26

Your girlfriend sounds correct. It may sound silly at first, but the doctrine of Transubstantiation is a well developed, detailed explanation of what happens during the consecration of the bread and wine. It is not a minor thing. The Catholic doctrine of Transubstantiation teaches that the substance of the bread, what the bread really is, becomes the Body ...


17

Preface, this is a Protestant response. I'm not arguing the validity of it, or any claims here, just answering the question. the short Protestant response would be "Meh". A general Protestant response to each point would be: 1) Where in Scripture does it say there would be any such thing as Apostolic succession? The New Testament speaks of several ...


17

It appears that the simple answer is that because the Salvation Army does not view baptism or communion as requirements of salvation, they are not practiced at all. This stance, however does not constitute disapproval of sacraments: The Salvation Army has never said it is wrong to use sacraments, nor does it deny that other Christians receive grace from ...


15

The Church's current teaching points to the sacrament itself overcoming any weakness of an individual. If a priest intends to send babies to hell while he is baptizing them, are those infants deprived of regeneration, according to Catholicism? No. The presumption made that a priest intends to send babies to hell is based on absurdity (addressed ...


11

This question at first seemed like a non sequitur to me, but it actually comes from an interesting place. The Eastern Orthodox churches use the Greek word μυστήριον (musterion) to refer to sacraments, but the word actually means 'mystery', and many Orthodox would prefer the term Sacred Mystery over sacrament. Ephesians 5:31-32 says that the joining of a man ...


11

The Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC 1256) may shed some light on this: The ordinary ministers of Baptism are the bishop and priest and, in the Latin Church, also the deacon. In case of necessity, anyone, even a non-baptized person, with the required intention, can baptize, by using the Trinitarian baptismal formula. The intention required is to will ...


10

How do practicing Catholics keep track of all the sins they commit before going to Confession? They don't keep track of sins. Before going to confession they do something called examination of conscience. This is in layman term trying to recall all the sin one has committed. An examination of conscience is a “prayerful self-reflection on our words and ...


10

There are a number of related questions here. The Bishop of Rome The Bishop of Rome (i.e., the Pope), being the universal pastor of the Catholic Church, may celebrate in any rite he wishes at any moment. There is not a specific norm in the Canon Law (abbreviated CIC)—the law for the Western church—or the Code of Canons of Oriental churches (abbreviated ...


10

Any sacrament that is administered by a priest or bishop is administered validly but illicitly if all other requirements for validity are satisfied but the priest or bishop is excommunicated: An excommunicated person is forbidden ... to celebrate the sacraments or sacramentals and to receive the sacraments. (Code of Canon Law, Canon 1331 section 1) That ...


10

Hermaphrodites can be baptized. Regarding 1917 Canon 748 (which has no equivalent in the 1983 Code), which deals with baptism in the case of deformed or abnormal fetal humans, canonist Charles Augustine, O.S.B., D.D., writes in A Commentary on the New Code of Canon Law, on Can. 746: There is no difficulty as to hermaphrodites, because sex does not affect ...


9

Full Disclaimer: I am an Eastern Orthodox Christian who is a former Protestant Christian. I have addressed how Protestants might respond to these points, with the understanding that Protestants are a very broad group with many differing beliefs on these issues. With that said, these responses must necessarily be broad and somewhat varied. According to Whom/...


9

Consubstantiation (also called impanation) says that, after consecration, bread remains and Christ becomes present within, among, or "along-side" the bread. Transubstantiation says no bread remains after consecration; the substance of bread no longer exists, having been replaced by the Body, Blood, Soul, and Divinity of Christ. "Consubstantiation" from Fr. ...


8

(Although I can't speak for all Presbyterians, as we are diverse bunch, I think that what I say here is representative of the mainstream. I welcome correction if I am wrong about this.) When Communion is served, we do use a table of some kind. The table recalls the Last Supper, at which the practice of Communion was instituted; Matthew 26:20, Mark 14:18, ...


8

Baptismal certificates are still used by Churches for whom Trinitarian baptism is important. This is so that they can be certain that someone has been validly baptised. The Catholic, Anglican and Orthodox Churches recognise each other’s baptisms and those of many other denominations as a valid, once-for-all and transferable sacrament. But it can only be ...


7

Many years ago, before governments were in the habit of providing live birth documentation and proof of identity, a baptismal certificate was valid proof of citizenship. Because people didn't move around, churches took upon themselves the responsibility to know the souls in their area, and kept register of the same. For the previous generation, where not ...


7

The Catholic Encyclopedia article gives a good albeit old insight into canonical age. In those days 100 years ago and previous, confirmation was before first Communion. Nowadays in most diocese in the USA that's flipped around. The terms, age of discretion and age of reason are used to describe what is needed for a youth to fully understand what they're ...


7

Prior to Christ, a priest was needed to help make sacrifice to receive forgiveness: Thus shall he do with the bull. As he did with the bull of the sin offering, so shall he do with this. And the priest shall make atonement for them, and they shall be forgiven. - Leviticus 4:20 ESV The reason that Protestants don't consider confession a sacrament ...


7

First, a Lutheran is not likely to recognize the phrase "salvation by faith". The usual construct Lutherans use is "justification by faith". For Lutherans, there is a distinction between the two. Salvation was assured by Jesus' death and resurrection. Justification assures believers that they are made worthy of the salvation secured for them by Jesus ...


6

The Catechism of the Catholic Church, in its discussion of this sacrament, quotes the Letter of James: Is any among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the Church and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord; and the prayer of faith will save the sick man, and the Lord will raise him up; and if he has committed sins, he ...


6

Lutherans do not generally use the term consubstantiation. Nor do they use the term impanation. Impanation, by analogy to the Incarnation, would imply some kind of hypostatic union between the bread and Christ (just as between the human and divine natures in Christ), which is explicitly rejected by the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord (6.38). The ...


6

It is not only Catholics who believe in sacraments. All Orthodox and most Protestants believe in them as well, but with some differences between them. It is only Baptists and their offspring which eschew the word sacrament and prefer ordinance. The word sacrament comes from the Latin sacramentum, which is itself a translation of the Greek mysterium. These ...


6

The Credo-baptists that affirm the Nicene creed, would argue that "baptism for the remission of sins" need not be interpreted as "baptism accomplishes the remission of sins", but more along the lines of "baptism witnesses the remission of sins" eg: ... The phrase, “We confess one baptism for the remission of sins,” does not mean that baptism leads to ...


6

While it is not an absolute requirement that Catholics be confirmed before they are married in the Church, confirmation before marriage is something the Church strongly urges. The Code of Canon Law states: Catholics who have not yet received the sacrament of confirmation are to receive it before being admitted to marriage if this can be done without ...


6

There is no Church teaching that specifically regards making jokes about the Sacraments. In fact, the problem is not really in making jokes as such; the problem lies in speaking disrespectfully about the Sacraments. The key to understanding the Church’s attitude is recalling that the Church considers the Sacraments gestures that confer grace—in other words, ...


6

Pope Pius XII writes in his 1954 encyclical Sacra Virginitas: We have recently with sorrow censured the opinion of those who contend that marriage is the only means of assuring the natural development and perfection of the human personality.⁶⁰ For there are those who maintain that the grace of the sacrament, conferred ex opere operato, renders the use of ...


6

Previous answers speak of small children receiving the Sacrament, rather than imitating it as play. As for that question, Is there anything in LDS teaching that addresses this issue, or is it a matter left entirely to the judgment of parents? I'm not aware of anything that addresses this issue specifically, but more generally, Latter-Day Saints believe ...


6

A valid natural marriage becomes sacramental as soon as both parties are baptised. There is no need to do anything else after being baptised, either as a Catholic or in a denomination that observes the Catholic form of baptism (water and the trinitarian formula). If the baptism is not valid the marriage remains natural. The parties are the ministers of the ...


5

The question is overly broad and needs to be taken sacrament by sacrament. The question asked specifically about three sacraments: baptism, eucharist, and marriage. The Catholic Church recognizes any baptism performed according to the church's teachings on baptism, no matter who performs it. From the Catechism of the Catholic Church: V. WHO CAN BAPTIZE? ...


5

The Sacrament of Baptism is often called "The door of the Church" because it is considered the first of the seven sacraments. According to Catholic Catechism (1212), the Catholic Church sees baptism as the first and basic sacrament of Christian initiation. For most Christians and especially Catholics, baptism is the first sacrament received (often as an ...


5

The Presbyterian model of the Lord's Supper is explicitly laid out in the Westminster Confession, which until about a hundred and thirty years ago was followed by most Presbyterian Churches to the letter. Today, really only the Free Kirk (or the "wee frees" as they are known) still maintain this strict tradition. There are no altars as Christ's sacrifice on ...


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