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12
votes
1answer
208 views

What is the basis for Lombard's view that the basis of justification for OT men was different than for OT women?

While reading J. V. Fesko's The Theology of the Westminster Standards, I found an interesting tidbit in the context of his discussion of justification in Reformed theology: Medieval theologians ...
12
votes
1answer
546 views

What effect did the 1897 decree regarding the Johannine Comma have on Catholic scholarship?

The Comma Johanneum, found in some versions of 1 John 5:7–8, such as the KJV, is a disputed text that has been used since at least the Middle Ages to defend trinitarian doctrine. Scholars now widely ...
11
votes
0answers
361 views

Are the five propositions condemned by Cum occasione in the Augustinus?

This simple question was the center of the quarrel around Port-Royal and the efficacious grace in the 17th century in France. In fact, the defenders of Cornelius Jansen’s Augustinus argued that they ...
10
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0answers
124 views

What is the status of Humbert's views on the efficacy of sacraments in Catholicism?

Humbert of Silva Candida was an important medieval theologian, best known for his involvement in the excommunication of the Patriarch of Constantinople in 1054. He was also a vocal proponent of a ...
10
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0answers
410 views

Need help with Latin Formula for an unusual Saint Benedict Cross

Can someone help translate the Latin formula used on the left side of the cross below. I already know the right side is the formula for Saint Benedict's Medal but the letters on the left still elude ...
9
votes
1answer
165 views

What was Van Til's view on the use and validity of historical proofs for the resurrection?

Cornelius Van Til was the pioneer of presuppositional apologetics, and was one of the founding members of Westminster Theological Seminary. The defenses of faith that he developed sought to apply the ...
9
votes
3answers
878 views

How is the situation of “divorce her quietly” in Matthew 1:19 according to Catholicism?

Matthew 1:19 Because Joseph her husband was faithful to the law, and yet did not want to expose her to public disgrace, he had in mind to divorce her quietly. In these modern days, in my ...
9
votes
2answers
388 views

A Question regarding arguments against the Nicene Creed

The Nicene Creed, produced at the First Council of Nicaea in 325 AD, was later amended (see Wikipedia) at the First Council of Constantinople in 381 AD and states : ( I am quoting excerpts from the ...
8
votes
1answer
615 views

Are there any surviving Acta Diurna copies mentioning Jesus' trial or other aspects of his life?

I recently learned about Acta Diurna, which are official notices created by Roman authorities describing legal proceedings and the outcome of trials. It occurred to me that the trial of Jesus before ...
7
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0answers
100 views

What is the significance of the 5 “faithful sayings” of Paul?

Throughout the epistles written by Paul to Timothy and Titus, he mentions 5 different "sayings" which he describes as "faithful" or "true". These 5 sayings are in: 1 Timothy 1:15-17 1 Timothy 3:1 1 ...
7
votes
1answer
89 views

When did lay people first get a vote in the general conferences of the United Methodist Church?

In the news reports swirling around the 2019 General Conference of the United Methodist Church, something struck me as odd – there were "lay delegates" among the 800 delegates able to vote on the ...
7
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0answers
162 views

Do the Taylor Brethren use the term 'Trinity' in a specialised way?

In 1890, the Brethren movement split into two, one section led by F E Raven (the cause of the split) who was then succeeded by James Taylor Senior, who also held at least some of Raven's views. Raven ...
7
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0answers
148 views

Reference for Comprehensive Prophecy Analysis in Scripture?

What all resources/expositions/writings have been published as a comprehensive analysis of prophecy in Scripture? Any resources about prophecy in all of Scripture, its fulfillment, extrabiblical ...
7
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0answers
180 views

The right to read a Catholic church's sacramental register

In the era of handwritten parish registers, when a diocesan or missionary priest performed a sacramental rite, he wrote it up in a semi-structured form in a record book. Sometimes that priest was the ...
7
votes
1answer
238 views

How do Jehovah's Witnesses explain the dramatic changes in their eschatology?

Apologies for the length of this introduction but I felt it was important to begin with a weight of evidence. There have been a great many changes in the Jehovah's Witness understanding and prophetic ...
7
votes
1answer
209 views

Is there any historical evidence of Early Church Christians denying the divinity of Jesus during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD?

I'm essentially asking the counter-question to this one. Is there any historical evidence of Early Church Christians (post-New Testament) openly denying the divinity of Jesus in the 1st and 2nd ...
6
votes
1answer
109 views

What bible translation did the Unitarians use in 19th century America?

I have been recently reading a lot of Emerson and through this reading I came to know something about William Ellery Channing (the Elder), who was the main voice of American Unitarianism in the 19th ...
6
votes
1answer
3k views

Parallel German (Martin Luther's 1534) and English Bible in PDF format?

I've been looking specifically for a PDF version of the Martin Luther 1534 translation of the Bible with a Parallel English translation (preferably KJV, but any edition will do). I've been hitting a ...
6
votes
0answers
169 views

Historical origins of the doctrine of God's self glorification

Within the Reformed tradition, it is a considered a fundamental principle of doctrine that the 'Chief End' of Man, of Creation and most importantly of God Himself is His own self glorification. We see ...
6
votes
1answer
220 views

Where can I download the Antwerp and Paris Polyglot Bibles in PDF form?

Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, 4 important Polyglot Bibles were published. The 1st one was the Complutensian Polyglot, issued in 1522. The 2nd one was the Antwerp Polyglot issued 1569-...
6
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0answers
185 views

What theological differences distinguish the Three-Self Patriotic Movement and the house church movement in China?

State-sanctioned Protestant Christianity in China — the Three-Self Patriotic Movement — is a bit of a mystery to me. I'm wondering to what extent the Communist Party censors the ...
6
votes
0answers
121 views

Finding a mural of an unknown cathedral?

I am looking for the name of the cathedral that contains the following mural. What I know for sure is: That it has been done between 2004 and 2008, more likely in 2008. It was made in a Catholic ...
6
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0answers
167 views

Who was the first Devil's Advocate?

According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the Devil's Advocate (Advocatus Diaboli) was: [a] popular title given to one of the most important officers of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, established ...
6
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0answers
121 views

How is the “perpetual” excommunication of Acacius by Felix III currently understood in Catholicism?

Around AD 485, the patriarch of Constantinople, Acacius, was excommunicated by Pope Felix III, in a dispute over both theology and authority. This excommunication, however, seems unique in that it ...
6
votes
1answer
3k views

Are the “Great Supper of God” and the “Wedding Supper of the Lamb” the same event?

In Revelation 19, there is a feast or feasts mentioned by two names. The first is The Wedding Supper of the Lamb: ibid. vv. 7-9 (NASB): Let us rejoice and be glad and give the glory to Him, for the ...
6
votes
1answer
240 views

What is the Roman Catholic Church doctrinal justification of its perceived opposition or support of the independence of Catalonia?

According to the New York Daily News, Vida Nueva (New Life) internet publication said the pope told Spain's new ambassador to the Vatican, Gerardo Bugallo, that the Holy See is against all self-...
5
votes
1answer
162 views

Is there any historical evidence that the early church believed in the doctrine of intercession of saints during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD?

Motivated by a related question, I would like to know if there is any historical evidence that the early church believed in the doctrine of intercession of saints during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD.
5
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0answers
71 views

If the earthly sanctuary is a replica of the heavenly sanctuary, can there be death in heaven?

Please excuse what appears to be a bit of a confused question...I am trying to make sense of something that I simply do not fully understand in my own mind. The question is therefore very difficult ...
5
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0answers
127 views

Which Biblical Theology frameworks are currently taught in the Southern Baptist seminaries?

There are two major frameworks of Biblical Theology in Protestant Christianity: Dispensationaliam and Covenant Theology. Simplistically, Dispensationaliam says there is a big discontinuity between ...
5
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0answers
162 views

How did the early church fathers refute Adoptionism?

Adoptionism is a Christological heresy which denies the pre-existence of Jesus, and therefore denies Jesus's title as "God the Son" in the Trinitarian conception of the Christian God. See the ...
5
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0answers
61 views

What non-canonical texts do Eastern Catholic liturgies use?

There are some books considered to be canonical by (some) Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Churches, but not by the Latin Church. E.g. 3+4 Maccabees. The Eastern Catholic Churches kept their own ...
5
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0answers
57 views

What theological problem in the Henoticon triggered the excommunication of the Patriarch Acacius, by the Bishop of Rome in the fifth century?

As I read through Oman's treatment of the Dark Ages, I am struck again and again by his references to Catholics (which seems in a contextual sense to mean Christian orthodoxy writ large) and what I ...
5
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0answers
77 views

Scriptural basis for a Christian Congregation to vow to “guide and nurture” an infant being baptized

My children were baptized in a Presbyterian church, using a Baptismal Liturgy from the PC(USA) Book of Order. I had some difficulty explaining the Biblical basis of the liturgy to a relative, ...
5
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0answers
125 views

The Golden Mass of Our Lady?

I spent many, many years in France and while there I read some older liturgical books that explained what the Golden Mass of Our Lady was. These all explained that the Mass in question was in reality ...
5
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0answers
112 views

Is “formal schismatic” a useful category in practice?

Wikipedia says that formal schismatics are those who: knowing the true nature of the Church, have personally and deliberately committed the sin of schism. But if formal schismatics have to truly ...
5
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0answers
85 views

How has opinion on the death penalty among American Catholics shifted since 1974?

In 1974, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB), "by a substantial majority, voted to declare its opposition to capital punishment" (source). In 1980, it reaffirmed this stance in ...
5
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0answers
103 views

How to reconcile Aquinas' analogical view of God with God's self-revelation?

We use language to describe God. However, Aquinas argues in Summa Theologiae that we can only make analogical statements about God, in which our language is incapable of truly grasping or describing ...
5
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0answers
78 views

What was Samuel Rutherford's view on the role of pastors in wedding ceremonies?

Samuel Rutherford was an important 17th-century Presbyterian theologian who had significant influence in the drafting of the Westminster Standards, still widely used as a part of the constitutions of ...
5
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0answers
135 views

How did Aquinas and Reformation-era Protestants disagree on God's will?

Thomas Aquinas distinguished between God's antecedent and consequent wills. Meanwhile, the Reformed confessions (eg Westminster Confession) distinguished between God's decretive and revealed wills. ...
5
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0answers
237 views

Greek orthodox prophecy of the messiah in Meteora

I have attached an image. This week I traveled to Meteora, Greece to visit the Great Monastery. I found a text there quoting famous Greek persons from ancient times (b.c.) writing about a messiah ...
5
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0answers
228 views

How many people were killed by Protestant Inquisition style tribunals? Asking for references

It's relatively easy to find estimates for the number of people killed during the Catholic Inquisition; one just needs to check the Wikipedia page, to see several estimates of the number of people ...
5
votes
0answers
63 views

What was the socioeconomic makeup of early Christian Gnostic sects?

There is ample evidence that early Christianity was socioeconomically very inclusive, being made up of the poor, the wealthy, men, women, the educated, uneducated, etc. For example, Pliny the ...
5
votes
0answers
47 views

What role does the Gospel Music Association have in standardizing what is played on Contemporary Christian Music stations?

The wikipedia entry for Christian Metal says that some of the stations which do play said genre: as a whole these larger stations generally maintain a GMA-prescribed format. Christian metal (...
5
votes
0answers
140 views

What general theological framework(s) are represented in the Life Application Study Bible commentary?

I was recently shown an except of commentary from the NIV edition of the Life Application Study Bible from Tyndale/Zondervan. Frankly I was rather surprised by how blatant the eisegesis was in that ...
5
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0answers
85 views

Did the mention of Simon Magnus contribute to Acts of Peter not being part of the New Testament?

The Acts of Peter is a Apocryphal book about the Apostle Peter after he moves to Rome. It seems to talk about Simon Magnus a good deal. I am interested as to whether that is one of the reasons it was ...
5
votes
2answers
261 views

How do monergists respond to Bible verses that support the doctrine of synergism?

How do Lutherans, Calvinists and other protestants that believe in monergism respond to biblical passages that seem to support synergism such as these? For example: "Be perfect, therefore, as ...
5
votes
1answer
412 views

Could a Catholic priest potentially use a digital tablet (iPad, etc.) for the Lectionary or the Book of the Gospels during mass?

In the Catholic Masses I have been to, it begins with a procession of the priest along with acolytes and such and someone is holding up the Book of the Gospels decorated in gold or otherwise. This ...
5
votes
0answers
104 views

What happened with the schools of Luther and Melanchthon?

I know that Martin Luther and Philip Melanchthon tried to oppose the school system introduced by the Catholic Church (according to Luther, Oxford and Cambridge model was influenced by the Paris ...
5
votes
0answers
93 views

In Federal Vision theology, what is the difference between decisional regeneration and presupposed regeneration?

In some Reformed/Calvinist circles, a theological framework called the Federal Vision (FV) has led to significant internal debate over the true nature of the covenant between God and man, and, by ...
5
votes
0answers
77 views

According to Augustine, what's the difference between regenerate life and that before the fall?

In Augustine's four stages of the Christian life, is the Reborn Man in the same state as the Pre-Fall Man? In which state was Christ the man while on earth?

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