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10

the Ketef Hinnom is typically dated to 600BC - prior even to the fall of Jerusalem. It only contains 3 verses, however. In 1979, Gabriel Barkay (or more properly his 13 year old assistant), unearthed the Ketef Hinnom, a small silver scroll containing the blessing in Numbers 6: 24 - 26. To wit, it is a traditional blessing still used today: “The Lord ...


8

Currently, the oldest known manuscript is the Nash Papyrus, dated at 150 BC. It contains the Decalogue (Ten Commandments) and Deuteronomy. If you're looking for more than just one book, the Codex Sinaiticus is considered the oldest Bible in the world. It was written by a number of hands around the time of Constantine the Great sometime between 325 and ...


7

It's Exodus 22. There's nothing specifically about bread, but it covers theft and double restoration. Exodus 22:4 (KJV): If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive, whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep; he shall restore double. Exodus 22:7 (KJV): If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man's ...


6

I suspect that John Climacus has Exodus 32 in mind:1 11 But Moses implored the Lord his God and said, “O Lord, why does your wrath burn hot against your people, whom you have brought out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand? 12 Why should the Egyptians say, ‘With evil intent did he bring them out, to kill them in the mountains and ...


5

To my knowledge, there is no verse in the Bible that speaks specifically of a person who steals bread having to pay double. However, it is good to keep in mind that the Hebrew word for "bread" (לֶחֶם) is commonly used to mean "food" in general. With that in mind, in addition to the verses from Exodus quoted in Rob K's answer, which deal with double ...


5

Your real question is really why do the sins in these three instances deserve Death in God's eyes? Leviticus 20:13, Exodus 35:2, Deuteronomy 21:18-21. The answer to that is the same as why God demanded death for when Adam and Eve disobeyed God, and ate from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Genesis 2:17 KJV But of the tree of the knowledge ...


5

This answer compares the text and the interpretation of the Jewish Scriptures with the text and the interpretation of the Christian Bible. Text comparison As you can see in the table in the wikipedia article The Old Testament, all books (not just the 5 books of Torah) in the Hebrew Bible (which Judaism adherents use) are included in the Christian Bible. The ...


4

Paul supports the Torah to the extent that he believes it was a valuable and God-given thing in its day. However he very clearly indicates that Christians are not bound by its requirements. Much of the Epistle to the Romans is devoted to this subject, and it gets extensive discussion in other places. I will do no more than quote a couple of important ...


4

The severity of the punishment matches the severity of the crime, that's all. For Israel to keep a holy God in her midst who will provide her with plenty of rain and abundant crops, health and well-being, protection in all warfare, bravery and courage in its citizens, much healthy offspring, and so on (Deuteronomy 28), will demand high standards on the ...


4

Strictly speaking, this is not a theory, but a hypothesis. In scientific terminology, a theory is a well-substantiated, unifying explanation for a set of verified, proven hypotheses. A hypothesis is a suggested explanation for an observable phenomenon, and this is what JEDP is. The Documentary Hypothesis, as originally proposed by Wellhausen, is no longer ...


4

This is just to supplement Ken Graham's excellent answer which covers both the Jewish and Christian views of the lampstand in question. The Jewish nation was given specific instructions for the design of the lampstand that was to grace the Tabernacle in the wilderness, as written down in the ancient Hebrew scriptures, specifically in the book of Exodus ...


4

Wikipedia put it this way: The menorah (Hebrew: מְנוֹרָה‬) is described in the Bible as the seven-lamp (six branches) ancient Hebrew lampstand made of pure gold and used in the portable sanctuary set up by Moses in the wilderness and later in the Temple in Jerusalem. Fresh olive oil of the purest quality was burned daily to light its lamps. The menorah ...


3

Was it and is it a common Christian belief to say that the 5 books of the Torah were written by Moses? The short answer is yes. It is and has been traditionally believed that Moses wrote the 5 Books of the Torah! The first five books of the Bible, known as the Torah (a Hebrew word meaning “Law” and “to instruct.”) and also known as the Pentateuch (from Greek ...


3

At the time of Christ, the largest proponents of the Oral Law were the Pharisees. On multiple occasions, the Pharisees caught Jesus breaking some of the Oral Laws and confronted Him about it in order to discredit His ministry. Jesus responded by calling the Oral Law "traditions of men". He taught that they were not only unnecessary to follow, since they ...


3

If you want to know what the passage "literally meant," we should start with a literal translation. After all "unaware of it" is a paraphrase. This is literal: Leviticus 5:4 KJV Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with his lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever it be that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth of it, ...


3

In Paul's declaration to the Corinthian Church he references 'the scriptures' in support of his gospel concerning Christ dying for sins and rising from the dead. The scriptures he speaks of are the Hebrew scriptures : Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand; 2By which ...


3

Good question. I can only offer the perspective I know, though there are several different nuances. Basically, it works like this: The OT contains civil, ceremonial, and moral law. Moral law is binding because God's character does not change, but civil and ceremonial laws were temporary and culturally situated. An argument against this perspective would be ...


2

The question have at less this three answers: If you believe in the Convenant Theology, then all the laws in the Old Testament that was not abolished on the New Testament still apply. If you believe in the Dispensationalist Theology, then all the laws in the Old Testament that aren't confirmed on the New Testament don't apply. If you are catholic what the ...


2

Complete manuscripts of the scriptures are very rare, and the ones we do have are quite "late" in archeological terms. Generally speaking, manuscripts will occasionally comprise a complete "book" (or almost a complete book, as in the "Great Isaiah Scroll" from the cave at Qumran near the Dead Sea), but other than that, the oldest complete copy of the Old ...


2

Even among those US Christians who self-identify as "evangelical", there are considerable differences in how they evaluate these matters. An Evangelical scholar who subscribes to the ideas of "Young Earth" creationism would simply say that the proposition that there were any hunter gatherer societies is not worthy of consideration, because any of what they ...


2

You are referring to John 5:46-47 46 For if you believed Moses, you would believe Me; for he wrote about Me. 47 But if you do not believe his writings, how will you believe My words?” There are several messianic prophecies that were known to the pharisees and specifically Isaiah 7:14, which states that the messiah will be called Immanuel or "God with us". ...


2

I am not an expert, but the way I understand it, Hebrews were permitted to take slaves as prisoners of war, or as indentured servants, however they were required to take good care of them and free them in the seventh year, sending them off with gifts. Generally speaking, if the Hebrews were rich enough to own the land and the slaves to work it, he was ...


2

Ressurection is mentioned many times in the Bible. Job also said "And after my skin has been destroyed, yet in my flesh I will see God" (Job 19:26). According to this article, the Sadducees based their doctrine only from the Torah(Pentateuch), rejecting all Jewish Oral Laws and gave no importance to the writing of the Prophets. In Matthew 22:23-33, ...


2

Christianity is based on the Hebrew Bible, but not directly on Judaism. Christians don't accept the Hebrew Bible because Judaism does, but because they have decided for themselves that it is inspired. Judaism accepts the Oral Torah/Mishnah/Talmud etc, but Christians have decided that they do not (as do some Jews for that matter). I can think of three big ...


2

The Christian Bible has an Old Testament and a New Testament: the NT was produced by the Apostles or with apostolic approval. The OT is the Hebrew Bible. As I said before, the Protestant OT is essentially the same as the Hebrew Bible (which the Jews call the Tanakh). The Roman Catholic OT differs in that it has kept sections which originated from the ...


2

I think the question is asking for a list of different opinions about what Christian groups think which aspects of the Mosaic Law are in force, meaning the original obligation and covenant is unchanged and therefore the original requirements are binding as they were in the original words communicated by God to Moses. The Bible does not actually distinguish ...


1

Since the author of the question is seeking a general overview and not the view of specific congregations--I will offer an answer similar to Michael16, which is not itself wrong, but does lack specificity. Right now there are two major branches of official Messianic Judaism. Those branches are the MJAA and the UMJC. The former being the body which started ...


1

You should notice the context of the verse you quote (Deuteronomy 30:11), because it comes after this: These are the words of the covenant, which the Lord commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, beside the covenant which he made with them in Horeb. (Deut 29:1, KJV; or "in addition to the covenant which...etc", NIV)...


1

This can be resolved by reviewing the context of each passage. In the Old Testament, God gives a Law, a divine moral law, to be kept by His chosen people. By saying, 'these are not beyond your reach, but you are able to keep them,' He speaks of a relative keeping of the Laws, not an absolute and unequivocally perfect keeping thereof, since, "there is no just ...


1

Is it possible to keep the law of Moses? Yes, if you are Jesus. No, if you are not. The law had specific purposes. A few include: 1. Shows the Holy character of God. 2. Identifies what is and what is not sin. 3. Reveals to us our need for a Savior. While the law identified sin, it was inadequate to make a man obey or be righteous. When Paul said ...


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