Questions tagged [reformed-theology]

A branch of Protestantism emphasizing the sovereignty of God and his covenants with humanity. Also known as Calvinism.

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What is the most authentic Reformed 'ordo salutis'?

This question follows on from a comment made in the previous closed question. The Wikipedia article on the subject of ordo salutis quotes and lists the following, in the following order, as '...
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In Reformed theology, where are baptism and the Lord's supper in the ordo salutis?

Baptism and the Lord's supper are means of grace in Reformed theology, but yet we don't see it explicitly mentioned in Calvinist ordo salutis. According to one Reformed pastor writing for the ...
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Why don't Reformed Christians consider it necessary to confess to a priest?

Reformed Christians, like Presbyterians differ from the Catholic and Orthodox Church in their understanding of forgiveness of ones' sins. One way in which they differ is not having the sacrament of ...
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In Reformed Theology what mechanisms and practices does God provide a believer to help fight temptation?

In Reformed Theology what mechanisms and practices does God provide a believer to help fight temptation? Common answers are grace, prayer, Holy Spirit, and possibly others. But how does God make ...
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How did Richard Baxter support his arguments against John Owen (in 1649 and thereafter)?

In 1648 John Owen (1616-1683) published his definitive work The Death of Death in the Death of Christ which produced an almost immediate response, in the next year, from Richard Baxter (1615-1691) and ...
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What do Reformed Christians understand by God's foreordination?

The reformed, Westminster Confession of faith, reads in chapter three: God from all eternity, did, by the most wise and holy counsel of His own will, freely, and unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes ...
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Who compiled the Canons of Dort?

I have found many articles and discussions online regarding the Canons of Dort but have yet to find who was actually instrumental in formulating this document. Can anyone tell me or link to some ...
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What is the Biblical Basis for the belief that Christ's death was not for everyone (The notion called Limited Atonement)? [duplicate]

Im not asking for an overview of different denominations' views, but rather scriptural evidence for the view held by Calvinists that Christ's death was not for everyone. I'm very familiar with alleged ...
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Calvinism and Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit

Matthew 12:31 says blasphemy of the Holy Spirit is an unforgivable sin. Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit in the ESV Study Bible, says that it is, "This sin is committed today only by unbelievers who ...
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What is a Reformed substitute for Catholic Marian Doctrine in exemplifying the new dignity accorded women?

A pattern I see in scripture is that God performs a literal act in history, then makes it into the concrete support for a doctrinal principle, a fitting example. He creates the world and all of ...
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Whose hand wrote 'the document that listed my transgressions' ? (Colossians 2:14)

This is a question in regard to Trinitarian, Protestant, reformed, baptist doctrine. In Colossians 2:14 Paul states : Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was ...
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Calvinist and Arminian debate before the 16th century?

For some 500 years after the reformation, the Calvinist and Arminian debate is still ongoing on, both between scholars and layman Christians. You can simply google or search in youtube how much hatred ...
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What practices are prohibited by Protestant churches but not explicitly prohibited by the Bible?

I would like examples of practices that are prohibited by Protestant churches (consider only Protestant churches that accept the Westminster Confession of Faith) but are not explicitly prohibited in ...
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Did John Calvin say “The worst of plagues is human reason”?

I have searched high and low for the source of this quote, attributed to John Calvin, but to no avail. This link provides approximately 425 quotes, but I could not find "The worst of plagues is ...
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What is the current Reformed and Protestant view of the 'image of the beast' (Revelation 13: 14 &15)?

The traditional view of previous centuries after the Reformation focused on the religious authority of the time and its political affiliations (corresponding to the first, sea, beast and the second, ...
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Is this a Calvinistic or Arminian statement of faith?

We believe in the Holy Trinity consisting of God the Father, Jesus Christ, His only begotten Son, and the Holy Spirit. We believe this triune God to be perfect in every way and worthy of our complete ...
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Whose is the 'grace of God that bringeth salvation' ? (Titus 2:11)

This question is in the context of Protestant Trinitarianism. There are two schools of thought within Protestant Trinitarianism : one, founded mainly in the Westminster Confession (or Savoy ...
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Is the Pope the Antichrist or the spirit of the Antichrist?

According to reformed theology, in the Savoy Declaration of Faith, Chapter 26 (Of the Church), paragraph 4, the Pope is the Antichrist. There is no other Head of the Church but the Lord Jesus Christ; ...
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Do Reformed theologians understand the Catholic Church and the Papacy to have been true heirs of Peter until the Reformation?

In other words, say, in the fourth century, were they "on track" and the legitimate heirs of the reins of Christianity, so to speak but then went off track toward the middle ages? Or do they ...
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What did the early church fathers have to say about “eternal security” or “assurance of salvation”

I am trying to find out what the early church fathers had to say about “eternal security” or “assurance of salvation”. By that, I refer to the following Bible verses: To Him who is able to keep you ...
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Do ghosts exist or not? [duplicate]

What is the view of reformed churches on the subject of ghosts? Do they exist or do they not? If they exist, what are they: demons or spirits of dead people or both?
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What does Sinclair Ferguson (a reformed theologian) mean by a 'new identity'?

I watched some of the Youtube recordings of lectures given by Sinclair Ferguson and I am now uncertain which one it was in which he stated that in Colossians we see that 'we are given a new identity'. ...
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What is the difference between Arminianism, Molinism, and Calvinism?

I know the basic difference between Arminianism and Calvinism in the soteriology subject, but when Molinism comes I can't grasp the core doctrines that it teaches. I'm not asking for which is better, ...
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Who first came up with the “four attributes of Scripture”?

There's a lot written about the "four attributes of Scripture", meaning it's "Sufficient, Necessary, Authoritative and Perspicuous". On the other hand, most sources (like this one) ...
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What is the earliest claim that Jesus Christ kept the law of Moses on behalf of others?

J N Darby and William Kelly, those responsible for the Plymouth Brethren movement in the mid to late 1800s, did not accept the concept that, during his earthly life, Jesus Christ kept the law on ...
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Why Many Who Believe That “All Are Born Sinful” Hold That “None Are Born Gay Or Trans”?

Many Protestants, though not technically or officially Reformed, are nevertheless strongly influenced by Calvinistic theology; as such, they espouse the doctrine of total depravity, teaching that all ...
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Christ 'made' sin - the Reformed, Protestant view?

Following on from both of the two recent questions regarding the inheritance or transmission of 'original' or 'inbred' sin, from generation to generation, I am interested in the Trinitarian, ...
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Where is Jesus' body now?

In Acts 1 we're told: After he said this, he was taken up before their very eyes, and a cloud hid him from their sight. They were looking intently up into the sky as he was going, when suddenly two ...
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How do Reformed Protestants interpret Matthew 18:18?

How do Reformed Protestants interpret Matthew 18:18? Truly, I say to you, whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. - Matthew 18:...
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In the Reformed tradition, can an elect expect progressive recovery of reason, emotion, and will before death?

Reformed tradition teaches that human beings are totally depraved, and cannot even come to faith without God's assistance. Their reason rejects God's supremacy, their will refuses God's invitation, ...
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Is ”sola scriptura” the first appeal of “Ecclesia Reformata, Semper Reformanda?”

"Sola scriptura" & "Ecclesia Reformata, Semper Reformanda" (a church reformed and always to be reformed according to the Word of God) are the "two mottos" among others, from the early church and ...
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Why the word “REgenerate” according to the Calvinist?

I've search in the internet : RE- a prefix, occurring originally in loanwords from Latin, used with the meaning “again” or “again and again” to indicate repetition, or with the meaning “back” ...
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Did 17th century Reformed Christians reject textual criticism?

The Westminster Confession says the following: WCF 1.8: The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the native language of the people of God of old), and the New Testament in Greek (which at the time of ...
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In what sense do faith and hope remain?

In 1 Corinthians 13, the Apostle Paul discusses various different spiritual gift, explaining that most of them will be redundant in the New Creation, and therefore "fade away". He concludes his ...
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God's foreknowledge according to the Calvinist?

I read from this link-1 Romans 8:29 means that God “fore-loved” certain people, and predestinated them And from this link-2 1 Peter 1:20 says Christ was "foreknown before the foundation of ...
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Eschatology: Reformed and Roman Catholic?

I've heard that both Reformed and Roman Catholic eschatologies have Augustine as a major foundation. True?
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In what sense are angels elect?

In 1 Timothy 5:21 we read: I charge you, in the sight of God and Christ Jesus and the elect angels, to keep these instructions without partiality, and to do nothing out of favoritism. 1 Timothy 5:...
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In Hebrew 5:9, what changed about the Son's perfection?

In the book of Hebrews, we read: 8 Son though he was, he learned obedience from what he suffered 9 and, once made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation for all who obey him 10 and was ...
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Is the root of salvation correctly summed up as “Be saved and repent!” or should it be “Repent and be saved!”?

In the article below, the phrase "Be saved and repent!" was endorsed. I wish to know what a Reformed Protestant view would be on this. The context for the phrase is this: The editor wrote an article ...
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How are Regeneration, Faith, and Union with Christ ordered in Reformed Theology?

In the Reformed Ordo Salutis, or order of salvation, how are Regeneration, Faith, and Union with Christ ordered? (Note that the order of salvation is a logical order, not temporal, and the believer ...
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Does Reformed Theology teach that Old Testament saints were personally united to Christ?

Union with Christ is a central doctrine in Reformed Theology, and concerns the mystical union of the believer with Christ, by faith and by the Holy Spirit. In faith the Spirit unites us to Christ, and ...
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Calvinism vs Independent Fundamental Baptist

I would like to know how does Calvinism differ from Independent Fundamental Baptist teachings. If someone can point main differences in a form of points (f.e. 1st point, 2nd point and so on for ...
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How do Calvinists understand the argument that only the Ephesian church were elect in the context of Ephesians?

I was talking to an individual and he told me that the Calvinist premise that we were elect before the creation of the world is false because the verse in Ephesians 1 is taken out of context. He said ...
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How do reformed theologians reconcile John 15:2 with “once saved always saved"?

Every branch in me (εν έμοι ) that beareth not fruit, he taketh it away: and every branch that beareth fruit, he [the Father, v1] cleanseth it, that it may bear more fruit. (John 15:2, ASV) Some ...
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In the Sanctification stage (Reformed perspective) are believers truly becoming more like Christ (“infusion” not imputed)?

Believers who have been born again (regenerated) should have the desire to be conformed to Christ completely and should mourn when we find out that there are sins STILL to repent during the walk in ...
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Did the authors of the Westminster Confession of Faith ever explain why they thought God could not be the author of sin?

Ch3 of the W.C.of F. says "neither is God the author of sin". One can make something which is entirely different from oneself. e.g. if someone makes a cake they do not become a cake themselves. ...
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What are the core beliefs of Presbyterianism? How does it differ and compare to other denominations of reformed Protestantism?

I have never thought of myself as being overtly religious ever in my life (in high school). I have never gone to church, but what I am now realizing is that I have been raised (more or less) as a ...
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How do Calvinists interpret Acts 7:51 in light of the doctrine of 'irresistible grace?'

In light of the doctrine of irresistable grace, how do Calvinists interpret Acts 7:51? Acts 7:51 (DRB) You stiffnecked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, you always resist the Holy Ghost: as your ...
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According to the Calvinist, why “believe” if something is known absolutely true?

From this link: Christians have said Scripture is infallible because they have believed that God’s Word is incapable of erring and thus contains no errors The above sentences maybe to everyone ...
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Are all the elect raptured before the Tribulation, according to Calvinists?

From this link: It seems inconsistent for God to promise believers that they will not suffer wrath and then leave them on the earth to suffer through the wrath of the tribulation. If the Bible is ...

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