Podcast #128: We chat with Kent C Dodds about why he loves React and discuss what life was like in the dark days before Git. Listen now.
13

Note that this is an old ritual that only makes sense in the context in which it was developed. The ritual is no longer used, no doubt in part because it seems very strange for modern sensibilities. A couple of clarifications are in order, first of all. Excommunication (and other ecclesiastical penalties) are, and always have been, "medicinal." Their ...


11

I do not think that any hard numbers are kept about excommunications, because excommunication is intended to help persons repent of their sins, not to pillory them in public. However, the short answer is that there are very few excommunications imposed or declared each year. Note that none of the sins mentioned by the O.P. merit excommunication. ...


9

As the article here states (linked in the comments), the short answer is that the current legislation of the Church (i.e. the Canon Law) does not foresee such situation to occur. Perhaps it does not do so because under its own beliefs, God will never allow that to happen. On the one hand, some excommunications (ferendae sententiae) are not automatic. They ...


8

There is no such thing as voluntary excommunication, in the strict sense of excommunication. There's a good answer by AthanasiusOfAlex which explains the purpose of excommunication; I'll restrict this answer to method, as asked by the question. However, the other answer is valuable in demonstrating that "voluntary excommunication" is absurd. Excommunication ...


7

If a man is ordained, he is unable to validly marry in the Church: Those in sacred orders invalidly attempt marriage. (Code of Canon Law, canon 1087) But he is not (as AthanasiusOfAlex points out) excommunicated by that fact. He is suspended from carrying out his priestly office: A cleric who attempts marriage, even if only civilly, incurs a latae ...


7

By its very nature, a dogma1 makes its deniers officially heretics (ipso facto at the least) only because of its dogmatic, unequivocal nature as taught unambiguously as the faith of the Church, by unanimity of the Fathers, or a General Council, or the Pope ex cathedra.2 Before something is made a dogma, it is simply be, for lack of a better word, unofficial ...


6

What biblical evidence there is, suggests that there may have been a small window in history (~30-35 years) when this was indeed possible. As well as the verse you've already cited, the Apostle Paul appears not to have been formally excluded from the sect prior to his appearance before the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem detailed in Acts 23 (~57AD). This is seen by ...


6

There are indeed some sins which cause excommunication simply by being committed. Such excommunications are called latae sententiae excommunications (in Latin, more or less, "[excommunications] of a hidden sentence"). Acts which can incur such an excommunication include: a physical assault against a bishop or the Pope; procurement of an abortion; ...


6

An excommunication is a particular type of Church penalty known as a censure. Censures are what are known as "medicinal penalties" (canon 1312 of the Code of Canon Law, section 1, note 1), meaning that their primary purpose is to help a person realize just how seriously wrong their actions have been, and encourage them to reconcile with the Church. For this ...


5

For one of Jehovah's Witnesses to be disfellowshipped, there must be evidence of two things: They have committed a serious sin (1 Cor. 6:9, 10; Gal. 5:19-21) They are unrepentant about it (Acts 26:20; Deut. 21:20, 21) In the case of joining the military, the person would be putting themselves in a situation where they're much more likely to commit the ...


5

About this, Wikipedia states: Excommunication is either a jure (by law) or ab homine (by judicial act of man, i.e. by a judge). The first is provided by the law itself, which declares that whosoever shall have been guilty of a definite crime will incur the penalty of excommunication. The second is inflicted by an ecclesiastical prelate, either when he ...


4

Probation is an action taken by a church leader or council that limits some privileges of church membership. Not all probation is negative; quite often, it is merely counsel to attend the temple more, read select scriptures, or pray more frequently and fervently. The only difference between informal and formal probation as far as I understand it is that ...


4

One must be tried and judged guilty to incur a ferendæ sententiæ excommunication. In that quote you give, where it says "I forbid under the pain of excommunication…," this refers to the conditions of a ferendæ sententiæ excommunication. One "incurs it only when the judge has summoned him before his tribunal, declared him guilty, and punished him according ...


4

There are a few actions which, by canon law, cause a lay person to be excommunicated in and of themselves: public declaration (usually repeatedly and by a prominent figure) that one rejects the Church. Technically this is known as apostasy. (Canon 1364) public rejection of the authority of the pope over the Church, known as schism. (Canon 1364) public ...


4

There are a number of issues discussed in this post. Excommunication is not incurred for attempted but invalid marriage First of all, a priest who attempts to marry does not incur a latae sententiae (automatic) excommunication. Canon Law gives a very precise list of which crimes incur this penalty, and attempted marriage is not one of them. On the other ...


4

Validity of Baptisms All that is required for a valid baptism (which cannot, due to its fundamental nature, be undone, or invalidated, by anyone, no matter who they are or whatever their rank in the Church—including a Pope), is for 1) water to be poured on the head of the baptized person three times, or that they are dunked in some water, 2) and that there ...


3

St. Thomas Aquinas addresses the question of "Whether a man can excommunicate himself, his equal, or his superior?" in his Summa Theologica suppl. q. 22 a. 4 c.: Since, by jurisdiction, a man is placed above those over whom he has jurisdiction, through being their judge, it follows that no man has jurisdiction over himself, his superior, or his equal, and ...


3

A Pope is not subject to canon law Can. 1404 The First See is judged by no one. Canonist Charles Augustine, O.S.B., D.D., comments on the 1917 Code's equivalent canon (can. 1556) in his A Commentary on the New Code of Canon Law vol. 7, p. 11-12: Exemption of the Pope Can. 1556 Prima Sedes a nemine iudicatur. The first or primatial see ...


3

As CIC can. 1331 states, an excommunicated cleric loses the permission to exercise his functions and to celebrate sacraments. So if the pope falls into excommunication latae sententiae (this is the only relevant scenario because otherwise the pope would have to judge himself, which is clearly not possible), he may not do his job any more. He may resume his ...


3

"Those who pay tithing do not do so under the duress of legal compulsion. No one is disfellowshipped or excommunicated because he fails to pay." —Gorden B. Hinkley, "My Testimony", General Conference, October 1993. Declaring yourself a full tithe payer is one of the qualifications for holding a recommend to enter the temple. Tithing is defined by ...


3

The heresy called Donatism said that the validity of a consecration is dependent upon the priest's holiness. This is not the Catholic view. Even excommunicated and schismatic priests (assuming they were validly ordained priests in the first place) can validly consecrate (perform transubstantiation). St. Thomas Aquinas answers the question "Whether heretics, ...


2

St. Vincent of Lerins, in his Commonitory lib. 1 cap. 2 n. 6-8, says to "follow universality, antiquity, consent." “Also in the Catholic Church itself we take great care that we hold that which has been believed everywhere, always, by all. For that is truly and properly Catholic, as the very force and meaning of the word shows, which comprehends ...


2

Jehovah’s Witness policy is generally followed in a consistent manner regardless of the land in which a worshiper lives. Especially when it comes to the application of foundational precepts such as disfellowshipping there would be no cultural allowance granted to set aside the consequences of that ruling. From the perspective of Jehovah’s Witnesses, God’s ...


2

I'm not gonna answer your question as-is because it's personal, but in general: Tithing is between the individual and the Lord. Whatever the member honestly considers to be 10% of their increase or income is according to their conscience. At the end of every year, members are asked to declare their tithing payments to their bishop (and settle any ...


2

This obviously doesn't get into the difficulty for a service member to actually get out of the service in any rapid way, even for the repentant JW. However, through my studies and conversations with JWs, I believe a JW would be kicked out and shunned for joining the military, repentant or not. Since WT doctrine says politics, and any association to it ...


2

The Church has technically never reversed the decree excommunicating communists. More However, it is no longer common practice to excommunicate individuals based on their political beliefs, and even directly after the decree was made, it was rarely enforced. Membership in Communist organizations or holding communist political beliefs is still considered a ...


2

I can't speak for every Christian denomination, but in general, the answer to your first question is no. The answer to your second question is yes, with some qualifications. My denomination is the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA), and the following is a summary of this resource: Report of the Ad-Interim Committee on Divorce and Remarriage to the ...


2

This is a basic case of basic canon law. There is no room for 'my opinion' or 'their opinion.' Canon 1323. The following are not subject to a penalty when they have violated a law or precept: 1° a person who has not yet completed the sixteenth year of age; 2° a person who without negligence was ignorant that he or she violated a law or ...


1

Here is a brief summary of the official view of Jehovah’s Witnesses and joining the military: ”Jesus’ disciples obey his command to be “no part of the world” by remaining strictly neutral in political matters. (John 17:16) They do not protest against military actions or interfere with those who choose to serve in the armed forces.” (Frequently Asked ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible