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This question is about the three heavens (or kingdoms) in Mormon cosmology: the celestial, terrestrial, and telestial.

The accepted answer to this other question says that

After the resurrection of the body, all people (except the very worst) will live in one of the three heavens. According to a vision of Joseph Smith, God dwells in the celestial kingdom, and Jesus and the Father are enthroned there.

According to Mormons the reward in heaven is attained after the resurrection in which the individual receives a physical (non-spirit) body. For this reason it would be reasonable that each of the heavens are on some planet-like body that supports biological life.

Also, the accepted answer to this other question indicates that God's Kingdom would rule over the earth after the Second Coming of Christ.

So the questions I wanted to ask are:

  1. Is the Kingdom of God that is expected to rule the earth the same ("politically" speaking) as any (or all) of the 3 heavenly kingdoms (celestial, terrestrial, and telestial)?
  2. Will the people living in any one of those 3 heavenly kingdoms actually be living here on earth?
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Your first question:

Is the Kingdom of God that is expected to rule the earth the same ("politically" speaking) as any (or all) of the 3 heavenly kingdoms (celestial, terrestrial, and telestial)?

In Mormonism (and even other faiths) the Kingdom of God/Heaven can mean different things in different contexts. Specifically the Kingdom of God on Earth can mean His Church as it is established now (speaking of the Restored Church in the LDS belief). This is an excerpt from the above linked page:

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the kingdom of God on the earth but is at the present limited to an ecclesiastical kingdom. During the millennial era, the kingdom of God will be both political and ecclesiastical (see Dan. 7:18, 22, 27; Rev. 11:15; JST Rev. 12:1–3, 7 [Appendix]; D&C 65) and will have worldwide jurisdiction in political realms when the Lord has made “a full end of all nations” (D&C 87:6).

We also believe (I am LDS) that Christ will appear to all on the Earth (the Second Coming) and at that time many things will take place. I won't go into all the specifics but after this Second Coming, Christ will rule on Earth for a thousand years. This time is called the Millennium. At his coming all that were less valiant will be consumed in fire and those that remain will be worthy of either Celestial or Terrestrial glory - in other words the telestial will be consumed. This is also a Kingdom of God.

After the Millennium the Earth itself will receive Celestial Glory and only the Celestial will remain. This answers your second question, in that yes, we believe that the Celestial Kingdom will be here on earth. This is a continuation of the previous Kingdom of God. All of the Plan of Salvation for Mormons is to continue on to Eternal Progression and as they progress they continue forward in God's Kingdom.

It has not been revealed to us where the other kingdoms will be but they will also be on a physical world.

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    Thanks @DRT, so when you say that "the telestial will be consumed" does that mean that the people in it will cease to exist or do they end up in hell or something like that? – x457812 Nov 28 '17 at 20:58
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    @x457812 Consumed by fire. They will be killed and go to the spirit world awaiting final judgement and resurrection after which they will be assigned (in their physical bodies) to the telestial world. – DRT Nov 28 '17 at 21:09
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    As another note - in LDS theology, no one ever ceases to exist. Death is a separation. Spiritual death is the separation of our spirits from God's presence. This separation is overcome by Christ's Atonement, our Repentance, and the following of God's Commandments. Physical death is the separation of spirit from body. This is overcome by the resurrection of Christ and is a gift to all mankind - all will receive this gift regardless of their works and it is received after judgement. – DRT Nov 28 '17 at 21:12
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    @DRT, as to "all will receive this gift regardless of their works", does that not exclude the "sons of perdition" as explained in comments and answers to this question..? – user100487 Dec 2 '17 at 22:05
  • @user100487 It does include the sons of perdition that received a mortal body. It doesn't include the sons of perdition that are the 1/3 of the hosts of heaven that followed Lucifer in the beginning and remained spirits. See here – DRT Dec 3 '17 at 17:50
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"According to Mormons the reward in heaven is attained after the resurrection in which the individual receives a physical (non-spirit) body. For this reason it would be reasonable that each of the heavens are on some planet-like body that supports biological life."

The conclusion is actually incorrect. A resurrected body does not have to reside within this physical realm. Jesus Christ has a resurrected body as also does the Father:

"22 The Father has a body of flesh and bones as tangible as man’s; the Son also; but the Holy Ghost has not a body of flesh and bones, but is a personage of Spirit. Were it not so, the Holy Ghost could not dwell in us." (D&C 130:22)

Neither the Father nor Jesus are required to live on an earth-type planet though they have immortal, yet physical, bodies. Just the same those in the Telestial and Terrestrial kingdoms will reside in the kingdom that is within the spirit world. It is neither doctrine nor believed that the Terrestrial and/or Telestial inhabitants will reside on a planet.

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    We don't know where the terrestrial or telestial kingdoms will be, but we know that they will obtain resurrected bodies, like those in the celestial kingdom, so I don't think they would be in the spirit world. – Samuel Bradshaw Dec 2 '17 at 20:13

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