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23

There was no mandate that the gospels should appear in the order they were written once they were gathered into a collection. This is true of the rest of the New Testament as well. The order is the gospel accounts, the history of the early church, the letters of Paul to churches, to people, letters by other apostles, and prophecy. So, there ...


20

I am indebted to Dr. Peter Leithart for his writings and lectures on the Song of Songs. For further reading, you can visit his website. These thoughts might help in approaching the book. Wisdom literature It is helpful to consider the book’s position in the canon as part of the wisdom literature. In Proverbs, the king exhorts his son to seek wisdom and ...


18

It's because the early church fathers thought that Matthew was written first. This is known as the Augustinian Hypothesis, and its namesake, Augustine, writes: Now, those four evangelists whose names have gained the most remarkable circulation over the whole world [...] are believed to have written in the order which follows: first Matthew, then Mark, ...


18

Wikipedia does a good job of summarizing the heresy, but I want to pull out some source material. Some of the sayings do attest to the synpotic Gospels, but there is a lot of heresy in there too: From the top, selected parts of The Gospel of Thomas: These are the secret sayings that the living Jesus spoke and Didymos Judas Thomas recorded. 1. And he ...


14

Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772) listed the books that he considers to be the Word of God ("divinely inspired Biblical canon," in the words of the question) in three places: Arcana Coelestia ("Secrets of Heaven") #10325, The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine #266, and The White Horse #16. Here is the listing from Arcana Coelestia #10325: The books of ...


14

Most of the books of the Bible were written by different people. An estimated 40 authors wrote the 70 or so books that various Christians accept as "the Bible". Most of these authors wrote independently from each other; if they were contemporaries, they typically did not confer with each other. If they were separated by time, the latter typically did not ...


13

The Bible itself seems to indicate that Jesus performed no miracles until His ministry began. Non-biblical sources may disagree, but they are non-biblical. John 2 records to miracle at the wedding in Cana, where Jesus turns water into wine. John completes the account with the following statement: This, the first of his signs, Jesus did at Cana in ...


12

The "books" of the Bible are just that- they are separate works by separate authors in separate contexts. Yes, Luke wrote 2, Moses wrote 5, and Paul wrote somewhere between 7 and 13, but Stephen King has written more than one book, too :) Matthew, for example, was written by the Apostle Matthew. Luke, by Paul's traveling companion. Mark was written by Peter'...


12

The Book of Jashar is mentioned in two places in the Bible: 2 Samuel 1:18 (NASB) and he told them to teach the sons of Judah the song of the bow; behold, it is written in the book of Jashar. Joshua 10:12-13 (NASB) Then Joshua spoke to the Lord in the day when the Lord delivered up the Amorites before the sons of Israel, and he said in the sight of ...


11

Historically, there have been two primary understandings of the Song of Solomon - It prefigures the love that Christ has for his church It is an erotic love story Personally, I find it nearly impossible to accept the first, however. I submit, on the basis of SOS 5:3-6, the following: I have taken off my robe— must I put it on again? I have ...


11

There is no record of Jesus performing miracles when he was a child that is accepted according to the Bible. There are also these biblical reasons to believe that he did not perform any such miracles: The Bible records no such miracles, and the most remarkable event that the Bible does record is the Finding in the Temple. See Luke 2:46-47: 46 After three ...


10

Some historical background regarding the Canon of Scripture The books that non-Catholics (generally Protestants) call the Apocrypha are called by Catholics the Deuterocanonical books (from the Greek δεύτερος, second; and κανῶν, literally a straight rod or bar, hence a unit of measure, or, by extension, a list). They are called the “second” canon because, ...


10

It is impossible to know for sure without asking the person that said it, but I believe it is most likely, given her description of the individual in question, the historical time frame and the context of the discussion, that she was speaking of a man named Marcion. Who was Marcion? For the first hundred years or so of the Christian faith, documents like ...


9

Briefly: Paul's letters were probably first, beginning with 1 Timothy and Galatians. Romans was a middling book, 2 Timothy was probably his last. They range from 52 ad to 62 or 68, depending on what you think about deutero-Pauline scholarship Of the Gospels, Mark is usually considered to be first, although some have proposed Matthew. Luke is usually dated ...


9

Given the clarification of the question, an entirely new answer is in order. The quick answer is that most of the rest of the NT was written before the Gospels, and was sourced by eyewitnesses in any event. Every writer was in some way written by somebody who had first-hand knowledge of Jesus. As such, there would have been no need to go back and read ...


9

The standard resides in the original languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek. While there are, admittedly, small variances in the Greek manuscripts (New Testament) in particular, these variances are completely insignificant, consisting mostly of spelling variances for proper names, word order, and very slight verb tense differences, which happen to translate ...


9

The Old Testament and the New Testament are different sections of the library. To think of this division as "insert a title page" is too far off the mark. Imagine, if you will, a library of 66 books, written over the course of 1500 years, by 40 different men (possibly one woman). As each of these works was created, it doesn't make sense to ask "When did ...


9

The answer is most certainly no. The oldest complete Bible that we have is the Codex Vaticanus, dating to between 300 and 325. It contains 68 books: 45 Old Testament books plus 23 New Testament books. The Old Testament includes 2 Esdras (sometimes called "Ezra-Nehemiah"), Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Sirach and the Psalms of Solomon. The New Testament lacks 1 ...


9

Actually, in his magnum opus "Institutes of the Christian Religion" (ICR), he cited Tobit, Baruch, 1 and 2 Maccabees, and Siriach. The Geneva Bible, which Calvin accepted and fostered, also contains the Deuterocanonical books. This doesn't say however that Calvin accepted them as having the same rank as others books. In fact, he wrote precisely ...


9

At the Council of Trent, the Church officially declared as dogma the canon of Holy Scripture. This included "the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John." The council did not explicitly say whether the Longer Ending of the Gospel is canonical. However, it does declare that if any one receive not, as sacred and canonical, the said ...


8

In the Catholic tradition, there 3 types of historical writings dealt with here: biblical writings and/or non-biblical writings known as Apocrypha. Canononical works Deuterocanonical works Apocrypha (non-biblical works) The OP states that there are several books "used in addition to the same Old Testament canon used by Protestants", but also calls these ...


8

According to When Skeptics Ask (Normal L. Geisler and Ronald M. Brooks, 1990 Baker Books): The following books were in question at one point or another: Hebrews because the author is unknown. However, it was accepted as having apostolic authority, if not apostolic authorship. James because of conflict with Pauls teaching about salvation by faith alone. ...


8

There was a manuscript that began circulating in the 2nd century written by someone who called himself "Thomas the Israelite," claiming that Jesus was able to do miracles as a child. The manuscript was later given the title, "Infancy Gospel of Thomas", and you can see a full English translation here. The first story in this manuscript tells of Jesus' ...


8

Although many are of the opinion that the Council of Nicea was called to prep Christianity to become the official state religion, this is not accurate. This hypothesis does not fit with what we know about the mindset of the people of that time or Constantine. It should be remembered that Constantine was not yet a baptized Christian in 325 AD (the year the ...


8

Perhaps there are/were others, but the 'Jesus Christians' are the closest sect I'm aware of that matched your description (they are of relatively recent history - beginning in the early 1980s until officially disbanding in 2010: although their website is still being maintained and updated, so perhaps reports of their demise are premature). While not ...


8

Further Clarification The original person who asked the question asked for additional clarification on these two questions: 1) Are inspired works closed as canon is? 2) Are there potentially other inspired historical works which are not in canon? The answer to the first question depends on the view one has of the gift of prophecy and its possible ...


7

Note that this answer refers to the Protestant Bible. The Catholic Bible, and the Eastern Orthodox Bibles largely follow this pattern, but contain different books. More on the differences can be found here. The differences are also noted below. First, understand that the Bible is not a single book It's a collection of 66 books, written at different ...


7

Overview of Hebrew history Although not specifically asked for, it is profitable to start with a brief overview of the history of the Hebrew language. For more details on the subject, see A History of the Hebrew Language by A. Sáenz-Badillo (from which the following information comes). Hebrew is a member of the Semitic language family, a group of about 70 ...


7

Martin Luther disliked James, in particular, for its emphasis on works. He called it his "epistle of straw." That said, there is simply not a mechanism for removing anything from the canon in Christian circles. Likewise, of Revelation, Luther said: About this book of the Revelation of John, I leave everyone free to hold his own opinions. I would not ...


7

tl;dr> Patterson Brown, in particular, has argued the disunity within the Nag Hammadi Corpus. That's about the best you're going to get without defining a positive corpus, as opposed to the inverse of the canon. The problem with answering this question is that you are asking a question akin to "Are the books not on the NY Times Best-seller list as unified ...


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