9

For the larger context of the authorship and development of the creed, please see my answer to this question: Did the Apostles' Creed originate with the Apostles? Church historian Philip Schaff provides a summary of the development of the Apostles' Creed in his book, The Creeds of Christendom. A helpful table, showing the creed's gradual formation in the ...


6

This answer is in two parts. Part 1 comes from an Evangelical perspective and attempts to indirectly show that Abraham's Bosom no longer exists by arguing that it never existed to begin with. Part 2 tries to logically show how the definition of Abraham's Bosom is inconsistent with it remaining in existence after Christ's Resurrection. Part 1: If it didn't ...


5

Wayne Grudem is probably the most prominent theologian who has provided a detailed argument on this topic.1 He first disputes the common interpretations of five passages: Acts 2:27, Romans 10:6–7, Ephesians 4:8–9, 1 Peter 3:18–20, and 1 Peter 4:6, and argues that none of them clearly teach any form of the "descent into hell" doctrine. He then proceeds to ...


4

First, be careful with your statement "The Christian understanding that everyone was born with origin[al] sin". Yes, this is a common Christian belief, and it is indeed a Catholic one, but it is not universal. This is irrelevant to the rest of your question, but worth noting. And yes, there does indeed exist the idea that Jesus descended into "...


4

Not only is this belief held by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, it is one of the core tenets of their faith as outlined in the Four-fold Mission of the Church. Mormons believe that after physical death the spirit is separated from the body and enters the Spirit World. The spirit is then places in Spirit Prison or Spirit Paradise,...


3

The LDS concept of preaching to the spirits of the dead derives from a couple passages in 1 Peter: 18 For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit: 19 By which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison; 20 Which ...


1

Some Protestant Christians take Jesus' words in Luke 16:19-31 about the rich man and Lazarus to show that after the body dies, the soul exists in a conscious realm while awaiting the resurrection. The rich man didn’t ask for his brothers to pray for his release from some purgatorial middle ground, thereby expediting his journey to heaven. He knew he was in ...


1

I will answer the question from the viewpoint of Roman Catholic doctrine. Before Christ's death, the state or "place" of the souls of all dead people (Hebrew sheol, Greek hades and Latin inferus [1]) was divided into several "compartments". Gehenna or hell (latin infernus [1]), inhabited by the souls of the damned, where they are tormented by fire (Mt 5:22,...


1

The Bible gives us no information as to when Hell and the lake of fire were or possibly when the lake of fire will be created. Hell is first mentioned in: Deuteronomy 32:22 KJV For a fire is kindled in mine anger, and shall burn unto the lowest hell, and shall consume the earth with her increase, and set on fire the foundations of the mountains. and the ...


1

Luke 16:23 tells us that the rich man went to a place called Hades. "And in Hell, he lift up his eyes being in torments" The Bible describes the rich mans experience in Hades as "being in torments". Acts 2:27 clearly states that Jesus soul was not left in Hades and that implies his soul was there but was not left there permanently. Earlier in verse 24 of ...


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