17

Luther saw the church becoming significantly corrupted much earlier than we might think. Generally I would say that Luther perceived a split between the 'real' church and the 'false church' basically around the time of St. Augustine, for he always separated the ritualistic ecclesiastical doctrine of religion, from the Augustinian spiritual doctrine of ...


16

This was a common image from at least the eleventh century onwards, but it did not always mean the same thing. In particular, Calvin is taking the least favourable possible meaning, out of all those ever used by his opponents. I will now explain everything in tediously footnoted detail. The root image of the wax nose comes from the use of wax to make ...


14

Luther did not recant. From: John Alfred Faulkner, "Luther and the Bigamous Marriage of Philip of Hesse, The American Journal of Theology Vol. 17, No. 2 (Apr., 1913), pp. 206-231 (on pp. 228-9) - Whatever occasional regret on account of the scandal Luther may have felt, he never wavered as to the essential right of his course with Philip. In June, 1540, ...


10

Sometimes it is best to see a theologian in action to determine their view and attitude about inerrancy. There is a classical error in most of our Bibles in Matthew 27:9 where Matthew means to quote Zechariah 11:13 concerning the 'thirty pieces of silver' but it says ‘Jeremiah’. I have glanced at a few modern explanations about this and it seems ...


10

To reform is to change what already is there, and to restore is to return to its original state. It probably depends which congregation within Christianity you're asking. Some protestants may consider themselves restorationists, and others reformational. Other Christians use the term and eschew the "Protestant" label. For example, Latter-day Saints wouldn'...


10

Martin Luther did not condemn pilgrimages as much as several other practices but his loathing of pilgrimages is quite clear in his writings. As with many things in the reformation, Luther's earlier writings moderately condemn the practice and then his comments tend to become more severe as the reformation matured. Early in the reformation, Luther attributed ...


10

He was offended by Zwingli's conception of the Lord's Supper and he did not approve of Zwingli's followers' propensity for violence in defense of the faith. Zwingli believed that when the Lord said "This is my body," he meant "This represents my body." This incensed Luther, who regarded it impious. The two only met once, in 1529 at the Marburg Colloquy. ...


9

Restorationist movements imagine themselves to be "restoring" a more pristine form of Christianity, while reformed movements have their roots in the Protestant Reformation. A good example of a restorationist church are the so-called Stone-Campbell churches that had their beginnings on the American frontier and now refer to themselves as the "Restoration ...


9

Book IV of Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion deals with many objections to the practices of the Catholic Chruch, frequently with rather harsh language. The claim that the Roman church is the only church (Chap II.2) The communion as practiced by Catholics is idolatry: "The foulest sacrilege has been introduced in the place of the Lord's Supper." ...


9

This is a complex topic, for at least two reasons: 1) there was a wide diversity of thought in the pre-Reformation and Reformation periods, and 2) today's definitions of sola scriptura and sola fide vary and the particulars can be difficult to trace within the pre-Reformation and Reformation periods, and any attempts to do so are naturally susceptible to ...


8

The summary in Mike's answer seems accurate. I would like to add some further background and primary sources. Evidently, Calvin felt it necessary to write to Sir William Cecil, Queen Elizabeth I's chief adviser, when Calvin's messenger told him that the queen was unhappy with Calvin because of Knox's Monstrous Regiment, which was written in Geneva. In reply,...


8

It seems that your question is a settled part of Church History, judging from David Calhoun's lecture "Blowing the Trumpet: John Knox and the Scottish Reformation" (quoting from the transcript; see the audio recording and the study guide): Knox said women should not rule over men. That was a kind of call for revolution. People could read between the lines ...


8

The ecclesiology of Augustine and the ecclesiology of the Reformers were both very much products of the times they lived in: In Augustine's case as well as sourcing a basic understanding on ecclesiology from scripture and tradition, any development of his thinking in this area was greatly influenced by the problems the Church had been facing - especially in ...


8

Luther's own words on the subject are quoted in: The Third Sermon, March 11, 1522, Tuesday after Invocavit In his sermon on 'How Christians should regard Moses' Luther makes it clear that he does not agree with making images nor with worshipping them but he draws the line at destroying other people's images. Luther draws the line because he says : ...


8

I found this paper "Cajetan and Luther: Revisiting the Roots of a Schism" written by Dr. Adam Cooper, a Lutheran pastor turned Catholic, who has a repository of his academic papers here. The paper delves into how Cajetan became very alarmed as he detected (with prophetic insight) the far reaching consequences of Luther's view during the October 1518 ...


7

The best source I have that actually does the homework necessary to trace the historical timeline of Luther's theology as well as the timing of its appearance into the world at large is in well written and accurate book entitled, 'MARTIN LUTHER’S THEOLOGY Its Historical and Systematic Development by BERNHARD LOHSE' In answering your question I only need to ...


7

I'm not sure if this is precisely what you are looking for, but your question immediately reminded me of Augustine's City of God: Chapter 35.—Of the Sons of the Church Who are Hidden Among the Wicked, and of False Christians Within the Church. Let these and similar answers (if any fuller and fitter answers can be found) be given to their enemies by ...


7

This subject is all about balance. Rationalism and Mysticism are the extremes to avoid. Your question does not seem biased to either extreme. I do not think you will find reformers making direct attacks upon particular forms of meditation so long as those meditating, mediated on those objective doctrines that they taught! The moment any type of mysticism ...


7

As far as Calvin was concerned, his views on the canonicity of Hebrews can be found in his introductory comments to his commentary on Hebrews (here at pp. 16–17). He includes it "without hesitation" as part of the New Testament Canon. The factors in reaching that conclusion were: Its acceptance by the early church. This is why he feels the need to point out ...


6

The doctrine of Sola fide (Latin for "by faith alone") holds that: God's pardon for guilty sinners is granted to and received through faith alone, excluding all "works." And that: God, on the basis of the life, death, and resurrection of his Son, Jesus Christ alone (solus Christus), grants sinners judicial pardon, or justification, which is received ...


6

The question could be worded better. Even the reformers would disagree with Sola Fide as you've described it (with the exception of Luther, perhaps). A common passage against Sola Fide is found in James 2: 14 What good is it, my brothers, if someone says he has faith but does not have works? Can that faith save him? 15 If a brother or sister is poorly ...


6

James Dolezol, a recent doctoral graduate of Westminster Seminary in Philadelphia, has written a book (which was his dissertation) on divine simplicity in which he traces the agreement of Reformed scholasticism to Thomist scholasticism on the doctrine of God. I have not yet read this book, but I was told about it by a friend of Dolezol's, and I listened to ...


6

What a fascinating question - Was the Protestant Reformation a bottom-up or top-down reformation? It would seem the only reasonable answer is - Yes! (i.e. both) The progress of the Reformation in Scotland showed all the hallmarks of the former - cf. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_knox : John Knox (c. 1514 – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish clergyman,...


6

The Catholic Encyclopedia actually has a response to the reason for the Reformation: The papacy had become the powerful centre of the family of Christian nations. With the ecclesiastical organization fully developed, it came to pass that the activities of the governing ecclesiastical bodies were no longer confined to the ecclesiastical domain, but ...


6

Owen Chadwick, in his book The Reformation, gives a few lists of the vices Erasmus saw in the church: Erasmus was not fired by a reforming passion or zeal. But his sensible and scholarly nose was otherwise offended by the stink of corruption. He despised ignorance, superstition, obscurantism, and wished to cure them. Because his pen was able to portray ...


6

In 1917, Reformation Day was on a Wednesday. The German theologian Hermann Sasse, a sergeant in the German army at the time, spoke about that day in 1942. His glasses are too amazing for my conscience to allow me to answer without including this picture, taken the year before he died: In any case, the troops celebrated communion. Given that it was a ...


5

Luther, like other reformers, regarded the early church highly, but not above scripture. We see this in two ways – (1) he accepted the earliest councils of the church as faithfully proclaiming the truth of scripture and (2) he respected many of the church fathers and benefited from their insights, though always judging them against scripture. Councils ...


5

There are two additional reasons for More's canonization. The first reason is that the Vatican wished to support English Roman Catholics over against the Church of England. Anglican-RC relations at this time were very frosty; and because More had defended papal (as against royal) supremacy in the church, and died for his conviction, he qualified as a martyr. ...


5

Luther published his 95 Theses in 1517. At that time he had not fully separated from the theology of the Roman Catholic church and the Pope. Most of his 95 Thesis are really just asking for thoughtful consideration for reform from inside the church. In regards to the thesis involving Indulgences, I believe Luther meant that those who speak against the ...


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