Questions tagged [reformed-theology]

A branch of Protestantism emphasizing the sovereignty of God and his covenants with humanity. Also known as Calvinism.

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How does Reformed Theology reconcile Jesus' meaningful temptation and impeccability?

According to Reformed Theology (the predominant view or an overview of slight variations within), how is the impeccability of Jesus reconciled with the idea that his temptations were authentic to the ...
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Why have some conservative Reformed churches objected to the Belhar Confession?

Among the reasons given by several Reformed Church in America churches in the midwestern US when leaving the denomination are issues with the Belhar Confession, a document emphasizing reconciliation ...
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How do various traditions define the term “sufficient grace”?

I have read various polemics on the topics of Augustinianism, Calvinism, Jansenism, Pelagianism, Arminianism, and Catholicism which seem to use the term "sufficient grace" in different ways. For ...
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In what ways did early Jansenists believe that their doctrine of salvation differed from that of Calvinism?

The soteriology of Jansenism appears to bear some resemblance to that of Calvinism, as both emphasize doctrines like original sin, predestination, and irresistible grace. The two movements also share ...
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What are the practical differences between German Lutheran and Swiss Reformed traditions?

I know very little about the German Lutheran church and what set them appart from the religion I've been raised in, Swiss Reformed. However, my understanding is that they are closer to Catholics, and ...
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What is the basis of God's Goodness/Righteousness? [closed]

I would like an Answer from a Reformed/Calvinist Perspective. There are many instances in scripture that affirm GOD is good (Psalm 119:68, 1 Tim 4:4). And that God is Righteous (Psalm 48:10, ...
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How should Reformed people deal with Wrong doctrine? [closed]

Question for Calvinists/Reformed people! There are some teachers in my Evangelical church who teach Salvation by works to the children in the church. Their Justification for this is make the ...
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What major changes have American Presbyterians made to the Westminster Confession of Faith?

As someone who generally affirms the Westminster Confession of Faith, one comment I hear periodically is that I therefore must believe that the Pope is the Antichrist. However, the Confession ...
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According to Reformed theology, what is an infant's first sin?

From what I understand, every human that has ever lived is "born into sin", which means we all carry a "sin nature". Saul says: "For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God" Romans 3:23 ...
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According to Reformed churches, is the trinity a finalized doctrine?

From 325 AD at the Council of Nicea up to about the 8th century, councils have been held to determine the correct nature of God. It was eventually decided that the bible reveals a triune god- one god ...
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How do Calvinists explain God's wanting no one to perish and electing some to judgement?

I have two ideas that have support in the bible, but seem to contradict! Please help! I am looking for a Calvinist/Evangelical answer. These two verses have the general effect that God does not want ...
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In the Christian Reformed Churches, who evaluates the pastor's theological beliefs?

Note: This question is admittedly a bit technical, but I hope it serves to clarify differences in polity between two distinct but related Reformed traditions in the US. In the brand of ...
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If unconditional election is true do we worship God in vain?

According to the teaching of Unconditional Election, God has already chosen who is saved and who is condemned. If we have no control over whether we receive or reject grace, someone can never truly ...
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Why did Huldrych Zwingli oppose music in the worship service?

Three of the most influential reformers, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Huldrych Zwingli, took very different approaches to music in corporate worship. Of the three, Zwingli was the most accomplished ...
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According to Reformed theology, how should Christians react when a non-believer dies? [duplicate]

Several of the Scriptures seem to indicate that God's judgement is righteous, wonderful, and something to long for. Here are a few examples: "Yea, in the way of thy judgments, O YHVH, have we ...
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Why do some adherents to the Westminster Standards sing hymns, rather than just psalms?

The Westminster Confession of Faith, 21.5, in its list of elements that are "parts of the ordinary religious worship of God," includes the: singing of psalms with grace in the heart The Confession ...
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According to Reformed Theology do non-trinitarians go to hell?

According to Reformed theology, if one believes that Yeshua (Jesus) is the Messiah and the son of God (but they deny that he is God and the second person of a triune god), is this person sent to an ...
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What does TULIP stand for?

I came across this acronym when reading about Calvinism. What does it stand for in reference to theology in general?
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Which specific canons of the Second Council of Constantinople do Lutherans and Calvinists reject?

The Wikipedia article on the Second Council of Constantinople (the fifth Ecumenical Council) claims that Lutherans and Calvinists accept only the first four Ecumenical Councils as being canonical. My ...
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Did John Calvin discourage harmonies in congregational singing?

In many traditional Reformed churches, the songs found in hymnbooks and psalters (collections of Psalms set to music) are written with four parts: a melody/soprano line on the top, and alto, tenor, ...
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Is penal substitutionary atonement most prevalent among Calvinists?

I've been looking at penal substitutionary atonement and am finding that although Calvinists and Arminians seem to affirm it, it appears to be Calvinists who affirm it most strongly. Is this accurate?...
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In Presbyterianism, what is the basis for a parallel between the office of deacon and Christ's priestly office?

In Presbyterianism, there are three "titles" that can be given to officers of a church: Teaching elder (e.g., pastors) Ruling elder Deacon Last weekend I heard something rather novel, at least to ...
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Is Jesus seen as both the Passover Lamb and Goat(s) of the Atonement in any Protestant Theology? [closed]

It is often said that Jesus fulfilled the Jewish spring feasts when he first came and the expectation is that he will fulfill the fall feasts when we returns. Also, that Jesus died at the time of ...
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Is there a recognised soteriology that combines selective election for some and general election for everyone else?

Are there any Christian groups or denominations that hold a belief in selective election to salvation, in that some individuals are specifically and irresistibly called (Noah, Moses, 12 desciples, ...
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How does Reformed Theology consider passages that may imply that God is the “subject of sufferings”?

In A Dissertation Concerning the End for which God Created the World, John Edwards makes the following statement, Because it is evident, by both Scripture and reason, that God is infinitely, ...
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How do Calvinists interpret 1 John 2:2 in light of Limited Atonement?

1 John 2:2 (ESV) He is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world. Understanding the "ours" as referring to the universal church of believers, ...
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In Calvinism, why does free will to accept salvation seem to take away from God's glory?

Background: We are unable to accept Christ without His work in us. God gives every man, life, faith, breath, and everything else needed to come to Him. "And you hath he quickened, who were dead ...
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Who first said, “We are all born Pelagians?”

In What Is Reformed Theology? R. C. Sproul attributes the following quote to Roger Nicole, a 20th century Reformed theologian: We are all born Pelagians. (source) By this, Sproul means to say that ...
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What is the Calvinist and Hyper-Calvinist understanding of the “whosoever will” from Rev. 22:17?

And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that hears say, Come. And let him that is thirsty come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely. (Rev. 22:17 KJV) I've heard that ...
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From a Reformed perspective, does retroactive prayer makes sense?

From a reformed perspective, that God is outside of time, does it make sense to pray for something that already happened? Or, can a prayer cause God to impact time in a retroactive way? An example ...
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According to reformed theologians, was Barnabas an Apostle?

We usually read the position that there were only 12 Apostles + Paul, and that after the Apostolic era, we have no more Apostles at all. Specially I see this among Reformed theologians. But how do ...
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Why must God reach the fullness of Glory (reformed theology)?

Reformed theology stresses that God created the universe for one purpose: to glorify him fully. And to reach the fullness of Glory, God must demonstrate all that would glorify him. This means that to ...
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Covenants and reformed theology [closed]

As part of a theology course I've been asked to look at covenants, so I looked on Amazon for a book or two and was surprised to see many book titles including "reformed" or books written by reformed ...
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How do “once saved, always saved” advocates explain the Parable of the Sower?

How do advocates of a strict perseverance of the saints doctrine explain the Parable of the Sower? That is, how does someone explain it who believes that once someone is saved they cannot lose that ...
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Are there any Reformed theologians who support the practice of mindfulness (inner body awareness)? [closed]

As Eastern and Western religions begin to exchange lifestyles and practices, more and more Christians are participating in mindful meditation practices such as Zazen. When I refer to "mindfulness", I ...
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In Calvinism, is there any correlation with the elect and the “blessed” in the Beatitudes of Matthew 5?

(x-post from BH) I ask this as blessed can mean many things. Eternal life, financial wealth, health, having kids, having a job, being happy, etc. Blessings seem to be very broad, so I'd like to see ...
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If I seek God, does that mean that I MUST be elect, according to Calvinism? [duplicate]

I want to find God, at least I think I do. I struggle with the different interpretations of the path to salvation and even though I don't LIKE the idea of God electing some and giving others ...
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How could a just God design vessels whose only purpose is damnation, as predestination seems to teach? [duplicate]

Romans 9:20–23 (NKJV) But indeed, O man, who are you to reply against God? Will the thing formed say to him who formed it, “Why have you made me like this?” 21 Does not the potter have power over ...
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According to Reformed Baptist theology when did the Church begin?

According to Reformed Baptist theology, when did the Church begin? In the Old Testament or in the New Testament?
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Why do Covenant theologians use the word “dispensation,” and what do they mean by it?

The first time I read the Westminster Confession of Faith, a confession reflecting Covenant (or Reformed) theology, I was surprised to see the word dispensations used in it: There are not therefore ...
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What impact did Karl Barth have on Roman Catholic theology?

I ran across a book on Amazon called Karl Barth, Catholic Renewal and Vatican II. It seems strange to me that Karl Barth, a neo-orthodox Protestant, would have an impact like what the book's blurb ...
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According to Calvinists, how could Adam and Eve fall? How could Satan fall?

Under Calvinism, men under grace are guaranteed to choose God and be saved. If God's holy influence is so convincing, that it is impossible for free thinking creations to choose against it, why did ...
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What arguments were made against William Carey's missions efforts?

I am aware that William Carey's efforts to form a missions society and travel overseas as a missionary were opposed by some of his Calvinist (or hyper-Calvinist) Baptist peers. I'm vaguely aware of ...
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Do Reformed paedobaptists call for the baptism of household servants, just as Abraham's servants were circumcised?

In Genesis 17:9–13 we read: 9 And God said to Abraham, “As for you, you shall keep my covenant, you and your offspring after you throughout their generations. 10 This is my covenant, which you ...
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How have Calvinist theologians dealt with statements about God repenting?

There are a number of OT passages that seem to show God changing his mind.1 Perhaps most well-known is his approach to Nineveh in the book of Jonah (summarized in 3:10). An example from Jeremiah also ...
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If God “shows no partiality,” how do Calvinists defend predestination?

There are a number of verses in the Bible that say that God is "not partial" (Deuteronomy 10:17) or that he "shows no partiality" (Romans 2:11, ESV). How do Calvinists square such verses with their ...
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How do Calvinists explain Luke 19:41-44

How do Calvinists explain Luke 19:41-44: 41 And when he drew near and saw the city, he wept over it, 42 saying, “Would that you, even you, had known on this day the things that make for peace! ...
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Are foster children considered covenant children in Presbyterianism?

Foster children are on the one hand a part of the household but on the other hand not legally adopted and may be ultimately reunited with their birth parents. So do Presbyterians of a confessional ...
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What is meant by “Calvinistic Work Ethic”?

How does this compare, if applicable, with protestant work ethic?
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How do Reformed Churches justify applying the 4th commandment to the Lord's Day?

It is understood why Sunday is the Christian celebration every week, but it is not clear how the classically reformed justify applying the fourth commandment concerning the Sabbath, which was given to ...

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