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26

Ritual cleansing was a common part of some Jewish sects around the turn of the era. One of the best examples of this (that I know of) comes from Khirbet Qumran (where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found)—where there were found several miqvot (sn. miqveh) used for a sort of "baptism." It is commonly held that the people living at Qumran were Essenes, and some ...


21

Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, and Zealots were the four primary religious/political factions of the time. Pharisees were keepers of the Law and held the entire (what we would call) Hebrew Bible as the word of YHWH. They emerged from the exile as the dominant faction because they (correctly) connected Israel's abandoning of the Law as the reason for the ...


20

The question "Was Jesus a Rabbi" is covered here. Short version: Yes, He was. The question "Was Jesus a carpenter" is covered here. Short version, "yes, but in typical fashion people dispute the exact meaning of the word, which could also be translated as craftsman." In this case, whether carpenter could mean craftsman or stonemason or whatever other ...


19

At the time of Jesus, and even for many centuries before, Aramaic was the vernacular or common everyday language. The Tanakh is mostly in Hebrew (in particular, the Torah) but there are a few Aramaic sections - notably, in Daniel. Hebrew was therefore the "high" language of religion but Aramaic was the "low" language of normal life. (Hellenized Jews would ...


18

The existing answer provides a learned and fascinating discussion for tracing the interpretative history of Isaiah 52:13-53:12 (often conveniently abbreviated to "Isaiah 53", the so-called "Fourth Servant Song") from roughly the 1st C. CE. Thus, the conclusion... We can ... be confident that first century converts to Christianity did not invent the idea ...


17

tl;dr> It began in the Council of Jersualem (55 AD), but was cemented by the destruction of the Temple in 70AD. 1. Gentiles were released from Jewish custom The divergence is clearly articulated in Acts 15 - at the "Council of Jerusalem," often pegged at 50 AD - roughly 20 years after the Crucifixion. Acts 15 sets up the situation as follows: ...


16

Here are some quotes from and references to Catholic and Protestant sources that attest to the changing of the Saturday Sabbath to the Sunday Sabbath (to speak simply). "Sunday is a Catholic institution, and its claim to observance can be defended only on Catholic principles... From beginning to end of Scripture there is not a single passage that warrants ...


16

First, it should be noted that even if Jews did not view the passage as Messianic before Jesus, that does not prove that it is a invalid interpretation. In Old Testament times, Biblical prophecies were often not recognized until they were fulfilled. That said, let's look at the evidence. Targum Jonathan ben Uziel The Targums are interpretative translations ...


14

The ‘rite’ which the Baptism of John  used was not new at all, or limited to sects, but was, based on Old Testament teaching and mainstream rabbinic tradition, however, John used it in an entirely different way. The rite, in the way John used it, fully mirrored his preaching, one of repentance.   In the Old Testament those who had contracted Levitical ...


14

There is a third possibility: He wasn't an ordained Rabbi. He was called rabbi out of sense of respect and he was allowed in the synagogues because of his fame. When he preached at a synagogue it says - Luke 4:20 "The eyes of everyone in the synagogue were fastened on him." This suggests to me an event like that of a visiting celebrity than a routine ...


13

The term Gentile in the Bible simply means non-Jew or non-Hebrew. In Old Testament times, the Hebrews called the other non-Hebrews as Gentiles and in the New Testament, non-Jews are Gentiles. In the New Testament, Paul was famous for preaching to the Gentiles. Because Paul was a Jew, he was zealous for his own people and preached the gospel mostly to the ...


12

There is no consensus among Christians on this question. Assuming that the conversion is genuine and permanent, rather than momentary weakness, the three main schools of thought that apply to this issue are: Conditional Security According to this view, Christians can lose their salvation. Thus, a Christian who converted to another religion would be seen ...


12

Was Jesus a Jew? Yes. He was born and raised up in a Jewish family and that was also from the descendant of King David. Did Jesus follow Judaism? Yes. He was circumcised. He followed the Torah perfectly. In fact, He knew the Torah better than anyone else. He was called Rabbi, a title given to those who teach from the Torah. John 3:1-2 (NIV) Now there ...


11

Find the most dedicated Jew or Muslim and you probably won’t find anyone more dedicated to God under his moral Laws than the Apostle Paul before he became a Christian. Paul said he was blamelessly devoted to God before knowing Christ but after becoming a Christian he counted all that devotion as mere rubbish: If someone else thinks they have reasons to put ...


11

That's fairly straightforward. Jesus Himself was Jewish. The divergence came from Him. Whether it was at His death, burial, and resurrection, immediately afterward, or when He began His ministry is up to interpretation and debate, but it was Jesus, and the New testament (New Covenant) established by Him that marked the split. Those who recognized Jesus ...


11

Yes, Jesus was a Jew who practiced Judaism, the religion of the Bible in the 1st century. The gospels record Jesus teaching the Torah (Law) and prophets at synagogues on shabbat (e.g. Luke 4:16) and at the Temple complex in Jerusalem. He was called 'rabbi', kept disciples (common in 1st-century Judaism), discussed matters of the Torah and made halachic ...


10

There is a plethora of evidence that Hebrew was a living language in the Land at the time of Christ and used by the common people. It is called Mishnaic Hebrew in the grammars and encyclopedias. Mishnaic Hebrew was very well known in the first century and was distinguished from Aramaic in such works as the Letter of Aristeas and Josephus. See below for more ...


10

The Holy of Holies, or the Most Holy Place, was separated from the outter room (the Holy Place) by the veil. Only the High Priest could go beyond the veil into the Most Holy Place, but other priests could enter the Holy Place. Thus any priest at the Temple would have been able to see it. The non-priest Levites may have also been able to enter the Holy Place ...


9

This is an important question. While we today decisively reject the terrible things that people in the past thought and did, we should not shy away from recognizing what they did and why. And as Christians we must be honest about the role of religion and the church. The "Middle Ages" covers a thousand years and the whole of Europe - and Jewish life varied ...


9

The answer to your question lies in what each religion teaches about who God is. Islam From The Truth About Islam by Dr. David R. Reagan*: God — The Koran asserts that the god of Islam is the God of Christians and Jews (Sura 29:46). Nothing could be farther from the truth.7 The god of Islam, Allah, is most definitely not the God of the Bible. Allah is ...


9

Jewish and Christian scholars alike present many opinions and interpretations of the story of Jephthah and his daughter. The ambiguity of the text and the fact that her sacrifice is not described in detail have led to much debate. Some believe that she was literally sacrificed; some maintain that she was dedicated as a living sacrifice to God. Some ...


8

2000 years ago in the Roman occupied Jewish world, people who were called rabbi generally had real jobs on the side. There were no organized rabinnic seminaries back then, but leading rabbis generally had disciples (Hillel and Shammai had many), and a rabbi could ordain his students when he thought they had learned enough. Whether that ordination was ...


8

The Christian Old Testament is the Jewish Bible. They are the same books, but in a different order. Some Christian churches also add the deuterocanonical books, which are not held as scripture by the Jewish Bible.


8

As David has pointed out, but without detail, the division was with Jesus' life, death, and resurrection. There was nothing that could be called Christianity before Jesus. During the last three years of His life Jesus gained many followers, however, he never made any deliberate attempt to divide the Jewish faith, nor change it. 17 “Do not think that I ...


8

Two appendices in The Jewish Annotated New Testament touch on the issue: Greek-speaking Jews in antiquity regularly referred to themselves as Ioudaioi. As an ethnogeographical term, best translated "Judeans," it designates the members of the ethnic group inhabiting the district of Judea, or their descendants wherever they may be. It translates the ...


8

The answer appears to be «usually» but «with some exceptions», and also «the experts aren't completely sure». We can divide the sources adduced into indirect evidence (references to scrolls in ancient documents) and direct evidence (scrolls). Indirect Evidence Old Testament The word used in the passage quoted in the question is βιβλίον.1 While it is ...


8

In Judaism, there most certainly is a devil, first alluded to in Genesis 3. The serpent mentioned that deceived Eve is known to be the devil, and we can specifically see a more direct reference to the devil itself, named a garden cherub, being cast from "the holy mountain of God" starting in Ezekiel 28:15. Further, the story in the book of Job has its ...


7

The remains of an ancient Jewish Synagogue have been found at a site known as Dura-Europos. Inside this Jewish Synagogue, all the walls are covered in frescoes of scenes from the Tanakh, which date to about 250 AD.


7

Most branches of Christianity see Jesus, the Son of God, as the Jewish Messiah in fulfillment of Jewish prophecies and foreshadowing in the Jewish Scriptures. God foretold, though, that the Seed of Abraham would be a blessing to all people--every tribe, tongue and nation. The apostle Paul specifies that the gospel is to the Jew first and also to the ...


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