19

The Nicene Creed is a long-standing tradition in Christianity, and "defines the mainstream definition of Christianity for most Christians". It has been independently accepted by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran (pdf link), and plenty of Protestant churches. Joshua Christian seems to have presented a fanciful (or at least misleading) view of the ...


18

The filioque is meant as a theological explanation of the relationship between the Spirit and the Son. The Bible tells us that the Son is begotten from the Father, and that the Spirit proceeds from the Father, but any curious Trinitarian is going to wonder what the Spirit-Son relationship is. And the West, as a rule, is much more interested in nailing down ...


16

It would be the heresy of monophysitism (or, pushed to an extreme docetism) to deny Jesus' free will. The classic text on the matter is in this matter is Luke 22:42 - "Father, if you are willing, take this cup from me; yet not my will, but yours be done." If Jesus had no free will, this statement has no meaning. Additionally, Hebrews 4:15 states: ...


11

Yes. I have been able to find two letters, one related to the calling of the Council of Nicea and the other related to the judgment of the Council of Constantinople, where the word "persons" is used to describe the relations within the Godhead. Council of Nicea (325) First, some background. Alexander of Alexandria's conflict with Arius was the impetus for ...


10

I don't think I could improve upon the summary at the Orthodox Wiki: Objections on doctrinal grounds It is contrary to Scripture, particularly in John 15:26: "But when the Helper comes, whom I shall send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who proceeds from the Father, He will testify of Me." Thus, Christ never describes the Holy Spirit as ...


10

I would like to add some theological background to this answer from the Catholic perspective (and naturally, I would invite Orthodox readers to contribute their own perspective). First, some historical background: As the original question points out, the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed was originally written in Greek. Although the fundamental concepts in ...


10

This answer is based on the following 3 resources I found: A 2015 article Was Constantine the Great Baptized An Arian? A 2012 paper The Spread Out of Arianism. A Critical Analysis of the Arian Heresy published in the International Journal of Orthodox Theology A 2005 article How Arianism Almost Won by Christopher A. Hall published in Christian History Issue ...


9

Origin of the phrase There are actually a number of texts that are labeled the "Nicene Creed". The text produced by the 325 council does not include information about the kingdom at all. Eusebius of Caesarea, who attended the council, wrote back to his congregation about the deliberations. He reports an initial version of the creed that was used as a ...


8

The Filioque is considered to be of extremely significant importance in Reformed Theology. Even in Reformed-flavored Protestantism (such as that found at The Gospel Coalition), it has implications for Scripture's authority, as well as preaching and discipleship. These implications include the authority of Scripture and the preaching and discipleship of the ...


7

Regarding the term ἐκπορεύομαι We have to keep in mind that Trinitarian doctrine and the technical terminology surrounding it did not stabilize until the Fourth Century A.D. The creed commonly called the Nicene Creed would be better termed the “Nicene-Constantinopolitan” Creed, since it incorporates material that was elaborated not only in the ...


7

Background There are several key details missing from the existing answers. Despite offering a bounty on this question to see about getting some more complete answers, no additional answers were offered and existing answers were not revised. I therefore awarded the bounty to philipthegreat's well written answer. Because the additional details I was looking ...


7

The lingua franca of the world during the early years of Christianity was Greek. Latin was the official language of Rome and used throughout the Empire for some official business, but even Rome used Greek in the Eastern parts of the empire by way of expediency. This was much more the case at the time of Christ and the early church (almost the entire New ...


6

I don't think the intention of the council fathers was to divide the job/responsibility of Creation between the three persons. Saying the Father does not give life or the Spirit did not make heaven and earth would probably be considered heresy in the early Church. The Orthodox Church in America states that, "There is no will and no action of God the Father ...


6

Once - in two different ways depending on our definition of 'begotten' There seems to be some confusion on the subject because "only begotten" a theological term does not mean "begotten" a biblical term. But to answer your question, if thinking 'begotten' as in 'only begotten' it gains prominence in Council of Nicaea in A.D. 325 representing Christ’s ...


6

The Credo-baptists that affirm the Nicene creed, would argue that "baptism for the remission of sins" need not be interpreted as "baptism accomplishes the remission of sins", but more along the lines of "baptism witnesses the remission of sins" eg: ... The phrase, “We confess one baptism for the remission of sins,” does not mean that baptism leads to ...


6

The earliest use of οὐσία to mean the substance or essence of a thing is by Aristotle in his Κατηγορίαι, though Aristotle attributes its earlier use to Plato. Justin Martyr comments on Aristotle's description of the nature of the Divine, confirming that Aristotle (along with Plato) uses the word in the manner described as early as the 4th century BC. So it ...


6

Before we get into the weeds, here are the main points that I intend to impart: Reformed theology generally accepts the church fathers' wisdom on the homoousion. The concept of homoousion, not the term, is what matters most. The concept of homoousion safeguards the Gospel against Arianism. There is no single proof-text for the term, but the concept is ...


6

Lee Irons addresses this question in his paper, "The Eternal Generation of the Son." In response to the question of exegetical basis for the doctrine, he writes: Traditionally, the doctrine of the eternal generation of the Son was supported by an appeal to the five Johannine texts in which Christ is identified as monogenes (Jn 1:14, 18; 3:16, 18; I Jn 4:...


6

For the Orthodox, there is precisely one Creed: the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed. That being said, it depends on what you mean by 'accept'. The theology of Quicunque Vult / (Pseudo-)Athanasian Creed is definitely Latin in origin, but, generally speaking, it is theologically acceptable to the Orthodox once the filioque is removed. It is occasionally ...


5

The old creeds are useful summaries of Christian doctrine. They are useful because the way God decided to shape the Bible was not like a systematic theology textbook, even though we might sometimes wish it was! The creeds were written in times of division in the church to clarify what the groups that wrote them believe the Bible taught. In general each ...


5

For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are--yet was without sin. (NIV Hebrews 4:15) the prince of this world is coming. He has no hold on me (NIV John14:30) Jesus had free will, but not the ability to sin, that is considered impossible by many ...


5

It appears to be an issue directly related to the Latin. As we see in the original Latin that was brought out of the Council of Nicea the line: Qui cum Patre et Fílio simul adorátur et conglorificátur Roughly translated to English, we see it translated to "Who with the Father and to the Son, He is worshiped and glorified". (We'll ignore the literal ...


5

The records of the 1st Ecumenical Council do not, I believe, include the discourse that preceded the condemnation against Arius and his followers. We do know, however, that Athanasius of Alexandria was key in the condemnation. He had written extensively against Arianism in his Four Discourses Against the Arians. We can assume, I think, that many or all ...


5

Everything that is that is not God. The physical universe. Humans. Spiritual beings (angels and demons etc). CCC 325: The Apostles' Creed professes that God is "creator of heaven and earth". the Nicene Creed makes it explicit that this profession includes "all that is, seen and unseen". CCC 326: The Scriptural expression "heaven and earth" means all ...


5

The Calvinistic position, traditionally, is not that the Son is (as stated in the question) 'begotten of the Father before all ages', but, rather, that the Son is : eternally begotten of the Father. A very informative article by Benjamin W. Swinburnson states it thus : This doctrine, as classically defined in Reformed theology, states that God the ...


4

The main purpose of the Nicene Creed was to establish Trinitarianism as Christian doctrine, in opposition to Arianism. If a majority agreement was obtained under duress, few bishops would have been courageous enough to say so; after all, duress implies that you must remain silent about your disagreement with the verdict. Edward Gibbon says, in The Decline ...


4

The portion of the Nicene Creed as translated in the Catholic Encyclopedia online: And (I believe) in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of life, who proceeds from the Father (and the Son), who together with the Father and the Son is to be adored and glorified, who spoke by the Prophets. (Catholic Encyclopedia - The Nicene Creed) The original ...


4

The phrase “God of God” means that a person came from a person ( like an offspring from a parent) and that they are of same nature. It is analogous to the phrase “Human of Human,” That is, a human offspring of a human parent. To beget is to produce someone to have one’s nature. Seth is begotten of Adam. Seth and Adam are of same nature. A human person ...


4

The term the Nicene Creed uses for substance is homooúsios. This term was intentionally chosen to separate the Creed from various forms of Arianism that denied the divinity of Jesus. The Nicene Creed is arguing that Jesus is fully divine just like the Father. The common forms of nontrinitarianism at the time commonly denied the divinity of Christ by arguing ...


4

The Creed as promulgated at the Council of Nicaea was actually very short, and didn't include the "worshipped and glorified" phrase: We believe in one God the Father all powerful, maker of all things both seen and unseen. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten begotten from the Father, that is from the substance [Gr. ousias, Lat. ...


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