21

Protestant reformers were at pains to argue that all they sought to do was restore the church to purity which had become corrupted in medieval times. They wanted to ensure that their teachings were not just in line with Scripture but with many of the church fathers e.g. Augustine. You will find that the writings of the reformers are full of quotes to many ...


18

Luther saw the church becoming significantly corrupted much earlier than we might think. Generally I would say that Luther perceived a split between the 'real' church and the 'false church' basically around the time of St. Augustine, for he always separated the ritualistic ecclesiastical doctrine of religion, from the Augustinian spiritual doctrine of ...


16

This was a common image from at least the eleventh century onwards, but it did not always mean the same thing. In particular, Calvin is taking the least favourable possible meaning, out of all those ever used by his opponents. I will now explain everything in tediously footnoted detail. The root image of the wax nose comes from the use of wax to make ...


15

Luther did not recant. From: John Alfred Faulkner, "Luther and the Bigamous Marriage of Philip of Hesse, The American Journal of Theology Vol. 17, No. 2 (Apr., 1913), pp. 206-231 (on pp. 228-9) - Whatever occasional regret on account of the scandal Luther may have felt, he never wavered as to the essential right of his course with Philip. In June, 1540, ...


10

He was offended by Zwingli's conception of the Lord's Supper and he did not approve of Zwingli's followers' propensity for violence in defense of the faith. Zwingli believed that when the Lord said "This is my body," he meant "This represents my body." This incensed Luther, who regarded it impious. The two only met once, in 1529 at the Marburg Colloquy. ...


10

It is clear from John Knox's words, recorded at his meeting with Queen Mary at Holyrood in 1561 (accompanied by Lord James Stewart) that the reformer regarded the Papacy to be an intrusion and the mass to be an idolatrous sacrifice. He quite clearly regards both to be without warrant, from their inception. ‘Take one of the chief points, Madam, which this ...


9

This is a complex topic, for at least two reasons: 1) there was a wide diversity of thought in the pre-Reformation and Reformation periods, and 2) today's definitions of sola scriptura and sola fide vary and the particulars can be difficult to trace within the pre-Reformation and Reformation periods, and any attempts to do so are naturally susceptible to ...


8

The best source I have that actually does the homework necessary to trace the historical timeline of Luther's theology as well as the timing of its appearance into the world at large is in well written and accurate book entitled, 'MARTIN LUTHER’S THEOLOGY Its Historical and Systematic Development by BERNHARD LOHSE' In answering your question I only need to ...


8

The ecclesiology of Augustine and the ecclesiology of the Reformers were both very much products of the times they lived in: In Augustine's case as well as sourcing a basic understanding on ecclesiology from scripture and tradition, any development of his thinking in this area was greatly influenced by the problems the Church had been facing - especially in ...


8

The summary in Mike's answer seems accurate. I would like to add some further background and primary sources. Evidently, Calvin felt it necessary to write to Sir William Cecil, Queen Elizabeth I's chief adviser, when Calvin's messenger told him that the queen was unhappy with Calvin because of Knox's Monstrous Regiment, which was written in Geneva. In reply, ...


8

Luther's own words on the subject are quoted in: The Third Sermon, March 11, 1522, Tuesday after Invocavit In his sermon on 'How Christians should regard Moses' Luther makes it clear that he does not agree with making images nor with worshipping them but he draws the line at destroying other people's images. Luther draws the line because he says : ...


8

I found this paper "Cajetan and Luther: Revisiting the Roots of a Schism" written by Dr. Adam Cooper, a Lutheran pastor turned Catholic, who has a repository of his academic papers here. The paper delves into how Cajetan became very alarmed as he detected (with prophetic insight) the far reaching consequences of Luther's view during the October 1518 ...


7

As far as Calvin was concerned, his views on the canonicity of Hebrews can be found in his introductory comments to his commentary on Hebrews (here at pp. 16–17). He includes it "without hesitation" as part of the New Testament Canon. The factors in reaching that conclusion were: Its acceptance by the early church. This is why he feels the need to point out ...


6

What a fascinating question - Was the Protestant Reformation a bottom-up or top-down reformation? It would seem the only reasonable answer is - Yes! (i.e. both) The progress of the Reformation in Scotland showed all the hallmarks of the former - cf. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_knox : John Knox (c. 1514 – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish clergyman,...


6

The Catholic Encyclopedia actually has a response to the reason for the Reformation: The papacy had become the powerful centre of the family of Christian nations. With the ecclesiastical organization fully developed, it came to pass that the activities of the governing ecclesiastical bodies were no longer confined to the ecclesiastical domain, but ...


6

Owen Chadwick, in his book The Reformation, gives a few lists of the vices Erasmus saw in the church: Erasmus was not fired by a reforming passion or zeal. But his sensible and scholarly nose was otherwise offended by the stink of corruption. He despised ignorance, superstition, obscurantism, and wished to cure them. Because his pen was able to portray ...


6

The doctrine of Sola fide (Latin for "by faith alone") holds that: God's pardon for guilty sinners is granted to and received through faith alone, excluding all "works." And that: God, on the basis of the life, death, and resurrection of his Son, Jesus Christ alone (solus Christus), grants sinners judicial pardon, or justification, which is received ...


6

In 1917, Reformation Day was on a Wednesday. The German theologian Hermann Sasse, a sergeant in the German army at the time, spoke about that day in 1942. His glasses are too amazing for my conscience to allow me to answer without including this picture, taken the year before he died: In any case, the troops celebrated communion. Given that it was a ...


5

The Protestants rejection of the deuterocanonical books being equal to Holy Scripture is based primarily on Jerome's Helmeted Preface: Jerome, in his Prologue to the Books of the Kings This preface to the Scriptures may serve as a helmeted [i.e. defensive] introduction to all the books which we turn from Hebrew into Latin, so that we may be assured ...


5

There are two additional reasons for More's canonization. The first reason is that the Vatican wished to support English Roman Catholics over against the Church of England. Anglican-RC relations at this time were very frosty; and because More had defended papal (as against royal) supremacy in the church, and died for his conviction, he qualified as a martyr. ...


5

Luther published his 95 Theses in 1517. At that time he had not fully separated from the theology of the Roman Catholic church and the Pope. Most of his 95 Thesis are really just asking for thoughtful consideration for reform from inside the church. In regards to the thesis involving Indulgences, I believe Luther meant that those who speak against the ...


5

Luther, like other reformers, regarded the early church highly, but not above scripture. We see this in two ways – (1) he accepted the earliest councils of the church as faithfully proclaiming the truth of scripture and (2) he respected many of the church fathers and benefited from their insights, though always judging them against scripture. Councils ...


5

tldr; No - the Reformers disavowed the concept of the Magisterium. If you read the Wikipedia article on the Magisterial Reformation it is plain to see that the usual usage of the term "Magisterial Reformers" isn't actually related to the concept of a teaching Magisterium: The Magisterial Reformation is a phrase that "draws attention to the ...


5

Merriam-Webster define commemorate as: to call to remembrance: St. Andrew is commemorated on November 30. to mark by some ceremony or observation; observe: commemorate an anniversary to serve as a memorial of: a plaque that commemorates the battle In this sense, we cannot be opposed to commemorating (particularly in sense 1) the Reformation, lest we ...


5

Martin Luther married Katharina von Bora (1499-1552) on June 13, 1525. Katharina came from a family of higher social rank than Luther’s family. The Von Boras were members of the knightly class, a proud but declining segment of German society. Luther came from peasant stock. His father Hans was a miner who got involved in the business side of the mining and ...


5

I don’t know if the Council of Chalcedon (AD 451) is relevant, but it’s worth mentioning that the at this meeting, equal honour was assigned to the Church of Constantinople and the Church of Rome. The council gave the title “patriarch” to the most prominent bishops and concluded that the church of Constantinople (“New Rome”) held a position of authority ...


4

Expanding the search a bit to account for polluting agents other than ink, the closest I can find in Calvin is in his commentary on Isaiah 1, referring to the line in v. 22 that he translates as "Thy silver is become dross, thy wine mixed with water". Even here though, the sense is not the same as what Volf is going for; Calvin says that the image is one ...


4

It is true that after Luther and Erasmus had their falling out, from an initial weak respect for one another, Luther made several comments that imply he considered Erasmus a man without genuine faith. Most of what he said is recorded by others during conversations which has been compiled in the 'Table Talk' volume of Luther's works. Prior to this ...


4

To understand how Erasmus viewed Luther it is helpful to see on what topic they decidedly became engaged in hot argument against each other. The topic they chose to hurl their missiles at each other what a on their opposite understanding of the role of the 'human will.' Erasmus was a Catholic who never wanted to separate from the stablished Catholic ...


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