New Testament canon, the ὁμολεγούμενα (ho-mo-leh-GOO-meh-na; homolegoumena) which designated the books that were fully accepted, and the ...
Traildude's user avatar
  • 141
1 vote
2 answers
131 views

How do supporters of the rapture interpret Matthew 24:40-41 in light of Matthew 13:40-43?

Some say that Matt 24:40-41 is referring to a Rapture with the righteous Church removed first. But Jesus said very plainly that in the end time after the tribulations the angels will come and gather ...
Breck's user avatar
  • 19
3 votes
3 answers
47 views

What was Athanasius's view on the Millennium?

I have heard some theologians coming from both amillennial and premillianial perspectives claiming Athanasius as one of their own. As is often the case with modern readers of the Church Fathers, there ...
Dark Malthorp's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
27 views

Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit [closed]

Is saying in the Holy Spirit is Satan in anger because the pastors were taking advantage of people blasphemy against the Holy Spirit
user64809's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
63 views

Divine Relations of the Trinity

I have been studying the Trinity recently, and most of my studies have been from St. Thomas Aquinas, in his Summa Theologiae, and he would agree that the persons are the divine Essence. One thing ...
joshy's user avatar
  • 51
1 vote
0 answers
13 views

Question about translation of a phrase in 2 Thessalonions 2:7 [migrated]

Why are the words "ginomai" and "mesos" consistently translated "taken" and "way" in most translations? Is that rendering what they would consider consistent ...
Gregg's user avatar
  • 11
0 votes
1 answer
82 views

Is it still prevalent among Roman Catholics to believe that Christ's physical body is present in the Eucharist?

Do most Roman Catholics still believe that Christ's physical body is present in the Eucharist, or do most Roman Catholics believe that it is Christ's spiritual presence in the Eucharist? It is ...
Perry Webb's user avatar
-1 votes
0 answers
28 views

Can God make an impact on my professional life [closed]

I am an Upwork based Software Engineer who has been struggling to win contracts of late. I relate to the story of Jesus and the catching of fish. I am Peter, and I have been struggling to win ...
Few Against Many - Israel's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
34 views

How do real distinctions in God lead to act and potency composition?

Thomists believe that there is no real distinction between perfections of God as God is pure act. My understanding is that they reject real distinctions between perfections because that leads to act ...
Vihan 's user avatar
  • 11
0 votes
0 answers
35 views

Does Wm. Golding's book "Lord of the Flies" correctly present the theology of "The Fallen Nature of Man" according to Christian Protestantism?

William Golding wrote about a group of Boy Scouts who were stranded on an island, and who tried to set up a society among themselves. At first they were quite civil and logical in their social ...
ray grant's user avatar
  • 1,815
0 votes
0 answers
26 views

Is it not allowed for a woman to wear trousers and clothes that pertains to man [closed]

In today's Christianity there is many confusions about the biblical interpretation of the word E.g Deutonomy 22:5 I would like to know more the relationship between the dressing stlyle and ...
Maziku Mihayo's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
90 views

When is Zechariah 14:16 happening?

Everyone who is left of all the nations that came against Jerusalem will go up year after year to bow down to the King, the LORD of hosts, and to celebrate the feast of Booths. 17 Should any of the ...
wmasse's user avatar
  • 21
1 vote
3 answers
130 views

What extrabiblical arguments do Christians employ (i.e., utilize in apologetics) to defend the existence of spirits or souls?

According to the 2020 PhilPapers Survey results, when asked about their stance on Consciousness: identity theory, eliminativism, functionalism, dualism, or panpsychism?, only 20.98% leaned towards or ...
Mark's user avatar
  • 2,986
1 vote
0 answers
35 views

Eucharistic miracles and Science

Are there any scientifically proven Eucharistic miracles? If there are, please provide sources / references (papers, articles, etc).
Kavindu Lochana's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
35 views

Which Desert Father is known to have undone his work at the end of the day?

I once heard a story of a desert father who would do some work, maybe construction of some type, and then proceed to undo it all at the end of the day, repeating the next day in order to highlight the ...
Dennis's user avatar
  • 162
3 votes
0 answers
130 views

What is an overview of Christian viewpoints regarding animal sentience and their capacity to feel pain and suffering?

What is the Christian perspective on animal sentience and their capacity for conscious experience of pain and suffering? Do Christians affirm the consciousness of animals and their ability to suffer? ...
Mark's user avatar
  • 2,986
2 votes
2 answers
196 views

Does verse 3 of the hymn "It is Well" conflate parts of two different scriptures to come up with misleading theology?

Horatio G. Stafford wrote lyrics for the hymn that has the chorus, "It is well, it is well with my soul". It may be more quickly recognised by that chorus than its title, "It Is Well&...
Anne's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
23 views

Are there any denominations that teach a complementarian view of heterosexual marriage, and also recognize same-sex marriages?

Are there any Christian denominations that teach a complementarian view of opposite-sex marriages (the husband should lead and the wife should submit), while also recognizing same-sex marriages? If so,...
Someone's user avatar
  • 570
6 votes
2 answers
316 views

According to Christian evolutionists, how can the suffering of evolution be reconciled with a loving God?

A renowned Christian who believes in evolution is Francis Collins: Collins also has written books on science, medicine, and religion, including the New York Times bestseller, The Language of God: A ...
Mark's user avatar
  • 2,986
2 votes
0 answers
41 views

Is the afterlife mostly populated by embryos?

Just about every branch of Christianity teaches the human soul becomes implanted in the embryo somewhere before birth. Many branches also believe the human soul is immortal. At the same time, I've ...
yters's user avatar
  • 579
6 votes
3 answers
139 views

Did Jesus and NT authors think OT was literal history?

As I read the gospels and the other NT books, both Jesus and the authors all seem to take the OT as entirely historically accurate, especially the events of Genesis and Exodus. Additionally, this ...
yters's user avatar
  • 579
1 vote
3 answers
81 views

In Matthew 16:24 Jesus tells His disciples to pick up their crosses and follow Him. How would they have understood what He was saying?

In Matt 16:24 Jesus tells His disciples to pick up their crosses and follow Him. How would the apostles have understood what He was saying? He spoke these words before He was crucified, so the mention ...
Yahuchanan's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
334 views

Do Mormons allow contraception, what forms do they allow, and what are their arguments for it?

Questions specifically on The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS) faith on contraception: Does LDS church allow contraception? What forms do they allow? What are their arguments for ...
alec's user avatar
  • 639
2 votes
4 answers
69 views

How many great splits have there been in Christendom?

The split between Rome and the East is called "the Great Schism". But the church also split at Chalcedon when the Emperor Marcian demanded a quick decision, leading to the two branches "...
Traildude's user avatar
  • 141
2 votes
0 answers
137 views

Are Christians theologically committed to believing that all evil and suffering in the world is non-gratuitous or necessary?

Arguments from evil, such as the logical problem of evil or the evidential problem of evil, aim to demonstrate that certain forms of suffering in the world are either unnecessary or gratuitous. ...
Mark's user avatar
  • 2,986
1 vote
0 answers
57 views

Was the "Gospel of Hebrews" ever considered to be inspired?

The "Gospel of the Hebrews" has several quotations from early church fathers. Did they ever believe it to be Inspired and equal to the traditional four gospels? Or did they view it as ...
User2280's user avatar
  • 185
4 votes
2 answers
99 views

Can the Catholic Church err on particular grounds for an annulment in a marriage? [duplicate]

In session 24 of the Council of Trent, Canon IV, the Church teaches that "If any one saith, that the Church could not establish impediments dissolving marriage; or that she has erred in ...
NNL's user avatar
  • 41
4 votes
9 answers
3k views

What are rebuttals to the argument that Christians only worship God to give their lives meaning?

Many people argue that we only created God and religion to give our lives meaning, and that is why we worship God and other gods. However, we have to take into consideration that humans tend to ...
Lucy Red's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
279 views

Which Christian Churches or Denominations subscribe to sacerdotalism as essential?

Based in part on answers to this question, this definition from the Merriam-Webster dictionary: : religious belief emphasizing the powers of priests as essential mediators between God and humankind ...
Mike Borden's user avatar
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-5 votes
1 answer
50 views

Was Jesus a married man?

I was very confused about this so many times. According to Leonardo da Vinci's painting some said that Jesus was a married man. Does the Catholic Church hide any truth?
Nitro's user avatar
  • 1
4 votes
5 answers
3k views

What are Christian responses to William Rowe's formulation of the Evidential Problem of Evil?

Previously, I inquired on What are Christian responses to the Logical Problem of Evil?. Now, I would like to shift the focus to Christian responses to the Evidential Problem of Evil. For an in-depth ...
Mark's user avatar
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