14

One could perhaps say that the dogmatic definition of papal infallibility as expressed at Vatican I is the Church's formal way of dealing with this tension. The case of Pope Honorius has of course been debated for centuries and was brought up prior to Vatican I as an argument against papal infallibility. The old Catholic Encyclopedia has a helpful summary of ...


12

Ex cathedra means from the chair literally. It refers to the power of the reigning Pope to speak infallibly on doctrinal or moral issues. And although, in my understanding, the power of speaking "from the chair" in general is not a concept necessarily new to Catholicism (think of any leader speaking officially from their official seat), in Catholicism it ...


11

This is not completely hypothetical. In the mid-300s, Pope Liberius may have signed a statement supporting what later became known as Arian heresy. That he did so in exile and possibly under torture is mitigation, and the story is complex, but it is a more concrete version of this question. In any event, there was clear pressure from the Emperor that came ...


11

The key Biblical passage is Mt 16:18: "And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it" (NRSVCE). Though such a citation inevitably hearkens back to certain meta-questions about the use of "πέτρᾳ," the Catholic Church has always seen it as referring to the specific ...


7

Let me begin with the second question, which is simpler. The Catholic Church does not believe in modern revelation. The Catechism of the Catholic Church says 66 "The Christian economy, therefore, since it is the new and definitive Covenant, will never pass away; and no new public revelation is to be expected before the glorious manifestation of our Lord ...


7

No, a retired pope is not infallible because that guarantee is not a personal quality; it is attached to the office that he no longer holds. This is true in terms of the pope’s extraordinary teaching authority, which Pope Pius XII used in his 1950 definition of Mary’s assumption into heaven. He acknowledged consulting the world’s bishops prior to that ...


6

Pope Pius XII—in his apostolic constitution that defines the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, Munificentissimus Deus (1950)—describes the process in which he sought counsel from all the bishops of the world in the letter Deiparæ Virginis Mariæ (1946), where he asked them (§11): Do you, venerable brethren, in your outstanding wisdom and prudence, judge ...


5

First of all, it is important to understand the very strict conditions under which a Pope declares things ex cathedra. To begin with, he can only make such a declaration about doctrine. Here is how the Catechism of the Catholic Church describes Papal infallibility: 891 "The Roman Pontiff, head of the college of bishops, enjoys this infallibility in ...


5

First, some much-needed background. The pope is infallible only when he speaks ex cathedra. Ex cathedra is not a linguistic formula, it is simply a way to recognize those times when the pope gives a teaching that is correct and will remain correct forever. Ecumenical councils are another organ of infallibility, but we can talk about just the pope without ...


4

As you have known already not all pronouncements from a pope is spoken ex-cathedra. And the answer that you have quoted notes the three points to be fulfilled in order to make a pronouncement ex-cathedra: to be held by the whole church, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals If we test any ...


4

You massively misunderstand the process of promulgating doctrine. It's not a magic process where God causes true statements to be generated out of thin air. Doctrine is developed through prayer, research, consultation, discernment and much more, and involves the whole church, not just the Pope. The belief is that God guides this process to ensure it is ...


4

The doctrine of infallibility is that the pope cannot abuse his power when declaring and defining a dogma. In other words, infallible means that he will not teach heresy when speaking ex-cathedra. Catholic believe that Holy Spirit will protect him from erring when doing so. ...Catholics were required to wear a colander on their heads at all times... Ex-...


3

The Arian controversy was dealt with at a time when the doctrine of papal infallibility was not yet established. Although it was an ecumenical council which authoritatively declared Trinitarian Orthodoxy, belief was actually mandated by Emperor Theodosius. I doubt whether, during the fourth century, there was ever a time when almost no one in the Church ...


3

What would happen if a pope were to be a formal heretic? Formal heresy is obstinately denying Catholic truths, even after being warned. If a pope were to define a "dogma" ex cathedra that contradicts Catholic teaching, this "dogma" would not be binding nor be protected by papal infallibility as defined at Vatican I. Definable Catholic dogmas must first be ...


3

In the last chapter, ch. V "The Relation of the Holy Ghost to the Divine Tradition of the Faith" (pp. 210-48), of Card. Manning's The Temporal Mission of the Holy Ghost, he shows how the Holy Ghost has preserved the Church pure, comparing it to the dissolution of other sects like Protestantism. Anytime the Church convenes a dogmatic, General Council (like ...


3

Everett Ferguson, in Church History, I, 17.I, summarizes Roman Catholic response to this question as follows: Roman Catholics have defended Honorius's orthodoxy (and so papal infallibility) by various explanations:   (1) he used "one will" in a moral, not physical, sense;   (2) his was a private view not expressed ex cathedra; ...


3

For something to be declared a Dogma, two conditions are required: 1) the statement is within the scope of Dogma. This is, it refers to faith or morals. 2) the statement does not contradict other Dogmas (because the Magisterium cannot contradict itself, as it is infallible on matters of faith and morals). Regarding 1), it seems clear that the creation of ...


3

According to Catholicism, do individual bishops have the safeguard of Infallibility or Indefectibility? The short answer on both counts is no. First of all what is indefectibility? Indefectibility Definition Imperishable duration of the Church and her immutability until the end of time. The First Vatican Council declared that the Church ...


2

When the Pope speaks with infallibility on dogma, it is known as being in Ex Cathedra. The conclusion from the Catholic Encyclopedia is that "The broad fact, therefore, remains certain that no ex cathedra definition of any pope has ever been shown to be erroneous." The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above, has a very lengthy article about Papal ...


2

Ecumenical Councils are the top of the list, simply because the whole of the Church gets together to promulgate doctrine. These doctrines are signed by the Pope at the end of the Council, and are binding. Some of the doctrines are administrative in nature, and can be modified, changed, added to, or removed. Others, which deal with faith or morals, are ...


2

Heretics lose their office in the Church. Pope Paul IV, Bull Cum ex Apostolatus Officio, Feb. 15, 1559: “1… Remembering also that, where danger is greater, it must more fully and more diligently be counteracted, We have been concerned lest false prophets or others, even if they have only secular jurisdiction, should wretchedly ensnare the ...


2

No, it would not be justified. If papal infallibility was not true and well-established, then defining infallibility ad-hoc in 1870 would have been mortally dangerous for the Church. At that point, there had been 255 popes over the course of about 1800 years. Note that ex-cathedra is not a label; it is basically a clear statement on a particular topic, ...


2

Ex cathedra is the means by which a pope defines dogma. Infallible means "not prone to err." The First Vatican Council says a pope cannot err when defining dogma. This does not imply he's prone to err when not defining dogma, nor does it mean he must speak ex cathedra to be inerrant. Encyclicals, for example, are inerrant; otherwise, the Church would ...


2

First of all, and purely as an incidental note, most Christians are Catholic (though that's just barely true). To allow that the Pope can speak infallibly is different from "keeping the canon open", that is, allowing the possibility of additional books of Sacred Scripture. I cannot find anywhere in Church documents an official statement to the precise ...


2

The English word "overseas" is used to refer generally to other countries, or parts of the world. This stems from the fact that historically the majority of English speakers, when going to another country, travelled over the sea. In Italy, and other parts of Continental Europe, the way to other countries was more often over the mountains than across the ...


2

The First Vatican Council's Pastor Æternus said, under Pope Pius IX's authority, regarding papal infallibility: …we teach and define that it is a dogma divinely revealed: that the Roman Pontiff, when he speaks ex cathedra, that is, when in discharge of the office of pastor and doctor of all Christians, by virtue of his supreme Apostolic authority, ...


1

I believe that the OP means: Identifying Ordinary and Universal Magisterium of the Catholic Church. I can understand some confusion on this topic as the terms in use are in no way constant and even are somewhat changeable. The Church has yet to update its' canonical language on this subject. The term ‘ordinary magisterium’ was first used by Pius IX in the ...


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