Questions tagged [reformed-theology]

A branch of Protestantism emphasizing the sovereignty of God and his covenants with humanity. Also known as Calvinism.

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What is the Biblical basis for Total Depravity?

Calvin, among his other points starts with the point that we are totally depraved and sinful from birth. What is the Biblical basis for this point?
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Do Calvinists believe they know whether they are saved?

My question is pretty straightforward: Do Calvinists believe they know whether they are saved? This might seem like a strange question at first glance, so let me explain why I'm asking. From what I ...
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What is the Biblical basis for Limited Atonement?

Calvin, among his other points, includes the point that Atonement is Limited; i.e., that Christ's death was sufficient for all but only effective for the elect. What is the Biblical basis for this ...
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How can God be Sovereign (in the Reformed sense) if a man can ignore His call to repentance?

The Scriptures tell us: The times of ignorance God overlooked, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent, because he has fixed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness by a ...
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Is the God Calvinists believe in unjust? [closed]

Who I am: ex worship leader / lifelong "Christian" of 18 years, now agnostic. Why I ask: If God is the way I am about to describe (unjust from a human perspective), why follow him? From my ...
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What is the Biblical basis for Unconditional Election?

Calvin, among his other points includes the point that we are Unconditionally Elected and chosen by God alone and nothing we can do can help or hurt this fact. What is the Biblical basis for this?
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According to Calvinism, why does God give mercy to some and not to others?

So according to Calvinism as I understand it... ...God has chosen from eternity to extend mercy to those he has chosen and to withhold mercy from those not chosen. Those chosen receive salvation ...
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How does free will fit with the doctrine of predestination?

The Calvinistic doctrine of predestination states that God has chosen who will live and who will die. That Christians are unconditionally elected for salvation or damnation. However, how does this ...
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Did the church fathers or OT talk about the visible and invisible church?

In the Reformation, the doctrine of the distinction between the visible and invisible church was important in the Reformers' claim not to have started a rogue church. I am wondering... Given that it ...
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What is the Biblical basis for Irresistible Grace?

Calvin, among his other points, includes the point that when we are saved, we are irresistibly drawn to God and that there is nothing we can do to prevent this or cause this. What is the Biblical ...
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How do “once saved, always saved” advocates explain the Parable of the Sower?

How do advocates of a strict perseverance of the saints doctrine explain the Parable of the Sower? That is, how does someone explain it who believes that once someone is saved they cannot lose that ...
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If God “shows no partiality,” how do Calvinists defend predestination?

There are a number of verses in the Bible that say that God is "not partial" (Deuteronomy 10:17) or that he "shows no partiality" (Romans 2:11, ESV). How do Calvinists square such verses with their ...
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How do Calvinists explain God's wanting no one to perish and electing some to judgement?

I have two ideas that have support in the bible, but seem to contradict! Please help! I am looking for a Calvinist/Evangelical answer. These two verses have the general effect that God does not want ...
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Do Calvinists rejoice in the destruction of sinners?

I recently re-read "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" and I was struck by the pleasure Jonathan Edwards seemed to have taken in describing the imminent destruction of sinners: The God that ...
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What is the basis for Lutheran single predestination, as opposed to double predestination?

I was reading this question, What were the main doctrinal disagreements between Luther and Calvin?, and one of the differences between the two was Calvin believed in double predestination, while ...
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What major changes have American Presbyterians made to the Westminster Confession of Faith?

As someone who generally affirms the Westminster Confession of Faith, one comment I hear periodically is that I therefore must believe that the Pope is the Antichrist. However, the Confession ...
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Are Calvinism and Arminianism compatible?

This question may seem ridiculous at first glance, but bear with me... As I learn more about Calvinism and Arminianism I am struck with the notion that they are each based on Scripture, and each ...
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How are the teachings in the Book of James consistent with Salvation by Grace alone?

I was reading through James today and I understand his point was to convey to the Jews that only having faith - but not showing your gratitude for the grace they've received - is not good. He does get ...
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Origin of the Reformed “Marks of the True Church”

In Reformed Theology, "the marks of a true church" are often delineated, to the effect of: Church discipline Teaching/preaching Administration of the sacraments (These are the marks often denoted in ...
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What is the Biblical argument against Limited Atonement?

The "L" in the TULIP acronym of Reformed Theology stands for Limited Atonement, which the Pocket Dictionary of Theological Terms defines as: Sometimes called 'particular redemption,' the view that ...
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What is the Calvinist perspective on regeneration?

When do Calvinists consider an elect person to be regenerate? If it is at birth, then is it odd that someone who is "regenerate" is living in sin, up until the point of faith in Christ? And if it is ...
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According to Calvinists, does God command the non-elect to do what is for them impossible?

Question: Does God, according to Calvinism, command people He has specifically given neither the ability nor choice to do so to repent and believe in Christ or be damned?1, 2 And if so, why? ...
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What is the distinction between Justification and Salvation? (Reformed point of view)

As a practicing Christian, my only hope is for salvation through Jesus Christ. I note that scripture addresses salvation from a variety of perspectives and analogies, but also I find that in Paul's ...
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What is the difference between the doctrines of “Perseverance of the Saints” and “Eternal Security?”

The terms "Perseverance of the Saints," "Eternal Security," and the phrase "once saved, always saved" are a bit fuzzy in my head. I understand the general concept behind them, but what are the ...
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Why must God reach the fullness of Glory (reformed theology)?

Reformed theology stresses that God created the universe for one purpose: to glorify him fully. And to reach the fullness of Glory, God must demonstrate all that would glorify him. This means that to ...
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What is supralapsarianism?

One of the main reasons Jacobus Arminius split with Calvinism was his opposition to the doctrine of supralapsarianism taught by his colleagues at Leiden University. What is supralapsarianism? Is it a ...
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What is Common Grace?

The term "Common Grace" is often thrown around in reformed circles. What is this concept? What is the scriptural basis for the belief?
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What happens if someone who is not elect tries to seek God?

From the perspective of Reformed Theology, in relation to Unconditional Election: What happens if someone who is not elect, tries to seek God? Does God reject them? Or this an impossibility - does ...
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According to Calvinists, how could Adam and Eve fall? How could Satan fall?

Under Calvinism, men under grace are guaranteed to choose God and be saved. If God's holy influence is so convincing, that it is impossible for free thinking creations to choose against it, why did ...
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According to reformed theology, how does the fall glorify God?

What this question is not about: This question is NOT about: Is God omniscient (all knowing?), omnipotent (all powerful?) and benevolent? Then if God foresaw the first sin, and had the power to stop ...
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Reformed perspective on “It seemed good to the Holy Spirit and to us” (Acts 15:28)

Acts 15 records the Council of Jerusalem, a meeting in about 50AD of early Church leaders regarding whether Gentiles could be Christians without first becoming Jews. "After much discussion" (15:7) ...
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Why is “faith” omitted as a doctrinal consideration in TULIP (five point) Calvinism?

Throughout the Bible “faith” coupled with God’s “grace” is essential for salvation. The I in TULIP stands for irresistible “grace”, what role does “faith” hold in Calvinism and why is it isolated ...
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What belief system would combine both elements from Calvinism and Arminianism?

I've often heard some people describe themselves as a "Calminianist" in an attempt to say through a portmanteau that they ascribe to both Calvinism and Arminianism. Is/Are there some universally ...
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What is the Calvinist and Hyper-Calvinist understanding of the “whosoever will” from Rev. 22:17?

And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that hears say, Come. And let him that is thirsty come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely. (Rev. 22:17 KJV) I've heard that ...
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If Christ had a complete human nature, how come his human nature wasn't totally depraved as ours is?

I understand the reformed doctrine of total depravity to be that the human nature is such that it is utterly unable to choose to follow God. Another way I've heard it put is that men are by nature ...
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According to Reformed churches, is the trinity a finalized doctrine?

From 325 AD at the Council of Nicea up to about the 8th century, councils have been held to determine the correct nature of God. It was eventually decided that the bible reveals a triune god- one god ...
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What is an overview of Reformed beliefs about hell?

Could somebody please provide an overview of the various beliefs that the Reformed churches hold regarding hell? If possible, but not required for an accepted answer, it would be great if they could ...
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According to Reformed theology, what is an infant's first sin?

From what I understand, every human that has ever lived is "born into sin", which means we all carry a "sin nature". Saul says: "For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God" Romans 3:23 ...
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According to Calvinists, Luke 22:8 what date did it happen?

Luke 22 (7)Then came the day of Unleavened Bread on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. (8)Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and make preparations for us to eat the Passover." ...
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How would Reformed Christians deal with homosexual marriage of individuals prior to their conversion to Christianity?

I've been pondering this for several weeks and I believe that the reformed church (really, the church in general) is woefully unprepared to answer the following question: How would the church deal ...
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According to reformed theology, why are certain important doctrines not “obvious”? [i.e. why does the Westminister Confession even exist?]

Consider the important doctrines of: divinity of Christ doctrine of Trinity doctrine of predestination Consider in general, that the Westminister Confession is shorter than most books of the Bible. ...
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How does Calvinism explain how an omniscient, omnipotent, and omnibenevolent creator could NOT have a plan for universal salvation?

In the haze of discerning truth and wisdom by the hybrid application of scripture, tradition, philosophy, and experience it seems illogical that a loving creator with perfect and complete knowledge ...
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“God desires all men to be saved” from a Calvinist perspective?

If I understand correctly, Calvinists believe that God selects certain people for salvation based solely on His will... that is, the selection has nothing to do with the people themselves. My question ...
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What is the difference between Reformed and Presbyterian

I feel like this is a dumb question, but maybe, just maybe, I'm not the only one confused by this. Maybe if I'm willing to stick my neck out and look stupid, the answer will be here for those poor ...
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How are the Calvinist, Arminian and Lutheran conceptions of Total Depravity different?

I'm quite sure I understand the concept of Total Depravity, but I'm not sure it's viewed exactly the same in different doctrinal frameworks that support it. I've spent a lot of time among Lutherans, ...
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Did John Calvin teach that God creates certain souls only to be destroyed?

From what I understand, Calvin not only taught, but effectively systematized the doctrine of "predestinarianism," which holds that: God for His own glorification, and without any regard to original ...
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How did Reformed Theologians view works-based “Heavenly Rewards”?

I am currently reading Erwin Lutzer's "Your Eternal Reward". I also watched MacArthus's "Eternal Rewards and Motivation". Now, I know that Reformed theologians believe: salvation by grace, not works ...
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According to Reformed theology, where is the Scriptural evidence for homoousion?

The Westminster Confession of Faith says: The whole counsel of God, concerning all things necessary for his own glory, man’s salvation, faith, and life, is either expressly set down in scripture, ...
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According to Reformed Theology do non-trinitarians go to hell?

According to Reformed theology, if one believes that Yeshua (Jesus) is the Messiah and the son of God (but they deny that he is God and the second person of a triune god), is this person sent to an ...
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How have Calvinist theologians dealt with statements about God repenting?

There are a number of OT passages that seem to show God changing his mind.1 Perhaps most well-known is his approach to Nineveh in the book of Jonah (summarized in 3:10). An example from Jeremiah also ...