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J.N.D. Kelly Early Christian Creeds, “Of all existing creeds it is the only one for which ‘ecumenicity’...can be claimed.” Kelly devotes 35 pages to this Creed, and though unfair to his work to cite such a snippet, he writes near end of the Chapter, This creed seemed to...be the “faith of the Nicene Fathers”...dealing with the heresies of the ...


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I highly recommend Paul F. Bradshaw Eucharistic Origins for the answer. ISBN 978-1-62032-069-3


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What is the earliest historical instance of state-paid Clergy? Perhaps not exactly paid clergy, but the State began indirectly to help the clergy in the time of Constantine. It is not quite the same thing. In Constantine’s day the clergy were aided in a number of ways with substances for living, but did not receive outright wages from the State! They did ...


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This discussion overlooks a few key texts. Here is a prayer written by St. Athanasius of Alexander (296-373 AD), considered the most strident defender of orthodox Christianity against the threat of Arianism: It becomes you to be mindful of us, as you stand near Him who granted you all graces, for you are the Mother of God and our Queen. Help us for the ...


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What is Hippolytus’ difference between hearing the Word and hearing the Gospel? To understand this nuance, we have to take a little trip down memory lane and try to understand what Holy Sacrifice of the Mass and the life of the Catechumens meant in the Early Church? The Mass in the Early Church as well as the modern Mass of the Ordinary Form are made of ...


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Does any Church currently incorporate exorcism, three separate immersions, and anointing in their baptism rite (with or without the nudity)? The short answer is probably not. Although some do more or less share similar elements. St. Hippolytus of Rome relates how baptism in The Early Church was administered in or around 215 AD in Rome as such: 21 At the ...


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It depends who you ask. If you ask the Catholics, the 2010 catholic.com article Was James the Real Leader of the Early Church? makes the case that despite Acts 15 appearance that James was the leader, if we take into account the number of times Peter's name appear in the whole book (54) compared to James (4) and the prominence of Peter in the Gospels, Acts ...


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Galatians chapter 1 is a declaration supporting the authenticity of Paul as a servant of Christ (verse 10) sent by God to preach Christ to the Gentiles (verse 16). Three years after Paul’s dramatic conversion, he went to Jerusalem and stayed with Peter for fifteen days (verse18). Fourteen years later Paul returned to Jerusalem to speak with “those who ...


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Is there a sound doctrine or biblical explanation why Satan is called the “Ape of God”? The Adversary, in waging war against the Almighty, is understood to copy all of his acts and attributes. Popular tradition, moreover, asserts that the Devil, impotent to do anything original, has set his heart on aping everything created by the Deity. Tertullian ...


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Tithing is not a Christian teaching, Christ never taught it even though there are instances where He could have. The apostles never taught it! It is an Old Testament teaching which the church has and is still using to produce money. Tithing is under the law, we are not under the law but under grace. Read Hebrews chapters 7-9 and you will see that we are not ...


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