Questions tagged [reformed-theology]

A branch of Protestantism emphasizing the sovereignty of God and his covenants with humanity. Also known as Calvinism.

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Calvinism: Dealing with paradoxes

In a video entitled "John MacArthur: Calvinism vs. Arminianism", Todd Friel of Wretched gives a short introduction before showing a clip of John MacArthur at some event several years ago, allegedly ...
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How do Calvinists argue that limited atonement is just and merciful?

Why is it just or merciful that God predetermines who is to be saved and who is to be damned, before they are even born? Does that not mean a murderer may be saved and a charity worker damned?
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What hard evidence is there that Charles Wesley was Arminian?

It is well-known that John Wesley was an adherent and defender of Arminian soteriology. I have noticed that it is often assumed, and occasionally explicitly asserted, that his brother Charles agreed ...
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What is the easy and less complicated definition of predestination [Calvinism]?

I am finding it difficult to understand the Calvinistic ideas of limited atonement and predestination. Does limited atonement mean that only a chosen people called the elect will attain salvation? If ...
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Did John Calvin believe that the grandchildren of a believer are entitled to infant baptism?

In Calvinism, the children of believers are considered "members of the covenant" and as a sign of that covenant, they are baptized as infants. Practically speaking, this means that if at least one ...
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Election, Gods Sovereignty and Is Cain Saved?

Does Calvinism (and those who believe in Unconditional Election) teach that Cain was elected to Salvation? This is my source for defining Unconditional Election. Unconditional Election: God does ...
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How do Lutherns and Reformers explain when God's Preceptive Will goes against His Decretive Will?

Is there any insight to understand how God Himself doesn't wish any to fall away (His preceptive will) and the fact that His decretive will states that some will? Further, Zachariah and Romans speak ...
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According to Reformed Covenant theology, how were the people of Israel “purchased” per Exodus 15:16?

In the triumphal song of Moses, it is mentioned in 15:15 that the people were purchased. Exodus 15:16 Terror and dread fall upon them; because of the greatness of your arm, they are still ...
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How did Aquinas and Reformation-era Protestants disagree on God's will?

Thomas Aquinas distinguished between God's antecedent and consequent wills. Meanwhile, the Reformed confessions (eg Westminster Confession) distinguished between God's decretive and revealed wills. ...
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Did any actual Puritan congregations impose scarlet letters on adulterers?

Nathaniel Hawthorne's (fictional) book, the Scarlet Letter, in my opinion, has seared a characterization in people's minds that Puritans were dour, hypocritical, legalistic, and shame-driven ...
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Calvinists: How to avoid justification from eternity?

I'm having trouble understanding how Calvinists avoid the doctrine of justification from eternity, which roughly states that the elect are justified either before the creation of the world or at the ...
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What was Van Til's view on the use and validity of historical proofs for the resurrection?

Cornelius Van Til was the pioneer of presuppositional apologetics, and was one of the founding members of Westminster Theological Seminary. The defenses of faith that he developed sought to apply the ...
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Does the Westminster Confession affirm or deny Luther's predilection for Paul's writings?

My understanding is that the Westminster Confession is the official defining document of "Reformed theology". That is, if someone is "Reformed" then they agree completely or almost completely with the ...
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Calvinism: limited atonement and the negative inference fallacy

All Biblical proof-texts that Calvinists use to provide evidence for the doctrine of limited atonement suffer from an objective logical fallacy informally known as the 'negative inference fallacy.' A ...
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According to Reformed Theology, what is the doctrinal basis for belief in New Testament tithing?

Most Reformed churches refer to "tithes and offerings" as an understanding of the giving structure in church. Reformed Theology as a theological framework is careful about ensuring there is a biblical ...
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A quote from Calvin about all five points?

I have heard that John Calvin either stated, or made reference to, the necessity of holding all 5 points of Calvinism. If one is dropped, the whole system collapses. I can't find this reference. If ...
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How is the atonement sufficient for salvation according to Calvinists?

Because there is not a single verse in the Bible that explicitly states that Christ laid down his life only for believers (the elect), Calvinists typically defend their doctrine of limited atonement ...
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According to Calvinism, if Catholicism might lead to salvation, why to remain a Calvinist? (Henry IV story)

In his 1786 book, "The History of Heresies and Their Refutation", (saint) Alphonsus Liguiri wrote: I think the danger of eternal perdition, by dying separated from the Church, should be a ...
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How do Covenant Theologians explain the Noahic covenant?

In Covenant Theology, the Covenant of Grace is a singular overarching covenant God makes with his people. The various Biblical covenants are understood to be expressions or administrations of this ...
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What does the Roman Catholic Church teach about covenant theology?

In Reformed theology, there are summary theological constructs termed the covenant of works, the covenant of grace, and the covenant of redemption. In short, the covenant of works encompasses the path ...
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226 views

Do conservative Presbyterians accept 4-point Calvinists?

I realize that many conservative Presbyterian churches (PCA, OPC, etc.) have fairly basic standards for membership, not requiring much more than baptism and a basic affirmation of faith, although ...
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According to Reformed Theology, how does omniscience relate to election?

If before the creation, God had planned everything from A to Z of the life on the earth since it's created until the end of day and every life of each individual from A to Z since he/she was born ...
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How do Arminians interpret God's reserving of a remnant in Romans 11:4?

Much has been written about Romans 9 and the differing Calvinist/Arminian interpretations of it. However, Arminians (and I consider myself an Arminian) usually argue that, read in context with the ...
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Perseverance of the Saints – Historical Interpretations before Calvin

When I read the writings of early Christians I am constantly seeing references to persevering to the end and absolutely nothing resembling this teaching. It is almost as if everything taught prior to ...
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“Holy man / saints” in the point of view of God according to the Calvinist?

I was in the middle of a discussion in a Christian Forum, where the Calvinist member say that : "holy man / saint" can only exist only after Jesus died. Before Jesus died, all the OT people are ...
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From a Calvinist perspective, if Adam refused the fruit what would happen to their descendants?

And the woman saw that the tree was good to eat, and fair to the eyes, and delightful to behold: and she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave to her husband who did eat. Genesis 3:6 What ...
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For those who deny the Immaculate Conception, why did Jesus not have original sin?

The Westminster Confession (8:2) says Jesus is of the substance of Mary: The Son of God, the second person of the Trinity, being very and eternal God, of one substance and equal with the Father, ...
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What does “God is just” mean according to Calvinists?

In our world, what we understand about "justice" is not just a verdict between guilty or not guilty, because it also balances the punishment on the severity of the crime. Here is an illustration: ...
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If Christ had a complete human nature, how come his human nature wasn't totally depraved as ours is?

I understand the reformed doctrine of total depravity to be that the human nature is such that it is utterly unable to choose to follow God. Another way I've heard it put is that men are by nature ...
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Who is “you” in Genesis 3:15 according to the Calvinist?

I have a "connected" question before in here. And I think I made a mistake to ask a question like that directly. So, I will start here first : Genesis 3:15 I will put enmity between you and the ...
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Does evanescent grace remove all assurance of salvation? [closed]

The symptoms of evanescent grace and real grace seem to be indistinguishable. yet experience shows that the reprobate are sometimes affected in a way so similar to the elect, that even in their own ...
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The word “faith” in Matthew 17:20, Matthew 21:21 according to Reformed?

Matthew 17:20 And He said to them, "Because of the littleness of your faith; for truly I say to you, if you have faith the size of a mustard seed, you will say to this mountain, 'Move from here ...
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Did John Calvin observe Christmas?

In some strands of Reformed theology, the regulative principle of worship is understood to mean that "church holidays," not specifically established in the Bible, should not be recognized in public ...
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How are the Decretive, Preceptive, and Permissive wills of God defined?

I've heard people talk about the Decretive, the Preceptive, and the Permissive wills of God, but I don't entirely understand them. What do they mean and what makes them distinct from each other?
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Is “You cannot love your neighbour unless you love yourself” a form of antinomianism?

The second great commandment, "You shall love your neighbour as yourself," is often turned into "You cannot love your neighbour unless you love yourself." Is this a form of antinomianism? If not, how ...
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Reformed Theology [closed]

Can anyone point me to a scholarly article or book that clearly, definitively, and authoritatively defines what qualifies a person or denomination as "reformed"? I've heard Presbyterians claim that ...
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Who does John 6:40 refer to according to Reformed theology? [closed]

For my Father's will is that everyone who looks to the Son and believes in him shall have eternal life, and I will raise them up at the last day. —John 6:40 NIV (emphasis mine) Does the bold ...
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Why didn't God forgive Saul when he asked for it?

In 1 Samuel 15:24-25 (NIV): 24 Then Saul said to Samuel, “I have sinned. I violated the Lord’s command and your instructions. I was afraid of the men and so I gave in to them. 25 Now I beg you, ...
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Is the choice, or decision, to accept Salvation through Jesus Christ a Work?

While reviewing the superb answers to this question about free will, I was inspired to leave a comment for Ian that I realized ought to be its own question. As I understand (and possibly ...
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How do monergists respond to Bible verses that support the doctrine of synergism?

How do Lutherans, Calvinists and other protestants that believe in monergism respond to biblical passages that seem to support synergism such as these? For example: "Be perfect, therefore, as ...
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What does John 3:16 mean according to Calvinism?

John 3:16 For God so loved the world that He gave His one and only Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish but have eternal life. I originally believed the sentence above is like an ...
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Reformed View of Titus 2:11 and Irresistible Grace

Titus 2:11 says For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men... How does this fit with Irresistible Grace? From my understanding of Irresistible Grace, when God's grace ...
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How do Calvinists understand “anyone” in 2 Peter 3:9?

2 Peter 3:9 The Lord is not slow in keeping his promise, as some understand slowness. Instead he is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance From a ...
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From reformed perspective, what does the oil in the foolish virgin's lamp represent?

This question is related to the question: How do "once saved always saved" advocates explain the parable of the wise virgins? Many of the answers explain that the foolish virgins never had oil, ...
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How would a Reformed theologian distinguish his or her view of atonement?

The term 'limited atonement' has been used, and I wonder how the Reformed is differing by definition from the Evangelical view of atonement. Further, what Scriptures do the Reformed base this view ...
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According to Reformed theology are the Psalms suitable preaching/prayers/songs for Christians?

In other words, are the Psalms considered Jewish-specific or deemed equally useful as prayers and songs for Christians? For example, is the first Psalm a Christian Psalm as well as a Jewish Psalm? ...
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How would a Calvinist interpret Matthew 13:37-40?

(37) He answered, “The one who sows the good seed is the Son of Man. (38) The field is the world, and the good seed is the sons of the kingdom. The weeds are the sons of the evil one, (39) and the ...
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How does reformed theology reconcile the universal resurrection with limited atonement

When reading about the Reformed doctrine of limited atonement I can follow the logical flow as follows: Hell is punishment for sin, the outpouring of the wrath of God Heaven is being with God in the ...
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In what sense do Presbyterians consider Christ's sacrifice “perfect”?

This question concerns in part the following quote heard regularly by Presbyterian Pastors: “Catholics deny the sufficiency of Christ’s redemptive work on the cross and by doing so, forfeit their ...
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According to Calvinism, when and what happen during the Lord's Passover in the time of Moses?

Exodus 12:11 This is how you are to eat it: with your cloak tucked into your belt, your sandals on your feet and your staff in your hand. Eat it in haste; it is the LORD's Passover. From the ...

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