Questions tagged [reformed-theology]

A branch of Protestantism emphasizing the sovereignty of God and his covenants with humanity. Also known as Calvinism.

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According to Calvinists, Luke 22:8 what date did it happen?

Luke 22 (7)Then came the day of Unleavened Bread on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. (8)Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and make preparations for us to eat the Passover." ...
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In Reformed Covenant Theology, why does the covenant sign of circumcision pass away but the Abrahamic covenant of which it was the sign of does not?

Galatians 3:16-18 denies that the Mosaic covenant annulled the promises of the Abrahamic and proceeds to argue the Christian gospel on the basis of the Abrahamic covenant against the idea of salvation ...
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According to Reformed Theology, how is Compatibilism different than Hard Determinism?

This question is related to What is the difference between hard determinism and compatibilism, under the assumption of physicalism?, but I'm looking for the Reformed/Calvinism understanding of this ...
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According to Reformed Theology, why do unbelievers deserve punishment?

I read this quote from John Calvin on some website: "...we allow that man has choice and that it is self-determined, so that if he does anything evil, it should be imputed to him and to his own ...
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What was the difference between Ratramnus's view of the Eucharist and that of Calvin?

In the First Eucharistic Controversy (ninth century), Paschasius Radbertus wrote a monograph arguing that the elements in communion were nothing less than the physical flesh and blood of Jesus. He ...
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According to Trinitarian theology of Calvinism, was the Word (2nd person of the Trinity) missing from heaven when He (the Word) incarnated on Earth?

What I mean with "missing from heaven" is something like this : A. Only the first and the third persons of the Trinity were in heaven because the second person was on Earth. Example: Q : Where is ...
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How does the Reformed tradition understand Philippians 2:6-9 as it regards the Hypostatic Union?

Philippians 2:6-9 (A) Though he was God, he did not think of equality with God as something to cling to but (B) emptied himself, by taking the form of a servant, being born in the ...
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What did Luther and Calvin believe about “Lucifer” in Isaiah 14?

To many Christians Lucifer of Isaiah 14 (not to be confused with Satan) is considered a visually beautiful, Rock n' Rolling cherub who fell from heaven to deceive mankind. And according to a few ...
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According to Reformed - 1 Corinthians 11:29-30, the words [weak, sick, died] literal or not?

1 Corinthians 11:29-30 (29) For if you eat the bread or drink the cup without honoring the body of Christ, you are eating and drinking God's judgment upon yourself. (30) That is why many of ...
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To the Calvinist, does Phillipians 1:29 mean that all the Philippians will go to heaven because all of them have already been elected?

Philippians 1:29 For unto you it is given in the behalf of Christ, not only to believe on him, but also to suffer for his sake. My understanding : 1. The word "you" is all of the Philippians. ...
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Ephesians 2:2, which one comes first in the Calvinist view?

Ephesians 2:2 reads: in which you used to live when you followed the ways of this world and of the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the spirit who is now at work in those who are disobedient. ...
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How can 1 Corinthians 15:3 be reconciled with Calvinism and limited atonement?

I have been studying the 5 Points of Calvinism (TULIP) for some time and I can say that I accept 4 out of 5. My biggest problem with Calvinism is the doctrine of Limited Atonement that says Jesus ...
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According to Reformed theology, why does God tell people to repent if they don't have the choice to do so, as in Exodus 10:3?

This question is addressed to those who believe in the doctrine of Total Depravity. In Exodus 10:3 God asks the Pharaoh for how long will he remain proud. Why does God ask such a question if the ...
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Does the love of God fulfil the Law, or keep the Law, or both? (Reformed view)

"If you love Me, you will keep My commandments." (John 14:15, ESV / NASB) There seem to be at least two opposing interpretations of Jesus' above statement, and similar Scripture, namely the following:...
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According to Calvinists, is each person “dead in sin” at birth, or only after committing a sin?

First I thought that there is no difference between OS (Original Sin) and TD (Total Depravity) in the Calvinist pov. This is what I first thought : (OS = TD) Cain/Abel/Seth (and their next ...
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According to Reformed theology, does God show special favor to some believers?

I am looking for answer from a reformed theology perspective. I know that there are verses in the Bible that God does not show favor. But at the same time there has been many instances where the son ...
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Is God's sovereignty a term associated with Reformed theology?

Is the concept of God's sovereignty disputed outside of Reformed theology, and is God's sovereignty a label for God that is exclusively used in the context of Reformed theology?
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How is the “spirituality of the church” consistent with theonomy?

In Hart and Muether's history of American Presbyterianism, Seeking a Better Country, they describe a doctrine of the "spirituality of the church," which emphasizes the spiritual, not social, task of ...
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What is the Calvinist view of Christians with different levels of loving God?

A) Scripture says no force or power can separate us from the Love of God. "For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor ...
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According to Reformed Theology, how does one make disciples?

According to Reformed Theology, how does one "make disciples"? Are "making disciples" and "evangelizing" synonymous?
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According to Calvinists, why did God say what He did to Cain in Genesis 4:7?

Both high and low Calvinists from this Wiki say that God authorized the Fall, by which all deserve to be condemned. Me: If there is no predestination at all, both Cain and Abel will end up in hell. ...
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Why isn't supralapsarianism's first decree to create?

From Wikipedia Supralapsarians believe that God chose which individuals to save logically prior to the decision to allow the race to fall and that the Fall serves as the means of realization of ...
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To the Calvinist, what does it mean that in the beginning God already has His object of wrath?

I have a Calvinist friend who told me that before the creation, God already knows the objects of His wrath. (I'm not a Christian). I question him "the objects of His wrath" is in a point of view in ...
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Being an endtime prophecy, how does Genesis 49:10 affect Christians since one side of it in ''Judah'' already has?

In Genesis 49:1, sons of Jacob gathered at his request that he may tell them what would 'befall them' in ''the last days,''which I understand being peculiar as an endtimes' reference. So when Jacob ...
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According to Reformed theology, when did the New Covenant start?

When instituting the Lord's Supper, Jesus Christ said (Luke 22:20, NIV): In the same way, after the supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out ...
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According to the Puritans, at what time did the Sabbath start and end?

In college, many of my Presbyterian brothers wouldn't study on Sunday, seeing that as a violation of the Christian Sabbath. But I heard that at least one of them, if he had a test on Monday morning, ...
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How did John Calvin reconcile killing followers of opposing religious views with the New Testament?

I was reading about persecutions by Christians and was wondering if the persecutors justified their violence with passages of the bible and how they reconciled that with the teachings of Jesus. In ...
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Is Jonathan Edwards's view of “philosophical necessity” compatible with the Westminster Standards?

Jonathan Edwards (1703–1758) was a major 18th century theologian who, though rooted in Reformed theology, innovated in some important ways. According to J. V. Fesko, in The Theology of the ...
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From the Reformed Perspective, What are “The Secret Things that Belong to the Lord”?

Given: Romans 11:33 (NIV) Oh, the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable his judgments, and his paths beyond tracing out! Isaiah 55:9 (NIV) As the heavens are higher ...
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What is the basis for Lutheran single predestination, as opposed to double predestination?

I was reading this question, What were the main doctrinal disagreements between Luther and Calvin?, and one of the differences between the two was Calvin believed in double predestination, while ...
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What is the basis for Calvinist double predestination, as opposed to single predestination?

I was reading this question, What were the main doctrinal disagreements between Luther and Calvin?, and one of the differences between the two was Calvin believed in double predestination, while ...
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How can there be Five Sola's (Solae) in Reformed theology?

Reformed soteriology usually centers on Five Sola statements. Literally, this Latin "Sola" means "alone" or "only" in translation. So how can 5 things that save us be, by name, alone or the only ...
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What is the basis for saying that B. B. Warfield believed in theistic evolution?

B. B. Warfield is commonly cited as a leading conservative Reformed theologian during the period leading up to the Fundamentalist/Modernist controversy of the early 20th century. One of the issues of ...
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When did Jesus assume human nature?

Did Jesus Christ, the second person of the Trinity, only assume impersonal (anhypostatic) human nature (body and soul), during incarnation, in which he was born of Mary? Or, did he already have human ...
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In Federal Vision theology, what is the difference between decisional regeneration and presupposed regeneration?

In some Reformed/Calvinist circles, a theological framework called the Federal Vision (FV) has led to significant internal debate over the true nature of the covenant between God and man, and, by ...
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In Reformed theology, are Christians still “totally depraved”?

In 2012, Calvinist pastor Tullian Tchividjian wrote an article, "Are Christians Totally Depraved?", in which he applied the language of total depravity to both non-Christians and Christians. He ...
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According to reformed theology, who or what will the saints reign over during the millenium?

Regarding the 1000 years, Revelation 20:6 states: Blessed and holy is the one who takes part in the first resurrection. The second death has no power over them, but they will be priests of God ...
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According to reformed theology, who or what will the saints reign over in eternity?

Revelation 22:5 states: Night will be no more, and they will not need the light of a lamp or the light of the sun, because the Lord God will shine on them, and they will reign forever and ever. ...
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What is the biblical basis used by Reformed theologians to argue that all those dying in infancy are saved?

In American Presbyterianism and Reformed theology more generally, one of the controversial issues has been the fate of children dying in infancy. The Westminster Confession of Faith reads: Elect ...
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What is an overview of Reformed beliefs about hell?

Could somebody please provide an overview of the various beliefs that the Reformed churches hold regarding hell? If possible, but not required for an accepted answer, it would be great if they could ...
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According to Reformed theology, is teaching a false Trinitarian concept considered blasphemy?

There are several people that do not understand the trinity. I hear things such as "God is like water. He is liquid, steam, and solid". This analogy actually comes with a longer explanation about how ...
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What is the distinction between Justification and Salvation? (Reformed point of view)

As a practicing Christian, my only hope is for salvation through Jesus Christ. I note that scripture addresses salvation from a variety of perspectives and analogies, but also I find that in Paul's ...
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According to Reformed theology, where is the Scriptural evidence for homoousion?

The Westminster Confession of Faith says: The whole counsel of God, concerning all things necessary for his own glory, man’s salvation, faith, and life, is either expressly set down in scripture, ...
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Why have conservative Presbyterians objected to chapters on the Holy Spirit and the Gospel in the Westminster Confession?

In the United States, the mainline Presbyterian denomination (the PCUSA), along with several other Presbyterian bodies, include two chapters that were first added to the Westminster Confession in 1903....
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Did Pentecostalism lead to Cessationism in the modern Reformed churches?

I understand that several theologians throughout church history believed that the gifts of the Spirit had ceased or mostly ceased. It didn't seem like a huge point of contention for them as it is ...
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How does Reformed Theology reconcile Jesus' meaningful temptation and impeccability?

According to Reformed Theology (the predominant view or an overview of slight variations within), how is the impeccability of Jesus reconciled with the idea that his temptations were authentic to the ...
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Why have some conservative Reformed churches objected to the Belhar Confession?

Among the reasons given by several Reformed Church in America churches in the midwestern US when leaving the denomination are issues with the Belhar Confession, a document emphasizing reconciliation ...
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How do various traditions define the term “sufficient grace”?

I have read various polemics on the topics of Augustinianism, Calvinism, Jansenism, Pelagianism, Arminianism, and Catholicism which seem to use the term "sufficient grace" in different ways. For ...
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In what ways did early Jansenists believe that their doctrine of salvation differed from that of Calvinism?

The soteriology of Jansenism appears to bear some resemblance to that of Calvinism, as both emphasize doctrines like original sin, predestination, and irresistible grace. The two movements also share ...
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What are the practical differences between German Lutheran and Swiss Reformed traditions?

I know very little about the German Lutheran church and what set them appart from the religion I've been raised in, Swiss Reformed. However, my understanding is that they are closer to Catholics, and ...

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