Questions tagged [reformed-theology]

A branch of Protestantism emphasizing the sovereignty of God and his covenants with humanity. Also known as Calvinism.

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Is ex-nihilo creationism irreconcilable with the concept of individual free will?

Looking on this site in many answers involving the problem of evil I see affirmations of belief in free-will. According to Calvinist Mark Hausam, who presented a paper at a conference on Mormonism, ...
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In Hebrew 5:9, what changed about the Son's perfection?

In the book of Hebrews, we read: 8 Son though he was, he learned obedience from what he suffered 9 and, once made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation for all who obey him 10 and was ...
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What does the Roman Catholic Church teach about covenant theology?

In Reformed theology, there are summary theological constructs termed the covenant of works, the covenant of grace, and the covenant of redemption. In short, the covenant of works encompasses the path ...
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What is an overview of Reformed beliefs about hell?

Could somebody please provide an overview of the various beliefs that the Reformed churches hold regarding hell? If possible, but not required for an accepted answer, it would be great if they could ...
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Perseverance of the Saints – Historical Interpretations before Calvin

When I read the writings of early Christians I am constantly seeing references to persevering to the end and absolutely nothing resembling this teaching. It is almost as if everything taught prior to ...
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What is the distinction between Justification and Salvation? (Reformed point of view)

As a practicing Christian, my only hope is for salvation through Jesus Christ. I note that scripture addresses salvation from a variety of perspectives and analogies, but also I find that in Paul's ...
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According to Reformed Theology how can we saved by Grace 'Alone' and Faith 'Alone'?

Two of the Five Solas are: Sola Gratia: Salvation by Grace Alone Sola Fide: Justification by Faith Alone If salvation is by "grace alone", how can "faith alone" be added as well? ...
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What is the Reformed perspective on "All people are called by God to salvation in Christ"?

The quote in the title is taken from paragraph 16 of the JOINT DECLARATION ON THE DOCTRINE OF JUSTIFICATION by the Lutheran World Federation and the Catholic Church. Is such a statement consistent or ...
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How do Calvinists go from "X is Sinful" to "X is unable to accept Christ on his own?"

I was recently reviewing Piper's TULIP notes. I'm also aware of What is the Biblical Basis for Total Depravity Here, however, is something that I no longer understand. How do Calvinists jump from: "...
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Do Calvinists believe that Heavenly Rewards are predestined?

Assume doctrine of predestination Calvinism Context 10 Talents (Matthew 25): For the kingdom of heaven is as a man travelling into a far country, who called his own servants, and delivered unto ...
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Has 'Affirmation 2010' been adopted, generally, by those called 'Reformed'?

A few years ago, I was given a booklet called 'Affirmation 2010' in which several signatories, standing as 'Reformed', added their names to a list of doctrinal elements which sought to 're-affirm' ...
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Does the Westminster Confession affirm or deny Luther's predilection for Paul's writings?

My understanding is that the Westminster Confession is the official defining document of "Reformed theology". That is, if someone is "Reformed" then they agree completely or almost completely with the ...
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In Reformed theology, are Christians still "totally depraved"?

In 2012, Calvinist pastor Tullian Tchividjian wrote an article, "Are Christians Totally Depraved?", in which he applied the language of total depravity to both non-Christians and Christians. He ...
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In Calvinism, is there any correlation with the elect and the "blessed" in the Beatitudes of Matthew 5?

(x-post from BH) I ask this as blessed can mean many things. Eternal life, financial wealth, health, having kids, having a job, being happy, etc. Blessings seem to be very broad, so I'd like to see ...
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Would Calvinists classify themselves as determinists?

One of Joseph Arminius' arguments against Calvinism was that God's exhaustive foreknowledge does not require a doctrine of determinism.1 My question here is pretty straightforward: Do Calvinists ...
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Christ 'made' sin - the Reformed, Protestant view?

Following on from both of the two recent questions regarding the inheritance or transmission of 'original' or 'inbred' sin, from generation to generation, I am interested in the Trinitarian, ...
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How do the reformed theologians understand Hebrews 3:14?

How do the reformed theologians understand Hebrews 3:14 For we have come to share in Christ, if indeed we hold our original confidence firm to the end. ( ESV ) ? Does it not imply that we can ...
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What does Reformed Protestantism teach regarding 'spirit and soul and body' (I Thessalonians 5:23)

And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. I Thessalonians 5:23 KJV Paul lists '...
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According to Reformed Theology, what is the doctrinal basis for belief in New Testament tithing?

Most Reformed churches refer to "tithes and offerings" as an understanding of the giving structure in church. Reformed Theology as a theological framework is careful about ensuring there is a biblical ...
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Why have conservative Presbyterians objected to chapters on the Holy Spirit and the Gospel in the Westminster Confession?

In the United States, the mainline Presbyterian denomination (the PCUSA), along with several other Presbyterian bodies, include two chapters that were first added to the Westminster Confession in 1903....
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What major changes have American Presbyterians made to the Westminster Confession of Faith?

As someone who generally affirms the Westminster Confession of Faith, one comment I hear periodically is that I therefore must believe that the Pope is the Antichrist. However, the Confession ...
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How does reformed theology view hypnosis?

In particular, how do reformed theologians address these questions: Is hypnosis Biblically warranted? Is hypnosis a form of demon possession? Is hypnosis basically a bad idea? Is the question of ...
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Did John Calvin say "The worst of plagues is human reason"?

I have searched high and low for the source of this quote, attributed to John Calvin, but to no avail. This link provides approximately 425 quotes, but I could not find "The worst of plagues is ...
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What is the earliest claim that Jesus Christ kept the law of Moses on behalf of others?

J N Darby and William Kelly, those responsible for the Plymouth Brethren movement in the mid to late 1800s, did not accept the concept that, during his earthly life, Jesus Christ kept the law on ...
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An explanation from Calvinist about why Cain's offering is not accepted by God?

This question is following the question before, where Calvin said : We must, however, notice the order here observed by Moses; for he does not simply state that the worship which Abel had paid ...
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What is the easy and less complicated definition of predestination [Calvinism]?

I am finding it difficult to understand the Calvinistic ideas of limited atonement and predestination. Does limited atonement mean that only a chosen people called the elect will attain salvation? If ...
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In what ways did early Jansenists believe that their doctrine of salvation differed from that of Calvinism?

The soteriology of Jansenism appears to bear some resemblance to that of Calvinism, as both emphasize doctrines like original sin, predestination, and irresistible grace. The two movements also share ...
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According to reformed theologians, was Barnabas an Apostle?

We usually read the position that there were only 12 Apostles + Paul, and that after the Apostolic era, we have no more Apostles at all. Specially I see this among Reformed theologians. But how do ...
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In Reformed Theology what mechanisms and practices does God provide a believer to help fight temptation?

In Reformed Theology what mechanisms and practices does God provide a believer to help fight temptation? Common answers are grace, prayer, Holy Spirit, and possibly others. But how does God make ...
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What is the current Reformed and Protestant view of the 'image of the beast' (Revelation 13: 14 &15)?

The traditional view of previous centuries after the Reformation focused on the religious authority of the time and its political affiliations (corresponding to the first, sea, beast and the second, ...
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According to Calvin, how can God be loving if he created people to go to hell?

I struggle with John Calvin writing that God created people to go to the lake of fire (Institues, Volume 3, Chapter 21, Section 5). How could a loving, merciful, and gracious God create people so that ...
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Calvinism: Dealing with paradoxes

In a video entitled "John MacArthur: Calvinism vs. Arminianism", Todd Friel of Wretched gives a short introduction before showing a clip of John MacArthur at some event several years ago, allegedly ...
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According to Reformed theology, does God show special favor to some believers?

I am looking for answer from a reformed theology perspective. I know that there are verses in the Bible that God does not show favor. But at the same time there has been many instances where the son ...
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What was the justification of morality in Puritan Antinomianism?

As far as I know, Puritans were devout Calvinists. According to Theopedia, Antinomianism is associated with disobedience to the established authority, so it may be connected with the idea of ...
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What is the Biblical basis for asserting that infants can have faith in Christ under a Calvinistic framework?

Calvin argued for the election of infants, which opposed Roman Catholic faith, which believed that baptism was necessary for salvation (sacramentalists). He was even more forceful about this view than ...
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Calvinism: alternatives to evanescent grace?

It appears to me that the so-called "Doctrines of Grace" contain a practical contradiction. The T in TULIP states that the reprobate (and even the unregenerate elect) are zealous in their ...
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What is the Reformed Protestant understanding of God's Permissive Will, His Sovereign or Decretive Will and Efficacious Will?

I have an assignment to explain the Reformed Protestant view of the differences between the Permissive, Sovereign (Decretive) and Efficacious Wills of God. My initial exploration into this subject ...
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According to Calvinists, why did God say what He did to Cain in Genesis 4:7?

Both high and low Calvinists from this Wiki say that God authorized the Fall, by which all deserve to be condemned. Me: If there is no predestination at all, both Cain and Abel will end up in hell. ...
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What function does a Council actually serve in Calvinism?

Calvin begins his Antidote1 with the following word (Preface): The name of Sacred Council2 is held in such reverence in the Christian Church, that the very mention of it produces an immediate effect ...
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Does evanescent grace remove all assurance of salvation? [closed]

The symptoms of evanescent grace and real grace seem to be indistinguishable. yet experience shows that the reprobate are sometimes affected in a way so similar to the elect, that even in their own ...
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Reformed Theology [closed]

Can anyone point me to a scholarly article or book that clearly, definitively, and authoritatively defines what qualifies a person or denomination as "reformed"? I've heard Presbyterians claim that ...
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In what sense do Presbyterians consider Christ's sacrifice "perfect"?

This question concerns in part the following quote heard regularly by Presbyterian Pastors: “Catholics deny the sufficiency of Christ’s redemptive work on the cross and by doing so, forfeit their ...
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What is the Calvinist view of Christians with different levels of loving God?

A) Scripture says no force or power can separate us from the Love of God. "For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor ...
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Is "once saved, always saved" strictly a Calvinist view? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: What is the difference between the doctrines of “Perseverance of the Saints” and “Eternal Security?” I know that Calvinists believe in "Eternal ...
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What is the appeal of John Piper (Desiring God Ministries)?

This question is not a slight or belittlement of the pastor but I simply don't understand. He is the most referenced and watched pastor at my college, even among those that wouldn't identify as ...
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Limited Atonement and Perseverance of the Saints in Light of 1 Corinthians 8:11 (Calvinism)

The acronym T.U.L.I.P summarizes five core doctrines of Calvinism concerning salvation. I hope I've summarized them accurately enough for the question's purpose. T. Total Depravity — The doctrine ...
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According to Calvinists, is each person "dead in sin" at birth, or only after committing a sin?

First I thought that there is no difference between OS (Original Sin) and TD (Total Depravity) in the Calvinist pov. This is what I first thought : (OS = TD) Cain/Abel/Seth (and their next ...
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According to Reformed theology, what is an infant's first sin?

From what I understand, every human that has ever lived is "born into sin", which means we all carry a "sin nature". Saul says: "For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God" Romans 3:23 ...
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How do Calvinists interpret 2 Peter 2:1?

2Pe 2:1 But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and ...
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In what sense do faith and hope remain?

In 1 Corinthians 13, the Apostle Paul discusses various different spiritual gift, explaining that most of them will be redundant in the New Creation, and therefore "fade away". He concludes his ...

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