30

The target audience of the writers of the gospels was to people who did not know about or did not believe in Jesus as the Messiah and Risen Lord. They included the virgin birth story because it was an important part of the narrative. Paul's target audiences, on the other hand, were already Christians and so, presumably, were already aware of the narrative of ...


25

The term "Jew" is an Anglicization of "Judean" which comes from the Greek Ἰουδαῖος (Ioudaios). Technically, it can simply be a regional distinction, that is someone who is from Judea. But it can of course represent one's ethnicity. Greek who happened to grow up in Judea would not have identified himself as a Judean. In the book of Esther, the Hebrew "...


22

The evidence for Paul being married is fairly scant. He writes in 1 Corinthians 9:5: "Don't we have the right to take a believing wife along with us, as do the other apostles and the Lord's brothers and Cephas?" The implication could be made that Paul was complaining about leaving some wife behind. In Galatians 1:14, Paul says: "I was advancing in ...


20

Advocates for the virgin birth make the following arguments for why Paul didn't mention it: It wasn't controversial and therefore not worth mentioning It didn't need to be mentioned in order to accomplish the goals of the epistles It was a matter of some privacy He didn't know about it Points 1 & 2 overlap to some extent and thus are sometimes ...


19

Peter means "stone" in Greek, while Cephas is "stone" in Aramaic. That verse is confusing in the NIV; the KJV is clearer: John 1:42 (KJV) 42And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him, he said, Thou art Simon the son of Jona: thou shalt be called Cephas, which is by interpretation, A stone. Christ was speaking in Aramaic, and would have ...


18

The Apostle Peter certainly treated Paul's letters as God's word, elevating them to the status of written scripture: He [Paul] writes the same way in all his letters, speaking in them of these matters. His letters contain some things that are hard to understand, which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures, to their own ...


18

There is one problem with the argument - "Matthias was never sent by Christ to do anything, therefore he cannot be an apostle". The problem is that Barnabus (of whom we have no evidence that he was sent by Christ) is also called an "apostle" in Acts 14:14. We know that Judas was an apostle and his "office" (Acts 1:20) was taken over by Matthias. And it is ...


18

The criticisms that Paul 'invented' Christianity, or 'distorted' the message of Jesus, often boil down to two primary claims: Paul sought to abolish Torah observance Paul deified Jesus, equating him with the God of Israel 1. Paul, and the role of Torah A recent publication, The Jewish Annotated New Testament, contains commentary and perspectives by ...


17

1 Corinthians 7:12 has an interesting phrase (emphasis mine) Now to the married I command, yet not I but the Lord: A wife is not to depart from her husband. But even if she does depart, let her remain unmarried or be reconciled to her husband. And a husband is not to divorce his wife. But to the rest I, not the Lord, say: If any brother has a wife who ...


16

There are a number of passages that suggest that Paul preached the same message as the first eleven apostles. Paul says so: I went up because of a revelation and set before [the Jerusalem church] (though privately before those who seemed influential) the gospel that I proclaim among the Gentiles, in order to make sure I was not running or had not run in ...


16

We know that he spoke Greek, Hebrew, and maybe Latin. The Latin conjecture is based on the fact that he was Roman and the official language of Rome was Latin. Proof text for Hebrew: And when we had all fallen to the ground, I heard a voice saying to me in the Hebrew language, ‘Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me? It is hard for you to kick against the ...


15

The answer is perhaps best given in 1 Corinthians 9:20-23 (emphasis added): To the Jews I became as a Jew, in order to win Jews. To those under the law I became as one under the law (though not being myself under the law) that I might win those under the law. To those outside the law I became as one outside the law (not being outside the law of God but ...


15

1 Corinthians 11: 23-26 For I received from the Lord what I also handed on to you, that the Lord Jesus, on the night he was handed over, took bread, and, after he had given thanks, broke it and said, “This is my body that is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” In the same way also the cup, after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood....


14

In asking this question, you have added a layer of interpretation onto the text that I do not see there. You introduce the word "want" which does not exist in the text. In fact I don't see any indication in the text that Paul has a desire for personal vengeance or that he wants Alaxander to get what's coming to him. In fact is is quite likely based on what ...


13

Jesus told the disciples to preach the Gospel to all nations. Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit (Matthew 28:19, ESV) But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and ...


12

Actually, we don't know that his name was changed at all. He may have had both names to start with as per the custom of his day as both a Jew by blood and a Roman citizen. After his conversion and change of direction he seems to have decided his other name was a better moniker. Many mistakenly assume the Lord changed Saul's name to Paul sometime after ...


12

I much prefer Nathaniel's answer to mine (the accepted answer), as it is considerably more thorough and answers more questions. I still believe the Paul's mission to the gentiles is a piece of the puzzle, but only a small part. I do not have the time to flesh this out, but I will leave it for completeness. Paul was the Apostle to the gentiles. The virgin ...


11

Acts is quite clear on the matter. Matthias was called to fill the vacancy left by Judas, whereas Paul didn't even appear on the scene for quite some time afterwards. And even after he showed up, we have several epistles where he refers to himself as an apostle, but unlike Matthias, the actual process of him being called as an apostle has not been preserved ...


11

Protestants do not recognize the necessity of a single worldwide leader other than Christ. So it is not as if Peter is dethroned so that Paul can take his place. Both are recognized as important leaders, but not one over the other. An example of this thinking can be found from John Calvin in the Institutes. In Book 4, Chapter 6, he writes: And yet, in ...


11

Sadly, we just don't know. While I generally affirm the broad consensus that the pastorals are pseudonymous (I usually add the caveat that I think 2 Tim could be Pauline), it is worth noting that several good (but, generally more conservative) scholars such as Luke Timothy Johnson do actually affirm Pauline authorship of the pastorals. And I suppose that's ...


11

Clement of Alexander likely was referring to Philippians 4:3 Yes, I ask you also, true companion (σύζυγε), help these women, who have labored side by side with me in the gospel together with Clement and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life. (ESV) The word σύζυγε (lexical form σύζυγος) is a hapax legomenon within the New ...


11

By the time of the New Testament "Jew" and "Israelite" had effectively become synonyms. This is because the large majority of people who returned from the Exile were from the former Kingdom of Judah. So Acts 21:29 is talking about his nationality, not his tribe.


11

I am aware of four lines of evidence frequently adduced: Greek syntax and vocabulary Even a casual read through Ephesians in Greek shows it to be different from the undisputed Pauline letters.1 Despite their sometimes complex argument structure, the Greek of the other letters tends to minimize the complicated subordinating syntax of Classical Greek. ...


10

(I wrote this in an essay on Hebrews a few years back) Origen (185-254 CE) in the East has been quoted as saying that God only knows who wrote the Epistle although he also suggested that Paul was the author (Robertson, 1932). Hippolytus (170-236 CE) from Rome denied it was written by Paul. Tertullian (160-220 CE) in North Africa spoke of an Epistle of ...


10

There are many theories, including: a demon, since Paul says it was a "messenger of Satan" a physical affliction: "incessant temptation, dogged opponents, chronic maladies (such as eye problems, malaria, migraine headaches, and epilepsy), to a speech disability" false teachers (My personal theory is that it was his eyesight; but the majority of experts do ...


10

There are plenty examples: Paul: For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. (Rom 13,9) Jesus: Thou shalt love the Lord ...


10

Faulty Premise: Paul knew nothing of Jesus Paul summarizes his own life story in Galatians 1: 11 I want you to know, brothers and sisters, that the gospel I preached is not of human origin. 12 I did not receive it from any man, nor was I taught it; rather, I received it by revelation from Jesus Christ. 13 For you have heard of my previous way of ...


10

First of all, Paul was the Roman citizen, and during his imprisonment he was been waiting for Caesar's judgment: (Acts 25:10-12) Then said Paul, I stand at Caesar's judgment seat, where I ought to be judged (...) I appeal unto Caesar. Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council, answered, Hast thou appealed unto Caesar? unto Caesar shalt thou go. ...


10

Two prominent advocates of this view are Rudolf Stier (1800–62) and Lloyd John Ogilvie (1930–). They argue both that the apostles erred, and that ultimately the evidence points to Paul being the true 12th apostle. They make several arguments: The method of selection, particularly the casting of lots, was improper The selection was unnecessarily hasty The ...


10

What an interesting find! The Biblical text in view is indeed 1 Cor 9. The key to understanding how they derived this interpretation is knowing what Clement and Eusebius meant by the words translated in the question as "greet" and "wife". Clement explains the relationship between the apostles and women (Stromatum III, 53; Greek, English): But the [...


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