On Sunday 6 Jul 2014 my pastor went through all the books of the bible telling us what God was called in each book.
The major ones are El (Elohim/Eloah), YHWH (sometimes rendered as Jehovah), Adonai (often read instead of YHWH to avoid blasphemy, adonai means master or Lord), and El Shaddai (Lord/God of the Mountain). There are, however, MANY derivatives of the structure "El-" and "YHWH-" that, I guess, would be considered as various titles of God.
"Eloah", the feminine version of Elohim is used in Job. El Roi is used by Hagar in Genesis. YHWH/Elohim Tzevaot/Sabaoth means Lord/God of the armies/hosts, and can be found in Exodus, Samuel, and other prophetic texts. El Elyon means God Most High and can be found in Genesis and Psalms. Elyon by itself can be found in Numbers, Deuteronomy, and 2 Samuel. There are dozens of others, that are less common. See the links below for more.
Many of these names are used in any given book, usually confined to specific sections (Parashah/Parshah in Hebrew) which has lead modern historical-critical scholars to deduce multiple "voices" (or writers, if you want) in the Biblical text, like the YHWHist source (called J for Jehovah/Jahwist, the German rendering of YHWH), the Elohim-source (E), the Priestly source (P), and the Deuteronomy source (D) (and potentially others).
The J and E are generally considered the oldest sources from various texts, although many scholars disagree with whether or not J and E are complete text sources, or merely fragments that modern scholars blended together by vocabulary and style.
The D source, obviously, is associated with the writer of Deuteronomy, which was said to be found in 2 Kings 22 during the temple reform. This writer may have lived in the 7th century BCE or so, and added material to the other books of the Torah to bring it in line with his (assuming it was one person) views.
The Priestly source is thought to be from later, 6th or 5th century BCE, and the post-Exilic period. This author, or authors, again added material and traditions to the other texts.
The Elohist source uses the name Elohim for God and venerates Mt. Horeb instead of Mt. Sinai. It also tends to focus on the North part of Israel, too.
I would like to stress, heavily, that many scholars today no longer give their full support to these divisions. Some element the E source entirely, others the Y and E sources, and still others prefer a "fragmentary" approach that sees the Bible as a group of fragments that were added to, eventually brought together, and then edited. There is no longer a firm consensus on these things these days.
It is also possible, and many literalists may promote this view, that the various names of God are given to accentuate certain aspects of the Divine/Divine Presence (Shekinah). A grant example of how this would work can be found in the Quran, a book that has a high probability of having only one author (Mohammad - or God through Gabriel through Mohammad, however you want to look at it, Mohammad was the mouth-piece). Like the Torah is attributed solely to Moses by tradition, the fact that Mohammad uses many names for God (often said to be the 99 Names of Glory) can be used as independent evidence of a single author using multiple formal names for God.
One can find a complete list of the various names of God used through a simple internet search. Also, I think someone else commented a link to such a list. But the ones above are the biggies, and most of the other names derive therefrom. Wikipedia has a page dedicated to the Names of God in Judaism:
And also a man page for names of God:
that you can use to hyperlink your way to the various names used by each of the three Abrahamic faiths.
I know your question was about names of God in each book so I tried to list some, but I hope this explanation of the use of names of God by various sources will help you put this into a larger context. Whether or not you accept the multiple-source theory, the various names of God each hold a special power and significance, and special connotations.
It might be added that in the New Testament, the Greek versions of the Hebrew are used. "Theos" is used for God, "Kyrios" for Lord, and "Pateras" as Father. Also, the Aramaic "Abba" is used as well, which means Father, in Mark, Romans, and Galatians. Jesus is also called Emmanuel in Matthew. The Holy Spirit is also called the Paraclete (and Spirit of Truth) in John.
I wasn't sure if you were speaking inclusively of Jesus and the Holy Ghost so I added a couple for them to balance it out. Hope this helps you out! Follow the links above for more information!
Here is a good link with the names as well as verses they appear in: http://www.gotquestions.org/names-of-God.html