21 votes
Accepted

How do Protestants answer the Catholic accusation of historicity?

Protestant reformers were at pains to argue that all they sought to do was restore the church to purity which had become corrupted in medieval times. They wanted to ensure that their teachings were ...
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  • 1,609
19 votes
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Who are these people in this Catholic Reformation meme that are considered more influential than Martin Luther?

Who are these people in this Catholic Reformation meme that are considered more influential than Martin Luther? They are as follows: Giovanni Bernini St. Ignatius of Loyola St. Francis De Sales St. ...
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  • 53.3k
15 votes
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Did Martin Luther ever admit that his approval of Philip's bigamy was wrong?

Luther did not recant. From: John Alfred Faulkner, "Luther and the Bigamous Marriage of Philip of Hesse, The American Journal of Theology Vol. 17, No. 2 (Apr., 1913), pp. 206-231 (on pp. 228-9) - ...
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  • 3,538
10 votes

What was first, sola scriptura or sola fide?

This is a complex topic, for at least two reasons: 1) there was a wide diversity of thought in the pre-Reformation and Reformation periods, and 2) today's definitions of sola scriptura and sola fide ...
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10 votes

What did Luther have against Zwingli?

He was offended by Zwingli's conception of the Lord's Supper and he did not approve of Zwingli's followers' propensity for violence in defense of the faith. Zwingli believed that when the Lord said "...
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10 votes
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Do Reformed theologians understand the Catholic Church and the Papacy to have been true heirs of Peter until the Reformation?

It is clear from John Knox's words, recorded at his meeting with Queen Mary at Holyrood in 1561 (accompanied by Lord James Stewart) that the reformer regarded the Papacy to be an intrusion and the ...
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  • 19.1k
8 votes

What did Calvin think about Knox's "Monstrous Regiment"?

The summary in Mike's answer seems accurate. I would like to add some further background and primary sources. Evidently, Calvin felt it necessary to write to Sir William Cecil, Queen Elizabeth I's ...
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8 votes
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When did Martin Luther begin to see the church as entirely apostate?

The best source I have that actually does the homework necessary to trace the historical timeline of Luther's theology as well as the timing of its appearance into the world at large is in well ...
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  • 31.6k
8 votes
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What of Augustine's ecclesiology was rejected in the Reformation?

The ecclesiology of Augustine and the ecclesiology of the Reformers were both very much products of the times they lived in: In Augustine's case as well as sourcing a basic understanding on ...
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  • 12.4k
8 votes
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Why did Luther not support iconoclasm like some other reformers?

Luther's own words on the subject are quoted in: The Third Sermon, March 11, 1522, Tuesday after Invocavit In his sermon on 'How Christians should regard Moses' Luther makes it clear that he does ...
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  • 19.1k
8 votes
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Cardinal Cajetan and Martin Luther

I found this paper "Cajetan and Luther: Revisiting the Roots of a Schism" written by Dr. Adam Cooper, a Lutheran pastor turned Catholic, who has a repository of his academic papers here. The paper ...
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7 votes

Why did the reformers include the book of Hebrews in the canon?

As far as Calvin was concerned, his views on the canonicity of Hebrews can be found in his introductory comments to his commentary on Hebrews (here at pp. 16–17). He includes it "without hesitation" ...
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6 votes
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What reforms did Erasmus seek for the church?

Owen Chadwick, in his book The Reformation, gives a few lists of the vices Erasmus saw in the church: Erasmus was not fired by a reforming passion or zeal. But his sensible and scholarly nose was ...
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6 votes

What was Martin Luther's perspective on the early Christian church?

Luther, like other reformers, regarded the early church highly, but not above scripture. We see this in two ways – (1) he accepted the earliest councils of the church as faithfully proclaiming the ...
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6 votes

Why, according to the Catholic Church, did the Reformation happen?

The Catholic Encyclopedia actually has a response to the reason for the Reformation: The papacy had become the powerful centre of the family of Christian nations. With the ecclesiastical ...
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6 votes

What contemporary criticism was given to Belloc's claim that the Protestant Reformation was the work of a few oligarchs?

What a fascinating question - Was the Protestant Reformation a bottom-up or top-down reformation? It would seem the only reasonable answer is - Yes! (i.e. both) The progress of the Reformation in ...
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  • 12.4k
6 votes

What is the biblical basis against Sola Fide (salvation by faith alone, apart from works)?

The doctrine of Sola fide (Latin for "by faith alone") holds that: God's pardon for guilty sinners is granted to and received through faith alone, excluding all "works." And that: God, on the ...
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6 votes
Accepted

Were celebrations for the 400th Anniversary of the Reformation held in Germany during World War I?

In 1917, Reformation Day was on a Wednesday. The German theologian Hermann Sasse, a sergeant in the German army at the time, spoke about that day in 1942. His glasses are too amazing for my conscience ...
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5 votes

Why were Deuterocanonical books rejected in the Reformation?

The Protestants rejection of the deuterocanonical books being equal to Holy Scripture is based primarily on Jerome's Helmeted Preface: Jerome, in his Prologue to the Books of the Kings This ...
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  • 1,123
5 votes

Why did Luther curse those who oppose indulgences?

Luther published his 95 Theses in 1517. At that time he had not fully separated from the theology of the Roman Catholic church and the Pope. Most of his 95 Thesis are really just asking for ...
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  • 2,074
5 votes
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Did the original reformers believe in a Magisterium?

tldr; No - the Reformers disavowed the concept of the Magisterium. If you read the Wikipedia article on the Magisterial Reformation it is plain to see that the usual usage of the term "...
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  • 12.4k
5 votes

Are Catholics allowed to celebrate the Reformation?

Merriam-Webster define commemorate as: to call to remembrance: St. Andrew is commemorated on November 30. to mark by some ceremony or observation; observe: commemorate an anniversary to serve as a ...
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  • 2,785
5 votes

Was Martin Luther's marriage to Katharina von Bora due to their love for each other?

Martin Luther married Katharina von Bora (1499-1552) on June 13, 1525. Katharina came from a family of higher social rank than Luther’s family. The Von Boras were members of the knightly class, a ...
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  • 16.4k
5 votes
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Was there ever a "Martin Luther" or a reformation in the Eastern Orthodox Church?

I don’t know if the Council of Chalcedon (AD 451) is relevant, but it’s worth mentioning that the at this meeting, equal honour was assigned to the Church of Constantinople and the Church of Rome. The ...
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5 votes

Was Martin Luther wrong about baptizing infants?

(Disclaimer: this answer, as should be obvious, is from a Lutheran perspective, with emphasis on the beliefs of Luther himself, circa 1530 or so. Accordingly, while only a few sentences are prefaced ...
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  • 2,578
5 votes

Who are these people in this Catholic Reformation meme that are considered more influential than Martin Luther?

Bernini (Counter-reformation painter) St. Ignatius of Loyola (founder of Jesuits, counter-reformation order) St. Francis De Sales (Counter-reformation preacher) St. John of the Cross (Reformed ...
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  • 33.3k
5 votes

Would the Anglican Church consider themselves Protestant?

The Anglican denomination is thoroughly Protestant; yes there is an Anglo-Catholic sub-branch, and some High Anglican liturgical features may have the trappings of Catholicism, but the core and heart ...
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  • 18k
4 votes
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Did Luther consider Erasmus an unbeliever, and if so, why?

It is true that after Luther and Erasmus had their falling out, from an initial weak respect for one another, Luther made several comments that imply he considered Erasmus a man without genuine faith. ...
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  • 31.6k
4 votes
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What were the major disagreements between Erasmus and Luther during the Protestant Reformation?

To understand how Erasmus viewed Luther it is helpful to see on what topic they decidedly became engaged in hot argument against each other. The topic they chose to hurl their missiles at each other ...
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  • 31.6k
4 votes

Did John Calvin ever read Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica?

A smoking gun is in the references that John Calvin makes to Thomas Aquinas in his own book, The Institutes of the Christian Religion (II.11.4 and III.22.9). This is evidence that Calvin at least ...
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