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11 votes

How do opponents of penal substitutionary atonement theory handle Isaiah 53?

Well I am an opponent of penal substitution and can give an answer that I believe is within the bounds of Eastern Orthodox tradition. Note the part where the verse says: "yet we considered him ...
Ian's user avatar
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9 votes
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According to proponents of penal substitutionary atonement, why do we still die?

Proponents of penal substitution, like Louis Berkhof (ST, 6.2.1), indeed argue that Christ has "removed the penalty of sin" and that therefore "the penal element is removed from death." So why do ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
6 votes

What is the difference between "ransom theory" and "penal substitution"?

This question is a bit old, but there is an omission in the only answer. fi11222's answer states that both ransom and penal substitution theories of atonement view God as needing payment of some form. ...
Ian's user avatar
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6 votes
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Is penal substitutionary atonement most prevalent among Calvinists?

The strongest defenders of penal substitution are going to be conservative Calvinists: that is, those who hold to the "five points" of Calvinism and reject modernist approaches to Scripture. ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
5 votes

What is the biblical basis for the belief that Jesus' death made satisfaction for individual sins?

Part of the solution here might be to look at the Old Testament sacrifices which Jesus is fulfilling. When an Israelite took his lamb to the temple to be sacrificed, he had no sense that his ...
Steve's user avatar
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5 votes
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According to proponents of penal substitutionary atonement, were the Levitical sacrifices also penal substitutions?

Charles Hodge (Systematic Theology, 3.7.6) and Herman Bavinck (Reformed Dogmatics, v3, III.7) are two Reformed theologians who make a number of exegetical arguments from Old Testament passages to ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
5 votes
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Why can't God forgive a sinner without having to kill Jesus the righteous one?

Basically, it is because God is Righteous and judges totally righteously, which means he cannot sweep sin under the carpet and dismiss it. Now, a capricious, man-made idea of a god predominates pagan ...
Anne's user avatar
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4 votes
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How does the Catholic Church view Penal Substitutionary Atonement?

After my research, I am not convinced that Penal Substitutionary Atonement is a formally condemned heresy. However, it seems to contradict the sensus fidelium, or the "sense of the faithful."...
jaredad7's user avatar
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4 votes
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When was the term 'substitutionary atonement' first coined and what was the reason for the choice of the 2 words?

It is hard to nail down a person or time that can be credited with the coining of the term substitutionary atonement. The concept is not well attested in early extra-biblical writings although there ...
Mike Borden's user avatar
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4 votes

Are there any Protestant denominations or churches that reject penal substitution?

Not all Anglicans have held to Penal Substitution Theory. For example, the nineteenth to early 20th century Anglican bishop Charles Ellicott did not. See his commentary on Galatians 3, for example. ...
Steve Fast's user avatar
4 votes

How do opponents of penal substitutionary atonement theory handle Isaiah 53?

This answer is based on the theology and Bible interpretations written by the Christian theologian Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772), which are accepted in the "New Church" or Swedenborgian ...
Lee Woofenden's user avatar
4 votes

Did Philip Melanchthon teach penal substitution?

A great place to look for this is Melancthon's Defense of the Augsburg Confession. As we'll see, he does not always use language specific to penal substitution, but the themes of Christ's sacrifice ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
4 votes

According to proponents of penal substitutionary atonement, were the Levitical sacrifices also penal substitutions?

**Part 1** Those who believe in penal substitution mean something along on the lines of this: that Christ was made to have human nature. This was done in order to take the penalty of the law upon ...
Mike's user avatar
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3 votes

What is the biblical basis for the belief that Jesus' death made satisfaction for individual sins?

Off the top of my mind, there are two passages upon which the belief of individual satisfaction can be based. One is from Paul's letter to the Romans, v 6:10 [RSV]: While we were still weak, at the ...
brasshat's user avatar
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3 votes

Which Protestant theologian first clearly formulated the penal substitution theory of atonement?

Hard to choose, but probably Martin Luther. Your linked answer has the clearest example, from Luther's Works, Volume 26 (Lectures on Galatians Ch. 1-4). He sent His Son into the world, heaped all ...
Paul Draper's user avatar
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3 votes

Did Martin Luther teach penal substitution?

If I may crudely summarize, Gustaf Aulén's argument in Chapter 6 of Christus Victor is: Martin Luther clearly valued the Christus Victor theme The Christus Victor and substitutionary models of ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
2 votes

What is the Biblical basis for the "penal" in penal substitutionary atonement?

The 'penal' in penal substitution is based on the idea that sin brings about punishment under the curse of the law. The curse of Adam's sin is death, which is a punishment. Punishment = the curse ...
Mike's user avatar
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2 votes

Is penal substitutionary atonement most prevalent among Calvinists?

Theory suggests that Calvin's strong support for and writings about penal substitution was tied to his work in the legal system (as a lawyer). The concept is definitely a parallel. [Christ] made a ...
Jeremy's user avatar
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2 votes

Did Martin Luther teach penal substitution?

This article directly refutes Gustav Aulen (by name) by citing Luther: https://guardthedeposit.com/2013/03/martin-luther-atonement-penal-substitution/ The article quotes "a passage from Luther’s ...
Paul Chernoch's user avatar
2 votes
Accepted

Is penal substitution consistent with divine simplicity?

It's important to keep in mind that Divine Simplicity, Divine Impassibility, and Penal Substitutionary Atonement are man-made theological constructs which attempt to codify the vast depth of God's ...
Mike Borden's user avatar
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2 votes

If Jesus's death was not eternal, then how can it be substitutionary for the eternal deaths of humans?

As one who believes in the teaching of penal substitution, I would simply point to what the Bible says about it in Romans chapter 5. It would be good if you could read the entire chapter first, in ...
Anne's user avatar
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2 votes

If Jesus's death was not eternal, then how can it be substitutionary for the eternal deaths of humans?

N - Assume that the total number of people who will ever live (besides Jesus) is N, a finite number. ω - Assume that redeeming the smallest sin costs an infinite amount, equal to omega, the hyper-real ...
Paul Chernoch's user avatar
2 votes
Accepted

(LDS) What kind of payment can a murderer make to receive a pardon?

I haven't taken a look at the other question yet, but after reading your question, my knee-jerk reaction was, "whaaaat?" The word "pardon" does not exist in LDS doctrine outside of ...
JBH's user avatar
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2 votes

What is the biblical basis for the belief that Jesus' death made satisfaction for individual sins?

The biblical basis for believing that Christ died and arose to 'deal with, once and for all' every individual sin of all having biblical, saving faith in Christ includes some of the following biblical ...
Anne's user avatar
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2 votes

What is the biblical basis for the belief that Jesus' death made satisfaction for individual sins?

See the parables of the Lost Coin and the Lost Sheep: Or what woman having ten silver coins, if she loses one of them, does not light a lamp, sweep the house, and search carefully until she finds ...
Kadalikatt Joseph Sibichan's user avatar
1 vote

Why can't God forgive a sinner without having to kill Jesus the righteous one?

The early church father Anselm might have provided the best answer for that in his "Faith and Reason." As he reasoned it out, man could not be one with God because of his sins (God cannot be ...
DDover's user avatar
  • 133
1 vote

(LDS) What kind of payment can a murderer make to receive a pardon?

Questions like these can get tricky because they're all about semantics. Pardon sin and forgive sin are used interchangeably throughout the scriptures and as used by church leaders. Also, I would ...
user15674's user avatar
1 vote

According to proponents of penal substitutionary atonement, why do we still die?

My answer... I believe that a believer in Christ still physically dies for the same reason all believers still have a sin nature as well as the reason why Satan has not yet been cast into the lake of ...
Jay's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote

What is the Biblical basis for the "penal" in penal substitutionary atonement?

The Biblical basis for the penal requirement comes from a prophecy by Isaiah. Isa 53:10 Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him (Jesus); he (The Lord) hath put him (Jesus) to grief: when thou (the ...
Trip Walters's user avatar
1 vote

Are there any Protestant denominations or churches that reject penal substitution?

You will find rejection of the Penal Substitution Atonement theory among the Progressive churches and theologians. They reject the theory because it makes God out to be no different than the pagan ...
Kirby Hopper's user avatar

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