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18

The existing answer provides a learned and fascinating discussion for tracing the interpretative history of Isaiah 52:13-53:12 (often conveniently abbreviated to "Isaiah 53", the so-called "Fourth Servant Song") from roughly the 1st C. CE. Thus, the conclusion... We can ... be confident that first century converts to Christianity did not invent the idea ...


16

First, it should be noted that even if Jews did not view the passage as Messianic before Jesus, that does not prove that it is a invalid interpretation. In Old Testament times, Biblical prophecies were often not recognized until they were fulfilled. That said, let's look at the evidence. Targum Jonathan ben Uziel The Targums are interpretative translations ...


13

The term Gentile in the Bible simply means non-Jew or non-Hebrew. In Old Testament times, the Hebrews called the other non-Hebrews as Gentiles and in the New Testament, non-Jews are Gentiles. In the New Testament, Paul was famous for preaching to the Gentiles. Because Paul was a Jew, he was zealous for his own people and preached the gospel mostly to the ...


12

Was Jesus a Jew? Yes. He was born and raised up in a Jewish family and that was also from the descendant of King David. Did Jesus follow Judaism? Yes. He was circumcised. He followed the Torah perfectly. In fact, He knew the Torah better than anyone else. He was called Rabbi, a title given to those who teach from the Torah. John 3:1-2 (NIV) Now there ...


11

Yes, Jesus was a Jew who practiced Judaism, the religion of the Bible in the 1st century. The gospels record Jesus teaching the Torah (Law) and prophets at synagogues on shabbat (e.g. Luke 4:16) and at the Temple complex in Jerusalem. He was called 'rabbi', kept disciples (common in 1st-century Judaism), discussed matters of the Torah and made halachic ...


11

The answer to your question lies in what each religion teaches about who God is. Islam From The Truth About Islam by Dr. David R. Reagan*: God — The Koran asserts that the god of Islam is the God of Christians and Jews (Sura 29:46). Nothing could be farther from the truth.7 The god of Islam, Allah, is most definitely not the God of the Bible. Allah is ...


10

The Holy of Holies, or the Most Holy Place, was separated from the outter room (the Holy Place) by the veil. Only the High Priest could go beyond the veil into the Most Holy Place, but other priests could enter the Holy Place. Thus any priest at the Temple would have been able to see it. The non-priest Levites may have also been able to enter the Holy Place ...


9

Jewish and Christian scholars alike present many opinions and interpretations of the story of Jephthah and his daughter. The ambiguity of the text and the fact that her sacrifice is not described in detail have led to much debate. Some believe that she was literally sacrificed; some maintain that she was dedicated as a living sacrifice to God. Some ...


8

2000 years ago in the Roman occupied Jewish world, people who were called rabbi generally had real jobs on the side. There were no organized rabinnic seminaries back then, but leading rabbis generally had disciples (Hillel and Shammai had many), and a rabbi could ordain his students when he thought they had learned enough. Whether that ordination was ...


8

Two appendices in The Jewish Annotated New Testament touch on the issue: Greek-speaking Jews in antiquity regularly referred to themselves as Ioudaioi. As an ethnogeographical term, best translated "Judeans," it designates the members of the ethnic group inhabiting the district of Judea, or their descendants wherever they may be. It translates the ...


8

The answer appears to be «usually» but «with some exceptions», and also «the experts aren't completely sure». We can divide the sources adduced into indirect evidence (references to scrolls in ancient documents) and direct evidence (scrolls). Indirect Evidence Old Testament The word used in the passage quoted in the question is βιβλίον.1 While it is ...


8

In Judaism, there most certainly is a devil, first alluded to in Genesis 3. The serpent mentioned that deceived Eve is known to be the devil, and we can specifically see a more direct reference to the devil itself, named a garden cherub, being cast from "the holy mountain of God" starting in Ezekiel 28:15. Further, the story in the book of Job has its ...


8

He was tested The Jews living in the time of Jesus did try to discern whether Jesus was the real Messiah that they had been yearning for, because they disliked living under Roman rule and wanted to go back at least to the Hasmonean period, or better yet, to the David & Solomon period (the golden age). They were waiting for God to provide them with ...


7

The remains of an ancient Jewish Synagogue have been found at a site known as Dura-Europos. Inside this Jewish Synagogue, all the walls are covered in frescoes of scenes from the Tanakh, which date to about 250 AD.


7

Most branches of Christianity see Jesus, the Son of God, as the Jewish Messiah in fulfillment of Jewish prophecies and foreshadowing in the Jewish Scriptures. God foretold, though, that the Seed of Abraham would be a blessing to all people--every tribe, tongue and nation. The apostle Paul specifies that the gospel is to the Jew first and also to the ...


7

On the contrary, the towel and basin were there for feet to be washed by themselves (Genesis 18:4 & 19:2, Judges 19:21, 1st Samuel 25:41 and others). In that culture (and as an externality of wearing sandals), it was custom to have the feet of people who entered one's home washed. It had nothing to do with Passover specifically, but rather out of both ...


7

In short: Do we know if he had access to and was familiar with Kabbalah writings? There is no documentation of him having access to the Kabbalah writings. Did he study them in the original Hebrew? Again there is no record of Joseph Smith having access to them. There is a longer article entitled "Everything is Everything": Was Joseph Smith Influenced ...


7

It is true that the Jews ultimately did not accept the apocryphal books you listed in their canon, in a gradual process over several centuries at least spanning 1st century BC and 1st century AD. There was no definitive answer, but a lot of pointers showing the development, shown in the BIBLE CANON article of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. Especially after ...


7

What is the basis for believing that 40 lashes would be deadly (especially in Roman law or jurisprudence)? This is a false assumption! For one thing, the Romans were not limited in the number of strokes they could mete out. True some died under the sentence of flagellation, but historians generally do not give the number of strokes applied. In the ...


6

As luck would have it, last year I read the theses of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494), who tried to integrate Kabbalah with a broadly Christian worldview. I don't know how much his approach is typical of later Christian use of Kabbalah - it strikes me as rather idiosyncratic, though I wouldn't be surprised if other writers followed his basic line ...


6

The primary distinction which you will find among protestants regarding this matter will arise from the division between those adhering to Covenant Theology and those adhering to Dispensationalism. Under Covenant Theology, the members of the modern-day church are viewed as the true children of Israel. The promises made to Abraham regarding his descendants, ...


6

Disease in general Most scholars and Biblical commentaries agree that it was a common belief among the Jewish people of Jesus' day that leprosy and sickness in general was caused by sin. In the Old Testament, there are a number of passage that say doctors are of little value: As for you, you whitewash with lies; worthless physicians are you all. (Job 13:4, ...


6

In Ancient Judaism, preserving and accurately copying the scriptures was a task considered to be of the utmost importance. As such, an official Temple position dedicated to this task was created. Such a scribal position was not unique to Judaism; indeed, many ancient societies had trained professionals whose primary job was to maintain and copy religious ...


6

It would be wrong to think that a majority of Protestants are Zionists, but Christian Zionism is nevertheless a substantial movement, especially in the United States. There is a belief among some Christians that the return of the Jews to the Holy Land, and the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, is in accordance with Biblical prophecy. The idea ...


6

What biblical evidence there is, suggests that there may have been a small window in history (~30-35 years) when this was indeed possible. As well as the verse you've already cited, the Apostle Paul appears not to have been formally excluded from the sect prior to his appearance before the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem detailed in Acts 23 (~57AD). This is seen by ...


6

It is certain that Joseph Smith was influenced by Kabbalah. In his 1992 Book The American Religion: The Emergence of the Post-Christian Nation Harold Bloom writes: What is clear is that Smith and his apostles restated what Moshe Idel, our great living scholar of Kabbalah, persuades me was the archaic or original Jewish religion. . . . My observation ...


6

As you further explained your question in various comments, you seem to be asking why the Bishop (Patriarch) of Jerusalem is Greek, rather than "someone who is ethnically Jewish, and practices Judaism along with their Christianity." I am not sure there is a clearer answer to why "someone who is ethnically Jewish" is not the Patriarch of Jerusalem, than the ...


6

Were any of the Apostolic Fathers Jews? The short answer is yes! St. Ignatius of Antioch It is piously believed by many Catholics that St. Ignatius of Antioch was of Jewish origin. In fact, there is an ancient tradition that he was the child whom Christ took and presented to the apostles as the example of the one who is greater in the kingdom of heaven (...


6

Segal's Persepective and its Reception That book by Segal was one of the first to advance that argument, and has been fairly influential since then (e.g. Heiser, 2004; Boyarin, 2001. McGrath and Truex (2004) cite six other works influenced by Segel's book). Certainly there is a case to be made that some Jews (not all) in the late second temple period were ...


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