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If God “shows no partiality,” how do Calvinists defend predestination?

There are a number of verses in the Bible that say that God is "not partial" (Deuteronomy 10:17) or that he "shows no partiality" (Romans 2:11, ESV). How do Calvinists square such verses with their doctrine of predestination, in which God specifically chooses some people to be saved but not others?

Related question, but not specific to challenges based on these passages: http://christianity.stackexchange.com/q/33767/21576