C. S. Lewis is well-known for not calling himself a theologian. Rather than seeking a systematic theological perspective, he understood the story of Christ as a "true myth." As he explains:
It is true, not in the sense of being a 'description' of God (that no finite mind could take in) but in the sense of being the way in which God chooses to (or can) ...
I see three questions beneath your one question, and I will handle them each separately.
Are Calvinists allowed to disagree with Calvin?
First of all, they get their name from him because they are believed to be in accord with him on most/all doctrine, not because they get their doctrine from him, although he is of course a highly esteemed and respected ...
Jesus died for our sins
What we (and the Bible) mean by the phrase "Jesus died for our sins" is that all sins have a penalty. We see the same thing in the justice systems of nations--for every crime, there is a penalty. When the penalty is paid, we say that justice has been served, and that's a good thing.
Our sins are really rebellion against God, and ...
I believe that this Bible verse confirms that Jesus took on the sins of mankind.
John 1:29 ESV
The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, “Behold, the
Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!
I think your answer lies in The Threefold Uses of the Law, and more specifically, Romans 7:1,11,24
1 Yet if it had not been for the law, I would not have known sin. I would not have known what it is to covet if the law had not said, "You shall not covet." ... 11 For sin, seizing an opportunity through the commandment, deceived me and through it killed me. ...
Limited atonement brings with it the implication that not anyone can be saved by Christ - only those for whom he atoned. The language used in the Bible to describe salvation is inclusive. It is described as being presented to whosoever wills. In 1 Timothy, Paul claims that God desires all people to be saved.
1 Timothy 2:3-6 (ESV)
3 This is good,...
Isaiah 53:6 ESV
All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned, every one, to
his own way; and the Lord has laid on Him the iniquity of us all"
John 3:16 ESV
For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son,
that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting
1 John 2:2 ESV
And He Himself is the ...
The atonement theology is a complicated one to explain. To the believers, it is a simple acceptance of one's imperfection and the sacrifice of Jesus Christ the perfect one to render us perfect in the eyes of God. To the unbelievers, it is foolishness that God would become human to die for their sins.
For the message of the cross is foolishness to those ...
Proponents of penal substitution, like Louis Berkhof (ST, 6.2.1), indeed argue that Christ has "removed the penalty of sin" and that therefore "the penal element is removed from death." So why do Christians still die? Two arguments are given:
God continues to use death to sanctify his followers and increase their unity with Christ
Creation continues to ...
Articles 3 and 4 of the Augsburg Confession (part of the Lutheran Confessions) talk about this: The Augsburg Confession (Chief Articles of Faith: Article III: Of the Son of God and Article IV: Of Justification).
Article 3 makes the point that Christ "truly suffered, was crucified, dead, and buried, that He might reconcile the Father unto us, and be a ...
It's both, not one or the other. It started in Gethsemane and was completed on Golgotha.
We do not know, we cannot tell, no mortal mind can conceive the full
import of what Christ did in Gethsemane.
We know he sweat great gouts of blood from every pore as he drained
the dregs of ...
There are several ideas about the atonement that can come under the heading of Christus Victor. Ultimately, the term could apply to any account of the atonement that accords with:
The work of Christ is first and foremost a victory over the powers which hold mankind in bondage: sin, death and the devil. 1
One of the reasons why it is a bit hard to pin ...
The Wesleyan Arminians recognised the problem implied by your analogy and resolved it by proffering the Governmental Theory of Atonement.
Applying this resolution to your analogy
Christ has 'made' the payment at the cross - and He can't unmake the payment because the cost to Him was real) - but rather than a completed individual transaction on behalf of ...
I can only answer from the Western bias as I fail to comprehend the Eastern thought even when it is explained. Western thought properly includes propitiation and expiation it does not toss one out for the other or put them at competing sides. It does not exclude either. However the Eastern thought seems to be uncomfortable with the propitiation involved in ...
tl;dr> If Jesus isn't separated from the Father on the Cross, then the heresy of patripassianism is true, and more importantly, the notion that God does not change is not.
1. Scripture sets up cases that separate the Father from the Son
Scripturally the idea that Jesus was separated from the Father is typically supported from when Jesus cries out in ...
I once hear this story that really helped me understand
Do you know why Jesus had to die? Can I tell you a story that might
help make it clear? There is a story told about a particular Indian
tribe who was suffering from the effects of a severe drought. Food was
scarce and the members of the tribe were beginning to steal from each
other in order ...
To understand the Reformed approach to this challenging question, we should begin with the concept of the "wills" of God. Reformed theologians typically refer to the relevant ones as the decretive (or "secret") and preceptive (or "revealed") wills of God, which R. C. Sproul defines as follows:
Decretive will: The sovereign, efficacious will of God
Reformed theologians who hold to penal substitutionary atonement emphasize a) the divine nature of Christ and the increased capacity for suffering that that implies and b) the intensity of God's wrath against him.
Louis Berkhof, in his Systematic Theology (3.2.1.B), writes:
[Christ's] capacity for suffering was commensurate with the ideal character of ...
This brief addendum is intended only to corroborate OP's considered conclusion that Lewis
does not see any need to settle on a particular theory of the atonement, considering it to be something beyond human understanding.
In a letter written to a "Mr. Young" (otherwise unidentified) dated 31 October 1963 -- so less than a month before he died -- Lewis is ...
You misunderstand the model. But it's a common misunderstanding. One that comes up often enough that there's a standard answer from Apologetics. Here is is in my words:
The statement that God doesn't change means that His nature doesn't change. His Nature includes many attributes that never change: Goodness, holiness, He is Just, Righteous, and ...
Limited Atonement Defined
Limited atonement is defined in the Canons of Dort:
The Second Main Point of Doctrine: Christ's Death and Human Redemption Through It
Article 3: The Infinite Value of Christ’s Death
This death of God’s Son is the only and entirely complete sacrifice
and satisfaction for sins; it is of infinite value and worth, more
Nephi was not perfect in keeping the commandments. In fact, in 2 Nephi 4 he cries out:
17 Nevertheless, notwithstanding the great goodness of the Lord, in showing me his great and marvelous works, my heart exclaimeth: O wretched man that I am! Yea, my heart sorroweth because of my flesh; my soul grieveth because of mine iniquities.
18 I am ...
The strongest defenders of penal substitution are going to be conservative Calvinists: that is, those who hold to the "five points" of Calvinism and reject modernist approaches to Scripture. Outside this group, many nonetheless hold to penal substitution, but there is more diversity of opinion.
A few examples of conservative Calvinists who hold to penal ...
Anselm's satisfaction theory of the atonement is developed in his book, Cur Deus Homo, and, as presented, is not "based on the Bible" like we might expect. Instead, Anselm relies heavily on logic, and largely avoids citing Scripture to make his case.
However, he is forced to rely on it in a few places, and he also tangentially mentions it in others. For ...
As you've said, being saved is a process more than an event. You can think of repentance as a continual process or something you do over and over again. The definition becomes blurry when you consider something you do over and over again as a process.
Sometimes we look at repentance within the scope of a particular sin, and once we stop doing that thing, it ...
The following answer shall be largely influenced by my Roman Catholic faith, so be aware of such a fact while reading. With that said, here we gooooooooo!!!
Penal Substitution And Its Failures
The problem with the penal substitution theory is that it confuses many points that need distinction in order to understand the nature of Christ's sacrifice. For ...
Irenaeus of Lyons is generally credited with being the first to fully present Recapitulation Theory. He explains that Jesus saves humanity be undoing the error of Adam by succeeding where Adam failed. A significant portion of this is to reveal the Father to all (and so includes Moral Influence as part of Recapitulation). The other aspect is the Recreation of ...
When Christians say "Jesus died for our sins", what do they mean?
This is a reference to 1 Corinthians 15:3:
For I handed on to you as of first importance what I in turn had
received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the
Different Christians understand "Christ died for our sins" in different ways; there have been many ...
Christ is not only the propitiation for the sins of Christians:
1 John 2:1-2 (ESV) My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin. But if anyone does sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. He is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world.1