9 votes
Accepted

According to proponents of penal substitutionary atonement, why do we still die?

Proponents of penal substitution, like Louis Berkhof (ST, 6.2.1), indeed argue that Christ has "removed the penalty of sin" and that therefore "the penal element is removed from death." So why do ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
9 votes
Accepted

Do Lutherans define Justification and Atonement as different things?

Articles 3 and 4 of the Augsburg Confession (part of the Lutheran Confessions) talk about this: The Augsburg Confession (Chief Articles of Faith: Article III: Of the Son of God and Article IV: Of ...
Rev. Aaron Simms's user avatar
8 votes
Accepted

Which theory of the atonement did C. S. Lewis hold?

This brief addendum is intended only to corroborate OP's considered conclusion that Lewis does not see any need to settle on a particular theory of the atonement, considering it to be something ...
Dɑvïd's user avatar
  • 1,267
8 votes
Accepted

What was the dominant theory of atonement shown in the Apostolic Fathers's writings?

I think the clearest statement to explicitly deal with atonement would be this one from the Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Through charity did the Lord join us unto himself; whilst, for the ...
nathan.j.mcdougall's user avatar
8 votes

Is Jesus atoned for us?

English grammar is pretty fluid, especially in poetry. The proper way to attach subject, verb, and object here is: He atoned for us Thus Jesus performed the actions that accomplished the atonement ...
Paul Chernoch's user avatar
8 votes

If flour seems to be accepted as sin offering/atonement, then why is blood needed?

From a Christian viewpoint, the Jewish sacrificial system was a metaphor pointing to Christ's sacrifice as the ultimate fulfilment. The concessions concerning what was acceptable to offer in sacrifice ...
Paul Chernoch's user avatar
7 votes
Accepted

How can God be Sovereign (in the Reformed sense) if a man can ignore His call to repentance?

To understand the Reformed approach to this challenging question, we should begin with the concept of the "wills" of God. Reformed theologians typically refer to the relevant ones as the ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
7 votes

If flour seems to be accepted as sin offering/atonement, then why is blood needed?

Blood, flour, or whatever was offered in the temple didn't "actually" take away sin. It was faith directed toward God in participation of the process that God had instituted which covered ...
Mike Borden's user avatar
  • 16.3k
6 votes

What is the Biblical argument against Limited Atonement?

Christ is not only the propitiation for the sins of Christians: 1 John 2:1-2 (ESV) My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin. But if anyone does sin, we have an ...
Sola Gratia's user avatar
  • 8,290
6 votes
Accepted

Is penal substitutionary atonement most prevalent among Calvinists?

The strongest defenders of penal substitution are going to be conservative Calvinists: that is, those who hold to the "five points" of Calvinism and reject modernist approaches to Scripture. ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

Did God accept a sacrifice that was against His own law?

Jesus was not 'burnt'. Jesus was not offered to Molech or any other god. Jesus offered himself, voluntarily. He was not 'offered' by another. The "commandment of the Father is everlasting life&...
Nigel J's user avatar
  • 24.8k
5 votes

What is the difference between "ransom theory" and "penal substitution"?

This question is a bit old, but there is an omission in the only answer. fi11222's answer states that both ransom and penal substitution theories of atonement view God as needing payment of some form. ...
Ian's user avatar
  • 1,190
5 votes

What is the biblical basis for the belief that Jesus' death made satisfaction for individual sins?

Part of the solution here might be to look at the Old Testament sacrifices which Jesus is fulfilling. When an Israelite took his lamb to the temple to be sacrificed, he had no sense that his ...
Steve's user avatar
  • 166
5 votes

Is the validity of the ransom contingent on Jesus being God?

Irenaeus of Lyons is generally credited with being the first to fully present Recapitulation Theory. He explains that Jesus saves humanity be undoing the error of Adam by succeeding where Adam failed. ...
bradimus's user avatar
  • 3,670
5 votes

Is Jesus atoned for us?

Hymns and grammar The language of traditional hymns can take a while to get used to, since for rhyming purpose the grammatical parts are frequently moved around, especially the verbs, which are moved ...
GratefulDisciple's user avatar
5 votes

If flour seems to be accepted as sin offering/atonement, then why is blood needed?

To quote from Dr Brown's Answering Jewish Objections book series: CLAIM: Orthodox Jewish interpreters often argue that the NT authors often overemphasize the importance of blood sacrifices in the OT. ...
Michael16's user avatar
  • 1,540
4 votes
Accepted

In which writing(s) does Hugo Grotius set forth the "Governmental Theory of the Atonement"?

Hugo Grotius develops this in Defensio Fidei Catholicae de Satisfactione Christi ("Defense of the Catholic Faith on the Satisfaction of Christ"). An 1889 translation, by Frank Hugh Foster, is ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
4 votes

Are there any Protestant denominations or churches that reject penal substitution?

Not all Anglicans have held to Penal Substitution Theory. For example, the nineteenth to early 20th century Anglican bishop Charles Ellicott did not. See his commentary on Galatians 3, for example. ...
Steve Fast's user avatar
4 votes

Did Philip Melanchthon teach penal substitution?

A great place to look for this is Melancthon's Defense of the Augsburg Confession. As we'll see, he does not always use language specific to penal substitution, but the themes of Christ's sacrifice ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

How does the Catholic Church view Penal Substitutionary Atonement?

After my research, I am not convinced that Penal Substitutionary Atonement is a formally condemned heresy. However, it seems to contradict the sensus fidelium, or the "sense of the faithful."...
jaredad7's user avatar
  • 3,442
4 votes

Did Jesus die for all? Is “for many” the same meaning as “for all “ in Matthew 26:28?

Your question is really two questions, the first is theological, the second is whether "all" and "many" are semantically synonymous enough to be interchangeable. The second question is addressed ...
AFL's user avatar
  • 329
4 votes

How does Catholicism biblically defend purgatory in a way that upholds the sufficiency of Christ's work?

The Catholic Church teaches the doctrine of Purgatory while also teaching the sufficient and superabundant merits of the Passion of Christ. The first component to understanding this is the dogma that ...
eques's user avatar
  • 2,913
4 votes
Accepted

When was the term 'substitutionary atonement' first coined and what was the reason for the choice of the 2 words?

It is hard to nail down a person or time that can be credited with the coining of the term substitutionary atonement. The concept is not well attested in early extra-biblical writings although there ...
Mike Borden's user avatar
  • 16.3k
4 votes

Did Jesus die only for the Church in the Governmental theory of atonement?

This Governmental Theory of the Atonement seems to have been started by one Hugo Grotius (1583-1645). He had been trained in law. Theologically, he was Arminian. There was a sharp divide between ...
Anne's user avatar
  • 28.8k
3 votes

Did Martin Luther teach penal substitution?

If I may crudely summarize, Gustaf Aulén's argument in Chapter 6 of Christus Victor is: Martin Luther clearly valued the Christus Victor theme The Christus Victor and substitutionary models of ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
3 votes

Do Lutherans define Justification and Atonement as different things?

Lutheran theologian John Mueller refers to the atonement as the redemption that Christ purchased on the cross for all sinners. He then addresses precisely the issue you are describing using the terms ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
3 votes

What is the earliest reference to the notion that we killed Jesus?

There seems to be two distinct issues here. One is that the claim that Jesus' death was for the sins of all men. The other is related to the sense in which all men may have participated in the killing ...
DKing's user avatar
  • 755
3 votes

What is the biblical basis for the belief that Jesus' death made satisfaction for individual sins?

Off the top of my mind, there are two passages upon which the belief of individual satisfaction can be based. One is from Paul's letter to the Romans, v 6:10 [RSV]: While we were still weak, at the ...
brasshat's user avatar
  • 5,623
3 votes

Calvinists: How to avoid justification from eternity?

You are asking for a solution to what you see as an intractable problem. A classically Arminian view has been stated. The Five Points of Arminianism include these three (which relate directly to your ...
Anne's user avatar
  • 28.8k

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