8

I think the clearest statement to explicitly deal with atonement would be this one from the Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians: Through charity did the Lord join us unto himself; whilst, for the love that he bore towards us, our Lord Jesus Christ gave his own blood for us, by the will of God: his flesh for our flesh, his soul for our souls. [1 Clement, ...


6

Were any of the Apostolic Fathers Jews? The short answer is yes! St. Ignatius of Antioch It is piously believed by many Catholics that St. Ignatius of Antioch was of Jewish origin. In fact, there is an ancient tradition that he was the child whom Christ took and presented to the apostles as the example of the one who is greater in the kingdom of heaven (...


6

The following are quotes from Bishops and apologists of the early church and a few were first or second generation disciples of the Apostles themselves. As such it is very easy to deduce that, not only did they have a large audience and impact, but they represent the teachings of the church at that time and of the Apostles themselves regarding the Deity of ...


4

Are there any extra-biblical writings that documents what the early Christians believed about the second coming of Christ? Of course there are! The following have all written about it: Didache The Epistle of Barnabas (70 AD - 132 AD) Tertullian (155 AD - 222AD) Irenaeus (130 AD - 202 AD) Lactantius (250AD - 325 AD) Hippolytus (170 AD -230 AD) The Shepherd ...


4

The New Testament contains a massive amount of first-hand evidence about what the early Church believed regarding the Holy Spirit. Unless that is taken as the prime source, all else will be futile. Space here does not permit quoting all the N.T. texts about the Holy Spirit, but if we consider something of what Jesus himself and some of the apostles said, ...


3

According to this data, 96.7% of the Gospel of John is quoted pre Nicea 325. It is the most complete quoted New Testament book and only less than 29 Verses are not quoted. The document also has a section covering the Manuscripts. Manuscripts pre-dating Nicea covers 98.6% of John. I've not verified the whole document myself (that would rightly mentioned take ...


3

Outside of the New Testament canon itself, one of the earliest pieces of extra-Biblical evidence is the Alexamenos graffito. This shows a young man worshipping a donkey-headed figure on a cross. This likely comes from around 200AD. It seems most likely to me that worshipping of Jesus as God must have been widespread among Christians for there to be graffiti ...


2

The earliest church fathers, after the destruction of Jerusalem/Temple in 70AD, still looked toward Jesus' Second Coming. Therefore, my children, in six days, that is, in six thousand years, all things will be finished. “And He rested on the seventh day.” This meaneth: when His Son, coming [again], shall destroy the time of the wicked man,1662 and judge the ...


2

I suppose I’m a Unitarian^ as I’m not a trintarian or a binitarian. The bible* is the standard by which all other texts should be measured. So who cares what Ignasious says if it conflicts with clear, unambiguous and consistent bible teaching? We are warned about false teachers, it should come as no surprise that they masquerade as teachers of truth. For ...


2

This has been interpreted many ways. And it is made all the more challenging by questions regarding who wrote which documents and when. For purposes of this response, I will assume the entirety of the New Testament was written by AD 100, the history in Acts is reliable, and that Polycarp represents the last surviving Christian leader who was an immediate ...


2

During the time of the early Christians, was there yet a doctrine of the deity of Christ to be denied? Let's read: The Young Church, p. 48 "We read the Gospels and the book of Acts in the light of our understanding of the pre-existence and the incarnation of God the Son. However, the early Christians had no such concepts in their minds. They had no ...


2

In the first two centuries CE: Adoptionism, reflected in canonical epistles, the earliest of which pre-date the writing of the gospels. The letters of Paul the Apostle, for example, do not mention a virgin birth of Christ. Paul describes Jesus as "born of a woman, born under the law" and "as to his human nature was a descendant of David" ...


2

Earliest NT epistles (written circa A.D. 50-60) teaches Jesus is "not a man" (Gal 1:1, 1:11-12), but has "preexistence in the form of God and equality with God" (Phil 2:6) before/prior to "being born in the likeness of humans" (Phil 2:7) by being "born of a woman" (Gal 4:4). This incarnatoion is necessary because ...


2

St. Clement I (Pope from 88-97 or 92-101) was consecrated by St. Peter and is considered the first Apostolic Father. In one writing of his, he says It appears he thought that those who were faithful to God would be resurrected and gain "life in immortality" and receive "beautiful things." Shall we then think it great and wonderful, if ...


1

References to the after life. Chapter XVIII.—Proof of immortality and the resurrection. For reflect upon the end of each of the preceding kings, how they died the death common to all, which, if it issued in insensibility, would 169 be a godsend1803 to all the wicked. But since sensation remains to all who have ever lived, and eternal punishment is laid up (...


1

Searching the Patrologia Latina database, St. Ambrose seems to be the first Latin Father who uses the term, in his commentary on Psalm 118:153-160 (Hebrew letter "Resh", ר), Sermon 20, PL 15 col. 1575: […] Unde et Apostolus ait: Fugite fornicationem (I Cor. VI, 18). Nam qua causa fugeres, nisi illa te persequeretur? Est enim malus spiritus ...


1

This information comes from Jerome. From his Chronicon: John the Apostle survived all the way to the time of Trajan: after whom his notable disciples were Papias, Bishop of Hieropolis, Polycarp of Smyrna, and Ignatius of Antioch. (pp. 275-276) Multiple Christian writers speak of Ignatius' association with one or more apostles, but it is Jerome that gives ...


1

What is the basis for the belief that Ignatius of Antioch knew the Apostle John? It is simply a tradition with a lower class “t”! Not all traditions are verifiable, although many are. This is not part of what the Catholic Church understands as being part of Sacred Tradition with a capital “T”. St. Paul even speaks about holding to the traditions which were ...


1

In addition to the discussion of Jesus' nuclear family already mentioned, there are three doctrines that come to mind. Others could be cited; these are the three I've seen most commonly. -- 1. Numerous denominations--worship on Sunday From Justin's First Apology, chapter 67: And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather ...


1

Having read Ken Graham’s excellent answer in the question asking if any of the early church fathers believed they had to follow dietary laws, one would think that the Adventists defend their dietary regiment by appealing to extra-biblical evidence from the 1st and 2nd centuries of the early church.


1

For the time being, I have only considered the Didache, that "most scholars now assign ... to the first century". Here is the last chapter on the Didache, in the Lightfoot translation: 1Be watchful for your life; 2let your lamps not be quenched and your loins not ungirded, but be ye ready; 3for ye know not the hour in which our Lord cometh. 4And ...


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