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34

There are many separate views to the matter. I'll try to list the most common ones, along with sources (at the end of each section). I'll first just describe the views briefly; the sources are available for those more interested. Catholic The Catholic Church teaches that the Law of Moses (the Old Law) is a preparation for the Gospel, and as such no longer ...


22

Moses wrote many things that foreshadowed the coming of the Messiah. Jesus is, indeed, the Passover Lamb, as those who put their faith in His death and the blood He shed are rescued from the judgment that is to come. (John 3:16-18) Like the manna in the desert, Jesus is the Bread from Heaven (John 6:51) that satisfies our spiritual hunger and gives us life....


20

This was actually addressed pretty explicitly early on, and doesn't require all that much interpretation. In Acts chapter 15, the apostles and elders of the church held a council to determine the answer to this exact question. When they reached an answer, they claimed it had the sanction of the Holy Ghost, so their answer is to be understood as divine ...


16

The JEPD theory was developed in three stages, which I summarized in my answer to What was the reasons for documentary hypothesis?. It isn't complete nonsense; it's the culmination of several centuries of Bible scholarship. Whether it is a giant leap forward or a brilliant mistake, I'm not certain. On the one hand, it's rational, and it fits different ...


10

the Ketef Hinnom is typically dated to 600BC - prior even to the fall of Jerusalem. It only contains 3 verses, however. In 1979, Gabriel Barkay (or more properly his 13 year old assistant), unearthed the Ketef Hinnom, a small silver scroll containing the blessing in Numbers 6: 24 - 26. To wit, it is a traditional blessing still used today: “The Lord ...


9

The hypothesis was formed from several lines of evidence suggesting that more than one author had a hand in writing the Torah. Stage 1 The first stage was the recognition of certain passages that looked like additions from a later copyist: Deuteronomy 34, the account of Moses' death, including the phrase in verse 6, "no one knows his burial place to this ...


9

As soon as I posted this question, my mind went to the famous story of Jacob's ladder, in Genesis 28:10-22. Two verses in particular stick out for me: He had a dream in which he saw a stairway resting on the earth, with its top reaching to heaven, and the angels of God were ascending and descending on it. Verse 12. This is because Jesus is our bridge to ...


9

If anything, it says that God is both generous and accommodating. There are two scenarios that should be considered: God granted the same knowledge of what good governance should look like. This says that God's glory will in fact be shown in all nations, as he himself proclaimed. (Gen 12 and Psalm 2 come to mind, but there are others) If the other nations ...


9

Most commentators follow a common Jewish understanding that the Jewish leaders immediately relayed his words to their clans or households. Unto all Israel. It cannot be supposed that Moses spoke to the whole multitude of the people so as to be heard by them. Hence the Jewish interpreters say that he spoke to the elders of the people, who carried his words ...


8

Currently, the oldest known manuscript is the Nash Papyrus, dated at 150 BC. It contains the Decalogue (Ten Commandments) and Deuteronomy. If you're looking for more than just one book, the Codex Sinaiticus is considered the oldest Bible in the world. It was written by a number of hands around the time of Constantine the Great sometime between 325 and ...


8

tl;dr> This clip from the end Raiders of the Lost Ark probably captures the essence of what happened rather well - it's not that it was "lost" so much as ignored and forgotten. King Josiah ruled Judah over a period in which the re-discovery of YHWH overall was in vogue. For the past 57 years, two very wicked kings had ruled - Manesseh and his son Amon. ...


8

A Catholic-ish answer: We shouldn't be concerned with possible influence of X, Y, or Z on divine revelation, whether from the standpoint of scriptural infallibility or otherwise. Specifically in terms of the divine delivery of the Law [and it's state of perfection or immutability], it makes little different whether God said to Moses, "Don't kill, don't ...


7

One example is: Deuteronomy 32:43 (NIV) 43 Rejoice, you nations, with his people,    for he will avenge the blood of his servants; he will take vengeance on his enemies    and make atonement for his land and people. Which we know from Hebrews 1:6 is referring to Christ. However, I suspect that Jesus was referring to ...


6

There are three types of the law in the Bible: moral (part of which are also 10 commandments), ceremonial (for example Hebrew ceremonial holidays and activities), civil (Hebrew "country laws" and punishments) Most christians agree, that ceremonial and civil laws are not binding anymore (ceremonial laws pointed to Christ and ended with the cross). The most ...


6

The classic works on the Documentary Hypothesis (DH) are Julius Wellhausen's Die Composition des Hexateuch und der historischen Bücher des Alten Testaments and Prolegomena to the History of [Ancient] Israel (the latter of which, incidentally, is available in English for free via google books). The theory is generally attributed to Karl Graf, but it was ...


6

I suspect that John Climacus has Exodus 32 in mind:1 11 But Moses implored the Lord his God and said, “O Lord, why does your wrath burn hot against your people, whom you have brought out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand? 12 Why should the Egyptians say, ‘With evil intent did he bring them out, to kill them in the mountains and ...


6

It's Exodus 22. There's nothing specifically about bread, but it covers theft and double restoration. Exodus 22:4 (KJV): If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive, whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep; he shall restore double. Exodus 22:7 (KJV): If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man's ...


5

Your real question is really why do the sins in these three instances deserve Death in God's eyes? Leviticus 20:13, Exodus 35:2, Deuteronomy 21:18-21. The answer to that is the same as why God demanded death for when Adam and Eve disobeyed God, and ate from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Genesis 2:17 KJV But of the tree of the knowledge ...


5

To my knowledge, there is no verse in the Bible that speaks specifically of a person who steals bread having to pay double. However, it is good to keep in mind that the Hebrew word for "bread" (לֶחֶם) is commonly used to mean "food" in general. With that in mind, in addition to the verses from Exodus quoted in Rob K's answer, which deal with double ...


4

I've found "Judaism 101" at jewfaq.org to be a reasonably sound site when looking for answers to questions about Judaism. Here's their basic definition of Torah: The word "Torah" is a tricky one, because it can mean different things in different contexts. In its most limited sense, "Torah" refers to the Five Books of Moses: Genesis, Exodus, ...


4

The Sun does not destroy the Moon but when it rises the Moon passes away.  I will answer this question from a Covenant Theology standpoint. The law is commonly divided into ceremonial, moral and civil. In Christianity it is agreed by most that Christ fulfilled the meaning of all that was ceremonial and that therefore when the curtain of the temple was ...


4

Strictly speaking, this is not a theory, but a hypothesis. In scientific terminology, a theory is a well-substantiated, unifying explanation for a set of verified, proven hypotheses. A hypothesis is a suggested explanation for an observable phenomenon, and this is what JEDP is. The Documentary Hypothesis, as originally proposed by Wellhausen, is no longer ...


4

The severity of the punishment matches the severity of the crime, that's all. For Israel to keep a holy God in her midst who will provide her with plenty of rain and abundant crops, health and well-being, protection in all warfare, bravery and courage in its citizens, much healthy offspring, and so on (Deuteronomy 28), will demand high standards on the ...


4

Paul supports the Torah to the extent that he believes it was a valuable and God-given thing in its day. However he very clearly indicates that Christians are not bound by its requirements. Much of the Epistle to the Romans is devoted to this subject, and it gets extensive discussion in other places. I will do no more than quote a couple of important ...


4

Wikipedia put it this way: The menorah (Hebrew: מְנוֹרָה‬) is described in the Bible as the seven-lamp (six branches) ancient Hebrew lampstand made of pure gold and used in the portable sanctuary set up by Moses in the wilderness and later in the Temple in Jerusalem. Fresh olive oil of the purest quality was burned daily to light its lamps. The menorah ...


4

This is just to supplement Ken Graham's excellent answer which covers both the Jewish and Christian views of the lampstand in question. The Jewish nation was given specific instructions for the design of the lampstand that was to grace the Tabernacle in the wilderness, as written down in the ancient Hebrew scriptures, specifically in the book of Exodus ...


3

What it shows is there is a Natural Moral Law that does not require special revelation to discern. http://www.equip.org/articles/what-is-natural-moral-law/ Again, these basic principles of moral obligation are absolutes that are knowable (at least in principle) by all people everywhere without the aid of Scripture. What is meant by an absolute here? ...


3

If you want to know what the passage "literally meant," we should start with a literal translation. After all "unaware of it" is a paraphrase. This is literal: Leviticus 5:4 KJV Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with his lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever it be that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth of it, ...


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