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31

It should be noted that Luther and Calvin thought pretty highly of one another, despite their disagreements. Also keep in mind that when Luther nailed his 95 theses to the door, Calvin was less than 10 years old. It must also be remembered that a lot of what is taught under the banner of "Calvinism" today was not necessarily taught nor believed by Calvin, ...


18

Calvin did not like appealing to any tradition or authority other than Scripture. He asserts that the Bible teaches that all have sinned and that all continue to sin, and on that basis each facet of Mariology falls down like dominoes (except perpetual virginity, which he neither defends nor denies based on what he perceives as Scriptural silence). In ...


12

I cannot find a reference that he did, but it's possible he may have on a specific issue. From my research there is no evidence that he every called Calvin "the son of the Devil" and in fact those are Calvin's words, not Luther's. Let's get some facts. Calvin and Luther were contemporaries, both living in Europe during the early to mid 1500s. However, ...


10

Martin Luther and John Calvin followed the tradition of St. Augustine in abhorring any theoretical belief in a state of sinlessness, whether for a moment, day, year, or whatever. They seem to have regarded sinless perfection as the vain imagination of human pride and a result of our sinfulness.  For example, commenting on Psalms  106:6, Calvin said: How ...


10

Sometimes it is best to see a theologian in action to determine their view and attitude about inerrancy. There is a classical error in most of our Bibles in Matthew 27:9 where Matthew means to quote Zechariah 11:13 concerning the 'thirty pieces of silver' but it says ‘Jeremiah’. I have glanced at a few modern explanations about this and it seems ...


9

More or less, yes, but the question is slightly misleading by the word 'only' (but about that later). As this discussion is so complex and visited by so many people with so many quotations, etc., I prefer to try and give you a summary view from many years studying many books on the subject. Mine is not the 'only view' but really on this question you can ...


9

Calvin dedicates an entire Book of his Institutes (Book IV) to the Church, and Chapters 1-2 are about the "true church" in which he mentions the marks of a true church. From 4.1.9: Wherever we see the word of God sincerely preached and heard, wherever we see the sacraments administered according to the institution of Christ, there we cannot have any ...


9

Actually, in his magnum opus "Institutes of the Christian Religion" (ICR), he cited Tobit, Baruch, 1 and 2 Maccabees, and Siriach. The Geneva Bible, which Calvin accepted and fostered, also contains the Deuterocanonical books. This doesn't say however that Calvin accepted them as having the same rank as others books. In fact, he wrote precisely about this. ...


8

The summary in Mike's answer seems accurate. I would like to add some further background and primary sources. Evidently, Calvin felt it necessary to write to Sir William Cecil, Queen Elizabeth I's chief adviser, when Calvin's messenger told him that the queen was unhappy with Calvin because of Knox's Monstrous Regiment, which was written in Geneva. In reply,...


8

It seems that your question is a settled part of Church History, judging from David Calhoun's lecture "Blowing the Trumpet: John Knox and the Scottish Reformation" (quoting from the transcript; see the audio recording and the study guide): Knox said women should not rule over men. That was a kind of call for revolution. People could read between the lines ...


8

I'm pretty sure Wesley and Calvin did not actually believe that Jesus is Michael. Those two quotations you gave only show that in the verses they referred to, Michael typifies Christ, just as in many other places. Ie. Jonah typified Christ, or "you may refer Jonah in his being in the belly of the fish for 3 days and 3 nights as the person of Christ, who died ...


7

If you look at Calvin's commentary on Jude 9 you'll see nothing at all that suggests he thought that Michael is Jesus. Indeed, I don't see how you could make sense of Jude 9 if you think Michael is Jesus (unless perhaps if you deny Jesus' divinity.) Wesley wrote about Jude 9 too.


7

Luther's own words on the subject are quoted in: The Third Sermon, March 11, 1522, Tuesday after Invocavit In his sermon on 'How Christians should regard Moses' Luther makes it clear that he does not agree with making images nor with worshipping them but he draws the line at destroying other people's images. Luther draws the line because he says : ...


6

We have several pieces of evidence to say that Calvin affirmed the 66-book canon that has become known as the Protestant canon and rejected all other books as canonical. The first piece of evidence is the 1559 French Confession of Faith, which he co-authored with De Chandieu. In article 3 of the confession, the 66 books are all named as "canonical" books of ...


6

Although Calvin and Luther most certainly believed in an entity called Satan, they deny that Isaiah 14:12 has any connection with the devil or that Lucifer is his name. In Calvin's commentary of Isaiah 14, he says: How art thou fallen from heaven! Isaiah proceeds with the discourse which he had formerly begun as personating the dead, and concludes that ...


5

It does not take much research at all to find out the great offense that many reformers took in the use of religious icons in worship.  They viewed it as nothing less than idolatry. Calvin dedicated a section of his Institutes to explain how this idolatry, though originally opposed by ancient church Fathers (he argues), became an established sin in the ...


5

Original source Henry's quote is verbatim from Christoph Pezel's 1590 book Außführliche, warhaffte und bestendige Erzehlung, and he mentions Pezel in a footnote to the paragraph prior to the story. Many sources indicate that the story originates with Pezel. Credibility I found a few historians who weighed in on whether the story was credible or not. Paul ...


5

tldr; No - the Reformers disavowed the concept of the Magisterium. If you read the Wikipedia article on the Magisterial Reformation it is plain to see that the usual usage of the term "Magisterial Reformers" isn't actually related to the concept of a teaching Magisterium: The Magisterial Reformation is a phrase that "draws attention to the manner in ...


5

The simple answer is that God has decided that the wages of sin is death. It is entirely up to God as to what punishment sin deserves, and the punishment God chose was eternal damnation. The Heidelberg Catechism's first section on Sin and Misery speaks about this, in particular question and answer 10: Q. Does God permit such disobedience and rebellion ...


5

In Calvin's sermon on Christmas Day (I believe it fell on a Friday) in 1551, he says the following: In truth, as you have often been admonished, it is good to set aside one day out of the year in which we are reminded of all the good that has occurred because of Christ’s birth in the world, and in which we hear the story of his birth retold, which will be ...


5

Believer's baptism (aka. credo-baptism) was revived by the Anabaptists on January 21, 1525, when Conrad Grebel baptized George Blaurock. These Anabaptists believed that only believer's baptism was legitimate and effective. There is no agreement on when believer's baptism ceased to be practiced in early Christianity. It continued to be widespread through at ...


4

According to Alexandre Ganoczy's Calvin’s Life and Context, chapter 1 in The Cambridge Companion to John Calvin there is no scholarly consensus as to the extent of Calvin's involvement in Nicolas Cop's speech "made on the Feast of All Saints in 1533 at the opening of the academic year": Who was behind this speech? Scholarly opinions differ. Some attribute ...


4

The earliest source of this story that I have been able to find is a 1621 work entitled Ausführliche Behauptung der verbesserten augsburgischen Konfession, or, roughly translated, a Detailed Statement of the Improved Augsburg Confession.1 The work is apparently anonymous, and the details of its provenance are murky. A second edition of it was published in ...


4

A smoking gun is in the references that John Calvin makes to Thomas Aquinas in his own book, The Institutes of the Christian Religion (II.11.4 and III.22.9). This is evidence that Calvin at least knew of Aquinas, which suggests that Aquinas' most important work had reached France or Switzerland and that he would probably have read it. Mark J. Larson says ...


4

The Post-Reformation Digital Library is the best place I've found for these sorts of documents. And, sure enough, a search for "Calvin" and "Genesis" includes the following results: In Primum Mosis Libru[m], qui Genesis vulgo dicitur, Commentarius Iohannis Calvini, 1554, page 84 Commentarii Ioannis Caluini in quinque libros Mosis, Genesis seorsum reliqui ...


4

To begin, let's be sure that we understand what double predestination means in Calvinism. You have it right, that God chooses both who is elect and who is non-elect, but it's important to note that in Calvinist double predestination, God actively saves the elect, but passively passes over the reprobate: God positively or actively intervenes in the lives ...


4

John Knox, the leader of the Reformation in Scotland, wrote to Calvin in 1559, asking for his view on whether it be lawful to admit to the Sacrament of Baptism the children of idolators and excommunicated persons before their parents have testified their repentance. In reply Calvin said he had consulted colleagues in Geneva and all were agreed. God's ...


3

No, Calvin was not Nestorian. This can be concluded on the strength of the following evidence: His defense of the Chalcedonian Definition and rejection of Nestorius Related to the above, reformed theology's rejection of icons of Christ on the basis of the unity of the natures His implicit acceptance of the reality described in the term theotokos, and his ...


3

The text you quoted is certainly clear teaching of John Calvin on the subject. He believed that there was no salvation by remaining outside of the visible church, although it is necessary to distinguish that by not assuming that one could somehow not be saved unless inside a church building or attending a worship service. Rather, any person who professed to ...


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