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10

the Ketef Hinnom is typically dated to 600BC - prior even to the fall of Jerusalem. It only contains 3 verses, however. In 1979, Gabriel Barkay (or more properly his 13 year old assistant), unearthed the Ketef Hinnom, a small silver scroll containing the blessing in Numbers 6: 24 - 26. To wit, it is a traditional blessing still used today: “The Lord ...


9

If anything, it says that God is both generous and accommodating. There are two scenarios that should be considered: God granted the same knowledge of what good governance should look like. This says that God's glory will in fact be shown in all nations, as he himself proclaimed. (Gen 12 and Psalm 2 come to mind, but there are others) If the other nations ...


9

tl;dr> This clip from the end Raiders of the Lost Ark probably captures the essence of what happened rather well - it's not that it was "lost" so much as ignored and forgotten. King Josiah ruled Judah over a period in which the re-discovery of YHWH overall was in vogue. For the past 57 years, two very wicked kings had ruled - Manesseh and his ...


8

Currently, the oldest known manuscript is the Nash Papyrus, dated at 150 BC. It contains the Decalogue (Ten Commandments) and Deuteronomy. If you're looking for more than just one book, the Codex Sinaiticus is considered the oldest Bible in the world. It was written by a number of hands around the time of Constantine the Great sometime between 325 and ...


8

A Catholic-ish answer: We shouldn't be concerned with possible influence of X, Y, or Z on divine revelation, whether from the standpoint of scriptural infallibility or otherwise. Specifically in terms of the divine delivery of the Law [and it's state of perfection or immutability], it makes little different whether God said to Moses, "Don't kill, don't ...


6

The classic works on the Documentary Hypothesis (DH) are Julius Wellhausen's Die Composition des Hexateuch und der historischen Bücher des Alten Testaments and Prolegomena to the History of [Ancient] Israel (the latter of which, incidentally, is available in English for free via google books). The theory is generally attributed to Karl Graf, but it was ...


6

There are three types of the law in the Bible: moral (part of which are also 10 commandments), ceremonial (for example Hebrew ceremonial holidays and activities), civil (Hebrew "country laws" and punishments) Most christians agree, that ceremonial and civil laws are not binding anymore (ceremonial laws pointed to Christ and ended with the cross). The most ...


6

I suspect that John Climacus has Exodus 32 in mind:1 11 But Moses implored the Lord his God and said, “O Lord, why does your wrath burn hot against your people, whom you have brought out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand? 12 Why should the Egyptians say, ‘With evil intent did he bring them out, to kill them in the mountains and ...


6

It's Exodus 22. There's nothing specifically about bread, but it covers theft and double restoration. Exodus 22:4 (KJV): If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive, whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep; he shall restore double. Exodus 22:7 (KJV): If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man's ...


5

Your real question is really why do the sins in these three instances deserve Death in God's eyes? Leviticus 20:13, Exodus 35:2, Deuteronomy 21:18-21. The answer to that is the same as why God demanded death for when Adam and Eve disobeyed God, and ate from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Genesis 2:17 KJV But of the tree of the knowledge ...


5

To my knowledge, there is no verse in the Bible that speaks specifically of a person who steals bread having to pay double. However, it is good to keep in mind that the Hebrew word for "bread" (לֶחֶם) is commonly used to mean "food" in general. With that in mind, in addition to the verses from Exodus quoted in Rob K's answer, which deal with double ...


4

Strictly speaking, this is not a theory, but a hypothesis. In scientific terminology, a theory is a well-substantiated, unifying explanation for a set of verified, proven hypotheses. A hypothesis is a suggested explanation for an observable phenomenon, and this is what JEDP is. The Documentary Hypothesis, as originally proposed by Wellhausen, is no longer ...


4

I've found "Judaism 101" at jewfaq.org to be a reasonably sound site when looking for answers to questions about Judaism. Here's their basic definition of Torah: The word "Torah" is a tricky one, because it can mean different things in different contexts. In its most limited sense, "Torah" refers to the Five Books of Moses: Genesis, Exodus, ...


4

The Sun does not destroy the Moon but when it rises the Moon passes away.  I will answer this question from a Covenant Theology standpoint. The law is commonly divided into ceremonial, moral and civil. In Christianity it is agreed by most that Christ fulfilled the meaning of all that was ceremonial and that therefore when the curtain of the temple was ...


4

Paul supports the Torah to the extent that he believes it was a valuable and God-given thing in its day. However he very clearly indicates that Christians are not bound by its requirements. Much of the Epistle to the Romans is devoted to this subject, and it gets extensive discussion in other places. I will do no more than quote a couple of important ...


4

The severity of the punishment matches the severity of the crime, that's all. For Israel to keep a holy God in her midst who will provide her with plenty of rain and abundant crops, health and well-being, protection in all warfare, bravery and courage in its citizens, much healthy offspring, and so on (Deuteronomy 28), will demand high standards on the ...


4

Wikipedia put it this way: The menorah (Hebrew: מְנוֹרָה‬) is described in the Bible as the seven-lamp (six branches) ancient Hebrew lampstand made of pure gold and used in the portable sanctuary set up by Moses in the wilderness and later in the Temple in Jerusalem. Fresh olive oil of the purest quality was burned daily to light its lamps. The menorah ...


4

This is just to supplement Ken Graham's excellent answer which covers both the Jewish and Christian views of the lampstand in question. The Jewish nation was given specific instructions for the design of the lampstand that was to grace the Tabernacle in the wilderness, as written down in the ancient Hebrew scriptures, specifically in the book of Exodus ...


3

If you want to know what the passage "literally meant," we should start with a literal translation. After all "unaware of it" is a paraphrase. This is literal: Leviticus 5:4 KJV Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with his lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever it be that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth of it, ...


3

What it shows is there is a Natural Moral Law that does not require special revelation to discern. http://www.equip.org/articles/what-is-natural-moral-law/ Again, these basic principles of moral obligation are absolutes that are knowable (at least in principle) by all people everywhere without the aid of Scripture. What is meant by an absolute here? ...


3

At the time of Christ, the largest proponents of the Oral Law were the Pharisees. On multiple occasions, the Pharisees caught Jesus breaking some of the Oral Laws and confronted Him about it in order to discredit His ministry. Jesus responded by calling the Oral Law "traditions of men". He taught that they were not only unnecessary to follow, since they ...


2

The question have at less this three answers: If you believe in the Convenant Theology, then all the laws in the Old Testament that was not abolished on the New Testament still apply. If you believe in the Dispensationalist Theology, then all the laws in the Old Testament that aren't confirmed on the New Testament don't apply. If you are catholic what the ...


2

You are referring to John 5:46-47 46 For if you believed Moses, you would believe Me; for he wrote about Me. 47 But if you do not believe his writings, how will you believe My words?” There are several messianic prophecies that were known to the pharisees and specifically Isaiah 7:14, which states that the messiah will be called Immanuel or "God with us". ...


2

Jesus a perfect sacrifice (a fulfillment of the law of Moses) the Lamb in the first passover of Exodus 12 had to be kept for four days before the passover for inspection. Jesus fulfulled the law in that way because in the few days leading up to his death, on the passover, he was questioned the most severely by the Jews.(Luke 20:40 - And after that they ...


2

Depending on the translation, it could be rendered "in the side" or "by the side" or "beside". The tablets given to Moses were kept inside the Ark, as was the rod that budded, and manna (Heb 9:4).


2

Torah in it's simplest definition is the first five books of Hebrew Bible (Tanakh). In its broader sense, it could also mean the whole Jewish teachings and practices. List of books accepted by Jews and Christians are almost similar with some little differences. Canonization may be different but the individual books are same, only the list is different. In ...


2

Complete manuscripts of the scriptures are very rare, and the ones we do have are quite "late" in archeological terms. Generally speaking, manuscripts will occasionally comprise a complete "book" (or almost a complete book, as in the "Great Isaiah Scroll" from the cave at Qumran near the Dead Sea), but other than that, the oldest complete copy of the Old ...


2

Even among those US Christians who self-identify as "evangelical", there are considerable differences in how they evaluate these matters. An Evangelical scholar who subscribes to the ideas of "Young Earth" creationism would simply say that the proposition that there were any hunter gatherer societies is not worthy of consideration, because any of what they ...


2

I am not an expert, but the way I understand it, Hebrews were permitted to take slaves as prisoners of war, or as indentured servants, however they were required to take good care of them and free them in the seventh year, sending them off with gifts. Generally speaking, if the Hebrews were rich enough to own the land and the slaves to work it, he was ...


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