9

First to understand the background to the story that Luther recalls,  Luther used to hate Romans 1:17. He struggled with this verse in particular, and the phrase 'God's righteousness' in particular, because he always read it in the sense which it was preached by the Catholic theologians at the time. At that time this verse was understood as the "formal or ...


9

Articles 3 and 4 of the Augsburg Confession (part of the Lutheran Confessions) talk about this: The Augsburg Confession (Chief Articles of Faith: Article III: Of the Son of God and Article IV: Of Justification). Article 3 makes the point that Christ "truly suffered, was crucified, dead, and buried, that He might reconcile the Father unto us, and be a ...


8

There are two primary ways that sola fide theologians deal with this issue, and there is ongoing debate between them over it (cf. Lordship salvation controversy). I'll first address the historical view (sometimes called "Lordship salvation") and the more recent view, called "free grace theology." Lordship salvation The name commonly applied to this view ...


7

Reformed Protestant theology, which includes the doctrines of justification by faith alone and the perseverance of the saints (the inability to lose said justification) regard salvation to be necessary for mankind as a result of the sin of our "first parents". That is to say, Adam and Eve did not receive "salvation" nor were they "justified" before the ...


7

Salvation (σωτηρία) Like non-Orthodox, Orthodox believe that salvation culminates in the attainment of eternal life in God. The path to this attainment in the Orthodox view, is one of purification and ascetical effort on the believer's behalf, cooperating with the grace of God (synergia), keeping in mind that nothing unclean can enter the Kingdom of God (...


6

Put simply, in Reformed theology, salvation is the application or administration of Christ's redemptive work to the elect, while justification is the part of that application in which the sinner is declared righteous. Salvation The Reformation Study Bible does a nice job of showing how broad salvation is: Salvation delivers the believer from the wrath ...


6

As a lifelong Protestant of more than six and a half decades - first by birth and upbringing in Presbyterianism and then by conversion and baptism in my mid-teens - I would say that now, as a mature Christian and an elder, I fear more greatly than ever before in my life and yet I believe more fervently and more intelligently than ever before in my life. I ...


5

Justification In the Catholic Church, justification (from the Latin iustus, righteous; and facio, to make) means what God does in order to render people righteous. (In theological lingo, justice means righteousness; a just person is right with God.) As the Catechism of the Catholic Church [CCC] puts it, The grace of the Holy Spirit has the power to ...


5

No, the Catholic understanding of justification not occurring by grace alone has not changed. The 1999 Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification has not created any new doctrine, but restates Catholic doctrine on this point. The Canons of the Sixth Session of the Council of Trent include, among others, the following statements: CANON I. If any ...


5

The underpinnings of this answer depend on the theology of two covenants. Adam and Eve were originally under a covenant of works. This is to say, that God made an agreement with them that, as long as they obeyed Him perfectly, they would be saved. When they broke this covenant by eating of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, they thus lost the part ...


5

According to the New Bible Dictionary, 2nd Ed., "Justifiction" entry, Paul used justify as a technical term, but James used it in a general sense of being vindicated, or proved genuine and right with God and man (p. 649). "James quotes Gn. 15:6 for the same purpose as Paul does -- to show that it was faith that secured Abraham's acceptance. But now, he ...


5

No. Luther is not known to have read the First Epistle of Clement. In fact it is certain that he did not read it. Luther was, in general, very well read in the Church Fathers; and he would have known, from Eusebius and others, that such an epistle had once existed. However it had long since disappeared, and no copies were known to exist. It was only in ...


4

As it's been preached to me, justice, here, refers to God's faithfulness to His own promises. It does not refer to giving us what we deserve, which would be Hell. Toward us, justice would necessarily mean Hell. Instead, "Just" refers to the fact that He has promised to forgive us through the cleansing power of Christ's blood, as long as we have repented ...


4

How did the old ceremonial sacrifices made atonement? They didn't. Old Testament sacrifice was only able to atone for someone who followed the Mosaic law perfectly... a feat which is beyond any of us, especially as most of us are not Jews, and even if we were the Altar and priests are gone. The whole point of Jesus' sacrifice is that the former sacrificial ...


4

I believe we can agree that our first parents, who were in a state of original justice, had done nothing to earn that initial state and that it was a gift of God by virtue of his perfect creation. But if they had done nothing to earn their state of justification before the fall, how is it that they could lose it? Short answer: they welched on the ...


4

The imputation of Christ's righteousness is typically defended in light of arguments for the penal substitutionary theory of the atonement and/or the doctrine of salvation by faith alone. In this context, perhaps the three strongest and most commonly cited passages used to extend to this particular aspect of justification are Romans 5 (particularly verse 19)...


4

This verse by itself may seem to some that it is implying works based salvation, but upon further examination, this is not necessarily the case. Proponents of Sola Fide would cite the context of the passage and also the harmony of Scripture to argue that Jame's language doesn't actually suggest works based salvation. The Verse's Context To understand the ...


4

Being in a state of grace is defined as: Condition of a person who is free from mortal sin and pleasing to God. It is the state of being in God's friendship and the necessary condition of the soul at death in order to attain heaven. However, the Catechism makes a distinction between sins as mortal or venial so it is possible to be in a state of grace (...


3

This is certainly a challenging question. I'll rely on the writings of two prominent reformed theologians, Louis Berkhof and Charles Hodge, who are strong supporters of this doctrine. It's important to note, for reasons that will become clear, that they defend their position in the face of arguments made by opponents who believe in a just God. Those who ...


3

The answer to this question is related to my previous answer to another question which discusses the two concepts briefly in relation to "salvation by works or faith". Justification, according to the Catholic Church, is the grace of the Holy Spirit when it is used "to cleanse us from our sins and to communicate to us 'the righteousness of God through faith ...


3

I am an Orthodox Christian, but not an English native speaker. In the Romanian version, the equivalent for justified has the sense of becoming more just, as in righteous, as well as becoming justified in front of God to be granted His mercy (according to His Eminence Bartolomeu Anania). From all the sermons and Orthodox interpretations of this passage, ...


3

Marius Victorinus The earliest clear instance of this interpretation of this verse that I've found appears to be in Marius Victorinus's commentary on Galatians (written mid-4th century). He describes the "works which belong to Christianity" as: those works which the apostle frequently commands (and also what has been commanded to him: let us be mindful ...


3

According to Luther's own testimony, it was after an in depth study of Romans. Romans 1:17 in particular (often called Paul's thesis statement for the book of Romans) says: For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith for faith, as it is written, “The righteous shall live by faith." That last line (from Habakkuk) convinced Luther that no ...


3

Lutherans who hold to their confessions [ http://bookofconcord.org/ ] believe that justification, faith, and baptism go together. A baptized infant believes the Gospel at its baptism. An adult who falls away from faith in Christ which has been given in Baptism and is converted is returning to the promise of the Gospel which has been applied to him in ...


3

Why Protestants see themselves as being able to break out of the cycle of sin through their personal affirmation that Jesus is their Personal Savior is more or less a mystery to Catholics. Why Catholics think the mere act of eating what appears to be a piece of Bread can renew their life within them and give them a share in Sanctifying Grace is a more or ...


3

Lutheran theologian John Mueller refers to the atonement as the redemption that Christ purchased on the cross for all sinners. He then addresses precisely the issue you are describing using the terms "objective and subjective reconciliation." Objective reconciliation is the result of the atonement – what Christ accomplished on Calvary: The ...


3

You are asking for a solution to what you see as an intractable problem. A classically Arminian view has been stated. The Five Points of Arminianism include these three (which relate directly to your question): 1) Man, although affected by the Fall, was not totally incapable of choosing spiritual good, and was able to exercise faith in God in order to ...


3

For the sake of brevity, I have placed a single page regarding the parables of the kingdom here on google docs. A number of the parables of the kingdom, as described in the page, convey that what is 'likened' to the kingdom is not actually the kingdom. The parable itself reveals that the essence of the kingdom resides within something that is 'like' the ...


2

I would argue there is no synergism whatsoever in justification. The natural man, the Bible points out, is not sick and needing a doctor. He is dead and needs resurrection. Dead people don't raise themselves. They need to be raised (passive voice very intentional here). Therefore, the Holy Spirit must raise people from the dead and give them a new heart. ...


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