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Bellarmine wrote arguing the Catholic position and attempted to demonstrate that the Lutheran position, on a range of matters, was incorrect. He frequently did this along the lines of "our adversaries argument is this, but I think they are mistaken because..". In that contest "adversaries" means those on the other side of the question, ...


Nothing prevents the baptized from becoming heretics and thus opposing the Church. Protecting the Church against harmful influence ("adversaries"), like the arch-heretic Luther, is the rationale for trying heretics and, if necessary, even delivering them to the State for punishment (e.g., the death penalty): St. Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica II-...


Protestants are called so because they started to protest against practice of the Vatican in the 16th century. The Vatican refused and banned the protest. This led to churches being adversaries. However, that is history now. In practice, the Catholic Church even has dialogues with Islam. Considering Lutherans as adversaries is definitely outdated.

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