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19

The Nicene Creed is a long-standing tradition in Christianity, and "defines the mainstream definition of Christianity for most Christians". It has been independently accepted by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran (pdf link), and plenty of Protestant churches. Joshua Christian seems to have presented a fanciful (or at least misleading) view of the ...


18

Tertullian One early, clear indication of the doctrine of the personhood of the Holy Spirit appears in Tertullian's work, Against Praxeas, dated around AD 215,1 saying: [W]hile the mystery of the dispensation is still guarded, which distributes the Unity into a Trinity, placing in their order the three Persons— the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost: ...


14

One could perhaps say that the dogmatic definition of papal infallibility as expressed at Vatican I is the Church's formal way of dealing with this tension. The case of Pope Honorius has of course been debated for centuries and was brought up prior to Vatican I as an argument against papal infallibility. The old Catholic Encyclopedia has a helpful summary of ...


11

No, none of the ecumenical councils prohibit slavery, or deal with the subject to any significant extent. The closest connection to slavery that I have found in the ecumenical councils is the Council of Chalcedon (fourth ecumenical council, AD 451), which ratified as ecumenical the canons of the Synod of Gangra (340). This local council condemned several ...


8

Writings Very early. At least as early as Justin Martyr, in The First Apology (~AD 150): For they proclaim our madness to consist in this, that we give to a crucified man a place second to the unchangeable and eternal God, the Creator of all; for they do not discern the mystery that is herein, to which, as we make it plain to you, we pray you to give ...


7

Background There are several key details missing from the existing answers. Despite offering a bounty on this question to see about getting some more complete answers, no additional answers were offered and existing answers were not revised. I therefore awarded the bounty to philipthegreat's well written answer. Because the additional details I was looking ...


7

The Nestorians are a good example for the latter two councils. There were a few attendees from the non-Greek east, groups that would later be called Nestorians. There was at least two, Jacob of Nisibis and another bishop named John. The eastern church "officially" accepted Nicea in 410 at the council of Isaac though the Nestorian schism happened soon after. ...


6

When framed in terms of what can't be found in the Bible: Almost nothing can't be found in the Bible / You can find almost anything in the Bible. A wide variety of established beliefs are "Biblical" because, like most any non-technical document, it's vastly multi-interpretable. (And even technical language is multi-interpretable.) The creeds primarily ...


6

Historically, there have been four sources of theology: Scripture Tradition Reason Experience. This formulation goes back quite a ways. Scripture is always first, Tradition is always second, and reason and experience are a distant third and fourth. The fun comes in when one realizes that it is not possible to read Scripture without a tradition. As a very ...


6

God's unchanging nature is something fundamental in scripture, before there ever was a church council or New Testament tradition. It is not based on a Greek concept of perfection but a biblical concept of God. For I the Lord do not change (ESV, Malachi 3:6) To ask when it first showed up in church father writings would probably be the same as asking when ...


5

The First Four Councils The main, but only the main, conclusions of each of the first four Ecumenical Councils were specifically endorsed by both Calvin and Luther personally. These 4 councils are also mentioned by name in the (Calvinist) Second Helvetican Confession, Chapter 11 . The doctrines themselves are also in the Westminster Confession ...


5

A formal definition by a council is not always the first instance something was accepted as true (or as a sacrament). Often the council reacted to an attack on an already accepted tenet of faith. Because the attack, the position of the Church had to be officially defined, in order to be formally defended. There are patristic sources, among whom Augustine, ...


5

The most important early Church documents that relate to the history of the First Council of Nicaea written by contemporaries of the period are, I think, the Acts and Canons of the Council; the Ecclesiastical Histories of Eusebius (263-339); and the writings of Athanasius (296-373). Most of the Acts of the Council have not survived (the Nicene Creed is an ...


5

Not many direct statements about the lack of canonization of those books were made during the specified time. But a few statements were made. The canon list in the Muratorian Fragment, dating to about 170, mentions the Shepherd of Hermas, saying that it "cannot be read publicly to the people in church" because "it is after [the apostles'] time": Hermas ...


5

In general, Protestants don't think about the early church canon laws much at all! Protestants endorse the ecumenical creeds, and they accept the councils' judgements of heretics, but that's about the extent of our engagement with the ecumenical councils. In my four year MDiv degree I don't think we discussed the canons at all, even in the early church ...


4

The biggest thing about these councils specifically is the addition of God being three persons, which "persons" were to be included in the term "God", and the evolution of such. For example, the Apostle's Creed which pre-dates the first of these councils (Nicea) says nothing about God being more than one nor anything about multiple "persons" being "God". ...


4

The main purpose of the Nicene Creed was to establish Trinitarianism as Christian doctrine, in opposition to Arianism. If a majority agreement was obtained under duress, few bishops would have been courageous enough to say so; after all, duress implies that you must remain silent about your disagreement with the verdict. Edward Gibbon says, in The Decline ...


4

The simple answer is know your Bible. God has given us His Word to guide us. The church, being filled with sinful men, is going to err and has erred. But God's word is 'settled in the heavens', is perfect, is truth (John 17:17). So the primary source for truth must be God's words and not men's words. It is however difficult sometimes to go against the ...


4

The omnipotence of God is affirmed in the Creed set forth at the first Ecumenical Council in Nicea in 325: "We believe in one God, the Father Almighty [παντοκράτορ - pantokrator] ..." As the Creed further affirmed that the Son and the Holy Spirit were of the same substance (ὁμοούσιον) as the Father, the Creed affirmed that all three persons of the share in ...


4

tl;dr: There is no record of the Council of Nicaea defining the Canon of Scripture. It is not clear what Jerome meant. The Catholic Encyclopedia's entry for the Book of Judith summarizes what we know, stating St. Jerome, while rejecting in theory those books which he did not find in his Hebrew manuscript, yet consented to translate Judith because "the ...


4

St. Thomas had great influence on Trent, and several of his teachings became, almost verbatim, defined dogma at that council. From the encyclical Æterni Patris (1879) on the restoration of Christian philosophy by Pope Leo XIII: The ecumenical councils, also, where blossoms the flower of all earthly wisdom, have always been careful to hold Thomas ...


3

We do not have any minutes or transcripts from the Council of Nicea. Bishop Theodoret of Cyrrhus, wrote his Ecclesiastical History about 450 AD, though based on earlier sources. In Chapter 6 of Book 1 we may read that the Emperor Constantine, in his opening speech to the Nicene Conference, urged the bishops to seek a solution (to their differences) in ...


3

This article gives much more detail on the historical context of the council and what was discussed there, but the answer to your question lies in the last few paragraphs: The patristic Church never accepted the idea of a sexually active priesthood, and the Quinisext Council in Trullo certainly does not represent apostolic teaching. And this Q&A ...


3

Canon VI of the Council of Nicaea says, among other things: LET the ancient customs in Egypt, Libya and Pentapolis prevail, that the Bishop of Alexandria have jurisdiction in all these, since the like is customary for the Bishop of Rome also. Likewise in Antioch and the other provinces, let the Churches retain their privileges. Canon VII says: ...


3

Everett Ferguson, in Church History, I, 17.I, summarizes Roman Catholic response to this question as follows: Roman Catholics have defended Honorius's orthodoxy (and so papal infallibility) by various explanations:   (1) he used "one will" in a moral, not physical, sense;   (2) his was a private view not expressed ex cathedra; ...


3

"Denzinger" is the Enchiridion Symbolorum et Definitionum, the Handbook of Creeds and Definitions, first compiled by Heinrich Denzinger in the 19th century. This is a summary of sources for the most basic beliefs and creeds of the Church. Unfortunately the most recent version, the 43rd edition published in 2012, is not available online. Similarly, PL is an ...


2

The command to not eat meat with the blood in it has no relation to the coking of the meat. What that is referring to is the commandments from God to the Israelites after their rescue from Egypt. All Scriptures are quoted from the King James translation Genesis 9:4 But flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat. ...


2

This may not exactly answer your question, but perhaps the most significant presence at the first few councils which was eventually thrown out was the Nestorian church. We have lots of evidence that they existed, and in fact they were a major influence in the "Church of the East" until about 622 AD. Syria, Persia, and much of the East was Nestorian, prior ...


2

Each and every one of the first Seven Ecumenical Councils are recognized as valid councils by the Catholic Church. No Roman Pontiff has ever decreed it otherwise. You will not find any Papal Bulls or any other decrees of condemnations on this point! In fact, any truly orthodox Catholic website will always list the first seven Ecumenical Councils in the list ...


2

It appears that a belief in a new creation which would have some earthly aspect to it has never been abandoned, though this is not well-known. See The Catholic Encyclopedia (1917) on the New Advent website under "Eschatology," the last paragraph: There is mention also of the physical universe sharing in the general consummation (2 Peter 3:13; Romans 8:19 ...


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