All Questions

25
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0answers
831 views

How does current Church of England polity compare with Richard Hooker's teaching?

Richard Hooker's Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity (1593) is a foundational document for the theology and ecclesiology of the Church of England. In it, he defends (among other things) the Anglican ...
10
votes
0answers
274 views

Trying to find information on a crucifix found whilst metal detecting

I am trying to find the age of a silver cross that I have found on a site that had a benedictine priory on it from 1149 to 1540. I believe that clues to its age are the use of a two bar Patriarchal ...
10
votes
0answers
180 views

Which 20th-century Orthodox Christians said that the crusades were more oppressive than the Marxist anti-religious campaigns?

Everett Ferguson, in Church History, I, 23.I.D, discusses the brutality of the crusades in the early 13th century, when Constantinople was sacked. One point I found particularly interesting was a ...
10
votes
0answers
114 views

What is the basis for Lombard's view that the basis of justification for OT men was different than for OT women?

While reading J. V. Fesko's The Theology of the Westminster Standards, I found an interesting tidbit in the context of his discussion of justification in Reformed theology: Medieval theologians ...
9
votes
0answers
98 views

What is the status of Humbert's views on the efficacy of sacraments in Catholicism?

Humbert of Silva Candida was an important medieval theologian, best known for his involvement in the excommunication of the Patriarch of Constantinople in 1054. He was also a vocal proponent of a ...
9
votes
0answers
224 views

Need help with Latin Formula for an unusual Saint Benedict Cross

Can someone help translate the Latin formula used on the left side of the cross below. I already know the right side is the formula for Saint Benedict's Medal but the letters on the left still elude ...
9
votes
0answers
274 views

Are the five propositions condemned by Cum occasione in the Augustinus?

This simple question was the center of the quarrel around Port-Royal and the efficacious grace in the 17th century in France. In fact, the defenders of Cornelius Jansen’s Augustinus argued that they ...
9
votes
0answers
243 views

Tridentine Latin Mass in Hebrew?

In 1957, Pope Pius XII gave permission to St James Vicariate for Hebrew Speaking Catholics in Israel to celebrate the traditional Tridentine Latin Mass of Pope Pius V in some part in Hebrew. Can ...
8
votes
0answers
140 views

Do any non-Swedenborgian Christian denominations have a smaller biblical canon than Protestantism?

As covered in the Wikipedia article on Biblical canon, among the major branches of Christianity Protestantism has the smallest biblical canon, due almost entirely to a smaller Old Testament canon. ...
7
votes
0answers
263 views

Did John Calvin help Nicolas Cop write his infamous inaugural address?

Early in John Calvin's career, he was involved in a controversy that forced him to flee Paris and live in hiding for a time. Calvin's friend, Nicolas Cop, delivered an address that many considered ...
6
votes
0answers
86 views

Do the Taylor Brethren use the term 'Trinity' in a specialised way?

In 1890, the Brethren movement split into two, one section led by F E Raven (the cause of the split) who was then succeeded by James Taylor Senior, who also held at least some of Raven's views. Raven ...
6
votes
0answers
62 views

What was Van Til's view on the use and validity of historical proofs for the resurrection?

Cornelius Van Til was the pioneer of presuppositional apologetics, and was one of the founding members of Westminster Theological Seminary. The defenses of faith that he developed sought to apply the ...
6
votes
0answers
236 views

How did Karl Barth justify his relationship with Charlotte von Kirschbaum?

I recently learned that Karl Barth, while he was married, had a decades-long romantic relationship with his personal assistant, Charlotte von Kirschbaum. She actually moved into the Barths' home in ...
6
votes
0answers
112 views

How do the Personal Ordinariates differ from Anglicanism?

In 2009 Pope Benedict published an Apostolic Constitution called Anglicanorum Coetibus providing for the creation of Personal Ordinariates for Anglicans who wished to join the Roman Catholic Church. ...
6
votes
0answers
154 views

The right to read a Catholic church's sacramental register

In the era of handwritten parish registers, when a diocesan or missionary priest performed a sacramental rite, he wrote it up in a semi-structured form in a record book. Sometimes that priest was the ...
6
votes
0answers
132 views

How did James Orr's view of the inspiration of the Bible differ from B. B. Warfield's?

Two of the intellectual fathers of Christian fundamentalism, and ultimately evangelicalism, were James Orr and B. B. Warfield. Both contributed to The Fundamentals, and are well known for opposing ...
6
votes
0answers
226 views

Sponsors of converts to Catholicism

A conversion presumably severs the spiritual ties with one's baptismal godparents. I am reading about a convert from Russian Orthodoxy to Roman Catholicism, who apparently converted around age 20 and ...
5
votes
0answers
33 views

When did lay people first get a vote in the general conferences of the United Methodist Church?

In the news reports swirling around the 2019 General Conference of the United Methodist Church, something struck me as odd – there were "lay delegates" among the 800 delegates able to vote on the ...
5
votes
0answers
154 views

According to Pentecostals, when were names added to the Book of Life?

According to Pentecostals, are names added to the Book of Life anywhere in the Bible (after Creation)? I see only examples of names remaining in or being wiped out. I don’t see names being added. “...
5
votes
0answers
130 views

Why do some Christians bowdlerise words like “God”, writing “G-d” instead?

Some Christians bowdlerise words like "God", writing it as "G-d" or even "G d". This practice is likely inspired by the Jewish practice to do similar. But while some Jews explain their practice as a ...
5
votes
0answers
95 views

Reference for Comprehensive Prophecy Analysis in Scripture?

What all resources/expositions/writings have been published as a comprehensive analysis of prophecy in Scripture? Any resources about prophecy in all of Scripture, its fulfillment, extrabiblical ...
5
votes
0answers
73 views

Detail about lamb sacrifice

I was listening to a homily and here is what the priest said: "You would travel with your family to Jerusalem and you would have either brought a lamb or you would have acquired a lamb and what ...
5
votes
0answers
68 views

Where can I download the Antwerp and Paris Polyglot Bibles in PDF form?

Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, 4 important Polyglot Bibles were published. The 1st one was the Complutensian Polyglot, issued in 1522. The 2nd one was the Antwerp Polyglot issued 1569-...
5
votes
0answers
68 views

How did the original texts of the Creed relate Pilate to Jesus' Passion?

In the Creed in English we see the mention of Jesus having suffered and died 'under Pontius Pilate' . In my native language Malayalam, the counterpart reference says ' in the days of Pontius Pilate' ...
5
votes
0answers
123 views

What theological differences distinguish the Three-Self Patriotic Movement and the house church movement in China?

State-sanctioned Protestant Christianity in China — the Three-Self Patriotic Movement — is a bit of a mystery to me. I'm wondering to what extent the Communist Party censors the ...
5
votes
0answers
78 views

Priestly hiring competitions in the Catholic Church

In the Archives of the Archbishopric of Durango (Mexico) there are a number of documents about concursos de curatos, or priestly concourses, which were used for hiring into vacant parishes and ...
5
votes
0answers
107 views

Finding a mural of an unknown cathedral?

I am looking for the name of the cathedral that contains the following mural. What I know for sure is: That it has been done between 2004 and 2008, more likely in 2008. It was made in a Catholic ...
5
votes
0answers
970 views

Is there any truth to the story that Martin Luther “bought” hell from a priest?

We have this in our country, I googled it but didnt find something like this, just found that Martin Luther had something to do with Indulgence. So is it true or is just some nice writing and good ...
5
votes
0answers
215 views

What is the Roman Catholic Church doctrinal justification of its perceived opposition or support of the independence of Catalonia?

According to the New York Daily News, Vida Nueva (New Life) internet publication said the pope told Spain's new ambassador to the Vatican, Gerardo Bugallo, that the Holy See is against all self-...
5
votes
0answers
95 views

How is the “perpetual” excommunication of Acacius by Felix III currently understood in Catholicism?

Around AD 485, the patriarch of Constantinople, Acacius, was excommunicated by Pope Felix III, in a dispute over both theology and authority. This excommunication, however, seems unique in that it ...
5
votes
0answers
381 views

Schism leading to present day Christian Churches

I was reading about schisms in Christianity. I could found out a few schisms which has lead to the generation of new churches. But many of those churches were died out after sometime but some of them ...
5
votes
0answers
102 views

In what specific ways does the content differ between the standard edition and the student edition of The Apologetics Study Bible?

My question is how to compare and contrast the contents of The Apologetics Study Bible and The Apologetics Study Bible for Students. It is clear from the title that the latter is targeted toward ...
5
votes
0answers
177 views

How do Oneness Pentecostals (and other modalistic denominations) interpret Revelation 3:21?

New International Version To the one who is victorious, I will give the right to sit with me on my throne, just as I was victorious and sat down with my Father on his throne. New Living ...
4
votes
0answers
58 views

What is the origin of the “religion vs. relationship” dichotomy?

These days the word "religion" often has a bad connotation. Christians (including myself) often emphasize that they have a "relationship" with Jesus, not that they are "religious." But this doesn'...
4
votes
0answers
53 views

Scriptural basis for a Christian Congregation to vow to “guide and nurture” an infant being baptized

My children were baptized in a Presbyterian church, using a Baptismal Liturgy from the PC(USA) Book of Order. I had some difficulty explaining the Biblical basis of the liturgy to a relative, ...
4
votes
0answers
121 views

Were Jews in Jesus' day binitarian?

Is it true that Jews during Jesus' lifetime were binitarian, that is believing that God was one being in two persons similar to how Christians have historically believed and taught that God is ...
4
votes
0answers
39 views

Seeking source of a Calvin quote regarding wine in communion

In my denomination (Free Methodist) and a number of other protestant denominations, grape juice is used for communion rather than wine. There is (of course) a longstanding back-and-forth between ...
4
votes
0answers
72 views

Historical origins of the doctrine of God's self glorification

Within the Reformed tradition, it is a considered a fundamental principle of doctrine that the 'Chief End' of Man, of Creation and most importantly of God Himself is His own self glorification. We see ...
4
votes
0answers
188 views

In Reformed theology, what exactly does the doctrine of “limited atonement” actually assert?

I have found it quite confusing to try and understand what traditional Reformed circles mean precisely in their doctrine of "limited/definite atonement"/"particular redemption", especially as not all ...
4
votes
0answers
60 views

How has opinion on the death penalty among American Catholics shifted since 1974?

In 1974, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB), "by a substantial majority, voted to declare its opposition to capital punishment" (source). In 1980, it reaffirmed this stance in ...
4
votes
0answers
104 views

Thomistic Predestination and Free Will

What is the role of free will in Thomistic predestination? My understanding of Thomist teachings: people have free will to do what they want everyone gets sufficient amount of grace (Sufficient for ...
4
votes
0answers
63 views

What was Samuel Rutherford's view on the role of pastors in wedding ceremonies?

Samuel Rutherford was an important 17th-century Presbyterian theologian who had significant influence in the drafting of the Westminster Standards, still widely used as a part of the constitutions of ...
4
votes
0answers
138 views

Greek orthodox prophecy of the messiah in Meteora

I have attached an image. This week I traveled to Meteora, Greece to visit the Great Monastery. I found a text there quoting famous Greek persons from ancient times (b.c.) writing about a messiah ...
4
votes
0answers
146 views

How many people were killed by Protestant Inquisition style tribunals? Asking for references

It's relatively easy to find estimates for the number of people killed during the Catholic Inquisition; one just needs to check the Wikipedia page, to see several estimates of the number of people ...
4
votes
0answers
44 views

What was the socioeconomic makeup of early Christian Gnostic sects?

There is ample evidence that early Christianity was socioeconomically very inclusive, being made up of the poor, the wealthy, men, women, the educated, uneducated, etc. For example, Pliny the ...
4
votes
0answers
66 views

Did the mention of Simon Magnus contribute to Acts of Peter not being part of the New Testament?

The Acts of Peter is a Apocryphal book about the Apostle Peter after he moves to Rome. It seems to talk about Simon Magnus a good deal. I am interested as to whether that is one of the reasons it was ...
4
votes
0answers
73 views

According to Lutherans, under what conditions (or at what moment) do the consecrated species cease to be the blood and body of Christ?

I understand that Lutherans believe in the real, physical presence of Christ in the Eucharist, but not in such a way that the species cease to be true bread and wine. So you are physically eating God, ...
4
votes
0answers
161 views

How has Roman Catholic Confession changed throughout the centuries?

Currently, the common practice of confession in the U.S. is... A person completes an examination of conscious, tells the priest how long it has been since their last confession, then they make their ...
4
votes
0answers
123 views

Toddler song about heaven

I'm looking for the name and singer/composer of a toddler song. The words I remember are " Tap tap tap, tap tap tap, someone's building up a place for me....building me a home in heaven. Jesus, ...
4
votes
0answers
81 views

In Federal Vision theology, what is the difference between decisional regeneration and presupposed regeneration?

In some Reformed/Calvinist circles, a theological framework called the Federal Vision (FV) has led to significant internal debate over the true nature of the covenant between God and man, and, by ...

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