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Here is what Aquinas actually wrote: In each kind of thing the worst corruption is the corruption of the principle on which other things depend. Now the principles of reason are the things in accord in nature… and therefore, to act against what is determined by nature, is most serious and base. Therefore since in the sins against nature man transgress ...


11

I can only speak for Calvin. AFAIK, he never explicitly interacts with Aquinas or the Summa. In Institutes he does reference "The Schoolmen" many times, but he seems to have in mind mostly later-medieval theologians rather than the angelic doctor himself. That's a shame, because Aquinas would have been a much more worthy opponent. Protestants in general ...


10

Jesus' contemporary followers not only believed in "a god", they had a common understanding of the existence and nature of God, because his mission was to the people of Israel (cf. Jesus answer to the Canaanite woman in Matthew 15:14: "I was sent only to the lost sheep of the House of Israel"). This is not to assert that all of Jesus' followers came from the ...


9

Authority of St. Thomas's Summa Theologica Are all the articles of St. Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica to be accepted as the truth by every Catholic? The Authority of St. Thomas Aquinas by Fr. Jacobus M. Ramírez, O.P., a famous Thomist, enumerated four "distinct categories of St. Thomas' doctrinal authority, namely, scientific and canonical, ...


8

Thomas Aquinas definitely took advantage of Aristotle (following the lead of Albertus Magnus) but he was not uncritical in his reception. Aristotle's major writings were only recently rediscovered in the West and were the topic of intense scholarly effort. But at the same time, there was a lot of doubt about whether Aristotle was a suitable source of ...


8

"New" in this sense, is as in, "New covenant (or new testament, if you're going by a literal translation of the word covenant)." It is "new" as in it only 1200 (Aquinas wrote it), as opposed to the 4000(?) year old covenant of Abraham and the 2500 year old covenant of Moses. It means that the believer is able to relate directly to the Godhead through the ...


8

St. Thomas's views on the Immaculate Conception went through three phases.cf. also ch. 2, art. 2, § "St. Thomas and the Immaculate Conception" of Mother of the Saviour and Our Interior Life by Fr. Réginald Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P. Phase 1: clear support of it St. Thomas's clearest support of the Immaculate Conception is in his commentary (1252-6) on Peter ...


8

I found this paper "Cajetan and Luther: Revisiting the Roots of a Schism" written by Dr. Adam Cooper, a Lutheran pastor turned Catholic, who has a repository of his academic papers here. The paper delves into how Cajetan became very alarmed as he detected (with prophetic insight) the far reaching consequences of Luther's view during the October 1518 ...


7

The statement “Crucifixion was not necessary for salvation and that only a drop of Jesus' blood needed to be spilled” could not have been from St. Thomas Aquinas. This is because it obliquely implies that there was no need for Christ to die, which is grossly against the tenets of Christianity. St. Thomas was one of the supreme advocates of Eucharistic ...


6

The most generic Christian answer to this is quite simple: God did. No human—neither Aquinas nor any other philosopher or theologian—"laid the foundation for the existence of God". God has always existed and the impetus for revealing this truth to men has always been on him. This he has done in spades. Adam, the first man, walked and talked with God in a ...


6

One of the founding ideas of Protestantism was "sola scriptura", meaning that we view the Bible as the only ultimate authority. That doesn't mean that we refuse to read any other books. The existence of thousands of Baptist bookstores should be adequate proof that that's not true. What it means is that we do not view any book other than the Bible as having ...


6

Now we define "intelligence" and "rationality" otherwise than Aquinas and other scholastic philosophers did. In Aquinas' teaching, reason or rationality is what we usually mean by intelligence - it's the ability to induce new knowledge by reasoning based on experience we get through senses. "Intelligence" was slightly trickier. According to Aquinas and his ...


6

James Dolezol, a recent doctoral graduate of Westminster Seminary in Philadelphia, has written a book (which was his dissertation) on divine simplicity in which he traces the agreement of Reformed scholasticism to Thomist scholasticism on the doctrine of God. I have not yet read this book, but I was told about it by a friend of Dolezol's, and I listened to ...


5

There are two types of errors in the Summa. The first are of the type caused by a Medieval understanding of science and biology. The second are actual theological dead ends. The most famous of both has the first causing the second. Thomas believed that the entirety of the body was in the man's "seed". Because of this he argued that the Virgin Mary was ...


5

Aquinas taught transubstantiation -- the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist: Some men accordingly, not paying heed to these things, have contended that Christ's body and blood are not in this sacrament except as in a sign, a thing to be rejected as heretical, since it is contrary to Christ's words... He is invisibly under the species of this ...


5

Here's S.Th., I, q.46, a.2, ad 7, for reference: In efficient causes it is impossible to proceed to infinity "per se"—thus, there cannot be an infinite number of causes that are "per se" required for a certain effect; for instance, that a stone be moved by a stick, the stick by the hand, and so on to infinity. But it is not impossible to proceed to ...


5

This answer is necessarily a bit long, because it requires some background. Skip ahead to "Gifts of the Holy Spirit" to skip the background. It is not exactly charity that perfects the virtues into the Gifts of the Holy Spirit, but the Holy Spirit Who gives the Gifts to those who are disposed to receive them. Some background Aquinas essentially assumes ...


5

Aquinas addresses the question from different angles a number of places in the Summa Theologica, in various parts of the "Treatise on the Most Holy Trinity" (First Part, Questions 27–43). The fundamental question is answered more or less directly in Question 27, "The Procession of the Divine Persons". Article 2 of this question, "Whether any ...


5

As far as what's necessary for salvation, we'd have to start with Baptism: Men are bound to that without which they cannot obtain salvation. Now it is manifest that no one can obtain salvation but through Christ; wherefore the Apostle says (Rom. 5:18): "As by the offense of one unto all men unto condemnation; so also by the justice of one, unto all men ...


5

St Thomas Aquinas was canonized on July 18, 1323 and is commonly called the Angelic Doctor and the Universal Teacher. He is also the patron saint of Catholic academies, Catholic schools, Catholic universities, scholars, philosophers and theologians. What have the Popes said on St. Thomas? Pope St Pius V in 1567. St. Pius V declared him a Doctor of The ...


5

St. Thomas Aquinas discusses recreation in his question on the modesty of the outward movements of the body (Summa Theologica II-II q. 168). In Article 3 on "Whether there can be a virtue about games?," he writes (co.): Just as man needs bodily rest for the body's refreshment, because he cannot always be at work, since his power is finite and equal to a ...


4

A smoking gun is in the references that John Calvin makes to Thomas Aquinas in his own book, The Institutes of the Christian Religion (II.11.4 and III.22.9). This is evidence that Calvin at least knew of Aquinas, which suggests that Aquinas' most important work had reached France or Switzerland and that he would probably have read it. Mark J. Larson says ...


4

Although St. Thomas Aquinas is said to have "reconciled" Aristotle with Christian theology, he rejects much of Aristotle (e.g., he rejects that Aristotle thought the world is eternal).(Interestingly, St. Thomas refers to Aristotle as "Aristotle" when he disagrees with him and as "The Philosopher" when he agrees with him.) Understand Scholastic terminology. ...


4

St. Thomas Aquinas's mother, a countess, tried to dissuade him from entering the Dominican Order because she hoped St. Thomas would become a prominent political figure. His brothers locked him up in a tower for a whole year and tempted him with a prostitute, whom he struck and chased out with a fiery brand. Two angels then girded him as a sign that God will ...


4

Referring to St. Thomas Aquinas's De perfectione vitæ spiritualis c. 15, Fr. Royo Marín, O.P., in La vida religiosa p. 116, defines "state of perfection" in general: States of Christian perfection are those whose members are obliged in a permanent and stable manner, through certain means,* to acquire Christian perfection or to exercise it for the good of ...


4

St. Thomas had great influence on Trent, and several of his teachings became, almost verbatim, defined dogma at that council. From the encyclical Æterni Patris (1879) on the restoration of Christian philosophy by Pope Leo XIII: The ecumenical councils, also, where blossoms the flower of all earthly wisdom, have always been careful to hold Thomas ...


4

The English translation of that passage is incomplete. The Latin of Summa Theologica I q. 1 a. 10 says …ut dicit Augustinus in epistola contra Vincentium Donatistam. …as St. Augustine says in his letter against the Donatist Vincent. Opera omnia, iussu impensaque Leonis XIII (vol. 4): Summa Iᵃ q. 1-49 (p. 25) gives this as the full reference: Ad ...


3

The foundation that God existed was laid long ago as men pondered their existence and place in the universe. This was expanded and reinforced by continuous prophetic utterances over the centuries that have been fulfilled. By the time of Christ’s ministry, the Jews were well grounded in the fact of God’s existence. Here are three foundation blocks. As you ...


3

Luther According to Steinmetz, David Curtis. 2002. Luther in Context. Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Academic., Luther had no direct knowledge of the content St. Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica. Luther in Context ch. 5, "Luther Among the Anti-Thomists," begins: Did Luther know the theology of Thomas Aquinas? Historians, particularly Roman Catholic ...


3

Criticisms of the Summa Theologica Are there any criticisms of the Summa Theologica within the Catholic Church? Accusations of Denying the Immaculate Conception His views on the Immaculate Conception went through three phases; cf. also ch. 2, art. 2, § "St. Thomas and the Immaculate Conception" of Mother of the Saviour and Our Interior Life by Fr. ...


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