Depperm's answer is, I think, complete, which I know isn't very satisfying relative to the level of detail you put into your question. But really the sole foundation of Latter-day Saint doctrine is the word of God revealed in the scriptures and through the prophets (ancient and modern). This, coupled with the concept of an open canon, makes it difficult to ...
To get this out of the way first, yes Joseph Smith indeed claims to have seen God the Father, and Jesus Christ, in what is called the First Vision:
Joseph Smith—History 1:17
17 [...] When the light rested upon me I saw two Personages, whose brightness and glory defy all description, standing above me in the air. One of them spake unto me, calling me by name ...
On what basis did Mormon Prophet Joseph Smith declare that God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit cannot indwell a believer?
The scripture you quote is from Doctrine and Covenants which is
a collection of divine revelations and inspired declarations given for the establishment and regulation of the kingdom of God on the earth in the last days.1
So if ...
On what basis did Mormon Prophet Joseph Smith deny that God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit cannot indwell a believer?
As others have pointed out in the comments, Joseph Smith did not say that the Holy Spirit cannot indwell a believer, only that the Father and the Son cannot. Doctrine and Covenants 130:3 that you quoted says "the idea that the ...
I decided to change my comment into an answer.
Please be forgiving when I suggest that you need a thicker skin. The Church was much more politically active before 1980. Around that time, the IRS began cracking the whip about 501(c)3 non-profit organizations dabbling in politics and the Church changed its general policies to reflect that. In our modern "...
Introduction: Let’s start with a brief overview to establish who’s who from the LDS point of view:
Latter-day Saints commonly refer to God the Eternal Father as Elohim, a Hebrew plural meaning God or gods, and to his Son Jesus Christ, as Jehovah.
The first spirit son of Elohim (Heavenly Father) and his wife (Heavenly Mother) is called Jehovah.
Jehovah came ...
The only appropriate source is a prophet called of God.
The standard works and other authoritative writings on the theology of the church all have the same origin: they are the written words of prophets; documented prophecies.
There is one thing we are taught about prophecies in the scriptures:
2 Peter 1:20–21
20 Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the ...
Bible (as far as it is translated correctly)
Book of Mormon
Pearl of Great Price
Doctrine and Covenants
See also Approaching Mormon Doctrine