Questions tagged [reformed-theology]

A branch of Protestantism emphasizing the sovereignty of God and his covenants with humanity. Also known as Calvinism.

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What heresies have required (since the Reformation) 'rejection' after the 'first and second admonition' (Titus 3:10)?

But avoid foolish questions, and genealogies, and contentions, and strivings about the law; for they are unprofitable and vain. A man that is an heretick after the first and second admonition reject; ...
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How are the Decretive, Preceptive, and Permissive wills of God defined?

I've heard people talk about the Decretive, the Preceptive, and the Permissive wills of God, but I don't entirely understand them. What do they mean and what makes them distinct from each other?
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What does Paul mean by “divine nature”, as revealed through creation?

In Romans 1, the Apostle Paul says 18 The wrath of God is being revealed from heaven against all the godlessness and wickedness of people, who suppress the truth by their wickedness, 19 since what ...
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Who is a Reformed substitute for Catholic Marian Doctrine in exemplifying the new dignity accorded women?

A pattern I see in scripture is that God performs a literal act in history, then makes it into the concrete support for a doctrinal principle, a fitting example. He creates the world and all of ...
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In the Sanctification stage (Reformed perspective) are believers truly becoming more like Christ (“infusion” not imputed)?

Believers who have been born again (regenerated) should have the desire to be conformed to Christ completely and should mourn when we find out that there are sins STILL to repent during the walk in ...
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Whose is the 'grace of God that bringeth salvation' ? (Titus 2:11)

This question is in the context of Protestant Trinitarianism. There are two schools of thought within Protestant Trinitarianism : one, founded mainly in the Westminster Confession (or Savoy ...
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In Reformed Theology what mechanisms and practices does God provide a believer to help fight temptation?

In Reformed Theology what mechanisms and practices does God provide a believer to help fight temptation? Common answers are grace, prayer, Holy Spirit, and possibly others. But how does God make ...
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According to Calvinists, how could Adam and Eve fall? How could Satan fall?

Under Calvinism, men under grace are guaranteed to choose God and be saved. If God's holy influence is so convincing, that it is impossible for free thinking creations to choose against it, why did ...
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Why Many Who Believe That “All Are Born Sinful” Hold That “None Are Born Gay Or Trans”?

Many Protestants, though not technically or officially Reformed, are nevertheless strongly influenced by Calvinistic theology; as such, they espouse the doctrine of total depravity, teaching that all ...
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What did the early church fathers have to say about “eternal security” or “assurance of salvation”

I am trying to find out what the early church fathers had to say about “eternal security” or “assurance of salvation”. By that, I refer to the following Bible verses: To Him who is able to keep you ...
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Historical origins of the doctrine of God's self glorification

Within the Reformed tradition, it is a considered a fundamental principle of doctrine that the 'Chief End' of Man, of Creation and most importantly of God Himself is His own self glorification. We see ...
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Why did Jesus submit to the authority of God while Jesus was a man?

The Bible tells us that Jesus emptied himself and set aside his heavenly glory and submitted himself to the will of his Father (God). In order to do the will of his Father (God) who sent him, and to ...
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Is the “righteousness of God” more than a life of perfect submission?

Many reformed protestants believe in "double imputation" - the idea that our sin is imputed to Christ, and his righteousness is imputed to us. 2 Corinthians 5 is often the source quoted for ...
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What was Van Til's view on the use and validity of historical proofs for the resurrection?

Cornelius Van Til was the pioneer of presuppositional apologetics, and was one of the founding members of Westminster Theological Seminary. The defenses of faith that he developed sought to apply the ...
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How do monergists respond to Bible verses that support the doctrine of synergism?

How do Lutherans, Calvinists and other protestants that believe in monergism respond to biblical passages that seem to support synergism such as these? For example: "Be perfect, therefore, as ...
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How do Calvinists explain God's wanting no one to perish and electing some to judgement?

I have two ideas that have support in the bible, but seem to contradict! Please help! I am looking for a Calvinist/Evangelical answer. These two verses have the general effect that God does not want ...
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What is the most authentic Reformed 'ordo salutis'?

This question follows on from a comment made in the previous closed question. The Wikipedia article on the subject of ordo salutis quotes and lists the following, in the following order, as '...
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In Reformed theology, where are baptism and the Lord's supper in the ordo salutis?

Baptism and the Lord's supper are means of grace in Reformed theology, but yet we don't see it explicitly mentioned in Calvinist ordo salutis. According to one Reformed pastor writing for the ...
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Why don't Reformed Christians consider it necessary to confess to a priest?

Reformed Christians, like Presbyterians differ from the Catholic and Orthodox Church in their understanding of forgiveness of ones' sins. One way in which they differ is not having the sacrament of ...
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How do reformed theologians reconcile John 15:2 with “once saved always saved"?

Every branch in me (εν έμοι ) that beareth not fruit, he taketh it away: and every branch that beareth fruit, he [the Father, v1] cleanseth it, that it may bear more fruit. (John 15:2, ASV) Some ...
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Did John Calvin teach that God creates certain souls only to be destroyed?

From what I understand, Calvin not only taught, but effectively systematized the doctrine of "predestinarianism," which holds that: God for His own glorification, and without any regard to original ...
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How would Reformed Christians deal with homosexual marriage of individuals prior to their conversion to Christianity?

I've been pondering this for several weeks and I believe that the reformed church (really, the church in general) is woefully unprepared to answer the following question: How would the church deal ...
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Do Calvinists believe that God does not love the world, but only the elect?

I seem to remember hearing somewhere that at least some Calvinists believe that, contrary to what seems to be a literal reading of John 3:16 and other verses, that God, in fact, does not love the ...
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How did Richard Baxter support his arguments against John Owen (in 1649 and thereafter)?

In 1648 John Owen (1616-1683) published his definitive work The Death of Death in the Death of Christ which produced an almost immediate response, in the next year, from Richard Baxter (1615-1691) and ...
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Is this a Calvinistic or Arminian statement of faith?

We believe in the Holy Trinity consisting of God the Father, Jesus Christ, His only begotten Son, and the Holy Spirit. We believe this triune God to be perfect in every way and worthy of our complete ...
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What do Reformed Christians understand by God's foreordination?

The reformed, Westminster Confession of faith, reads in chapter three: God from all eternity, did, by the most wise and holy counsel of His own will, freely, and unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes ...
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Who compiled the Canons of Dort?

I have found many articles and discussions online regarding the Canons of Dort but have yet to find who was actually instrumental in formulating this document. Can anyone tell me or link to some ...
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What is the current Reformed and Protestant view of the 'image of the beast' (Revelation 13: 14 &15)?

The traditional view of previous centuries after the Reformation focused on the religious authority of the time and its political affiliations (corresponding to the first, sea, beast and the second, ...
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What is the Biblical basis for Limited Atonement?

Calvin, among his other points, includes the point that Atonement is Limited; i.e., that Christ's death was sufficient for all but only effective for the elect. What is the Biblical basis for this ...
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What is the Biblical Basis for the belief that Christ's death was not for everyone (The notion called Limited Atonement)? [duplicate]

Im not asking for an overview of different denominations' views, but rather scriptural evidence for the view held by Calvinists that Christ's death was not for everyone. I'm very familiar with alleged ...
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In Reformed theology, what exactly does the doctrine of “limited atonement” actually assert?

I have found it quite confusing to try and understand what traditional Reformed circles mean precisely in their doctrine of "limited/definite atonement"/"particular redemption", especially as not all ...
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Calvinism and Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit

Matthew 12:31 says blasphemy of the Holy Spirit is an unforgivable sin. Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit in the ESV Study Bible, says that it is, "This sin is committed today only by unbelievers who ...
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What is the difference between Reformed and Presbyterian

I feel like this is a dumb question, but maybe, just maybe, I'm not the only one confused by this. Maybe if I'm willing to stick my neck out and look stupid, the answer will be here for those poor ...
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Calvinism: alternatives to evanescent grace?

It appears to me that the so-called "Doctrines of Grace" contain a practical contradiction. The T in TULIP states that the reprobate (and even the unregenerate elect) are zealous in their ...
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According to Calvinism, what should one do if one doubts their election?

What does the reformed church teach in terms of what to do, or pray for, if one begins to suspect that they are not predestined for salvation. And if they are in fact not elected by God, does the ...
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Is ex-nihilo creationism irreconcilable with the concept of individual free will?

Looking on this site in many answers involving the problem of evil I see affirmations of belief in free-will. According to Calvinist Mark Hausam, who presented a paper at a conference on Mormonism, ...
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What practices are prohibited by Protestant churches but not explicitly prohibited by the Bible?

I would like examples of practices that are prohibited by Protestant churches (consider only Protestant churches that accept the Westminster Confession of Faith) but are not explicitly prohibited in ...
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Whose hand wrote 'the document that listed my transgressions' ? (Colossians 2:14)

This is a question in regard to Trinitarian, Protestant, reformed, baptist doctrine. In Colossians 2:14 Paul states : Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was ...
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According to Reformed Theology how can God judge us if we are born sinful?

This question was asked by my Atheist friend who was raised Jewish. His point was basically that if we are all inherently sinners (Rom.3:23) than how can God hold us accountable for something we ...
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Are all the elect raptured before the Tribulation, according to Calvinists?

From this link: It seems inconsistent for God to promise believers that they will not suffer wrath and then leave them on the earth to suffer through the wrath of the tribulation. If the Bible is ...
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What is the difference between Arminianism, Molinism, and Calvinism?

I know the basic difference between Arminianism and Calvinism in the soteriology subject, but when Molinism comes I can't grasp the core doctrines that it teaches. I'm not asking for which is better, ...
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Calvinist and Arminian debate before the 16th century?

For some 500 years after the reformation, the Calvinist and Arminian debate is still ongoing on, both between scholars and layman Christians. You can simply google or search in youtube how much hatred ...
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What is the Biblical argument against Limited Atonement?

The "L" in the TULIP acronym of Reformed Theology stands for Limited Atonement, which the Pocket Dictionary of Theological Terms defines as: Sometimes called 'particular redemption,' the view that ...
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What is the difference in original sin and our nature to sin from a Reformed or Calvinist view?

There is another question like this on the CSE but seems to be answered with the Catholic view in mind. As a Calvinist, I have become quite confused or I am just not properly understanding the ...
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According to Reformed theology, why does God tell people to repent if they don't have the choice to do so, as in Exodus 10:3?

This question is addressed to those who believe in the doctrine of Total Depravity. In Exodus 10:3 God asks the Pharaoh for how long will he remain proud. Why does God ask such a question if the ...
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Did John Calvin say “The worst of plagues is human reason”?

I have searched high and low for the source of this quote, attributed to John Calvin, but to no avail. This link provides approximately 425 quotes, but I could not find "The worst of plagues is ...
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From a Calvinist perspective, if Adam refused the fruit what would happen to their descendants?

And the woman saw that the tree was good to eat, and fair to the eyes, and delightful to behold: and she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave to her husband who did eat. Genesis 3:6 What ...
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Is the Pope the Antichrist or the spirit of the Antichrist?

According to reformed theology, in the Savoy Declaration of Faith, Chapter 26 (Of the Church), paragraph 4, the Pope is the Antichrist. There is no other Head of the Church but the Lord Jesus Christ; ...
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How do Arminians interpret God's reserving of a remnant in Romans 11:4?

Much has been written about Romans 9 and the differing Calvinist/Arminian interpretations of it. However, Arminians (and I consider myself an Arminian) usually argue that, read in context with the ...
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Who first came up with the “four attributes of Scripture”?

There's a lot written about the "four attributes of Scripture", meaning it's "Sufficient, Necessary, Authoritative and Perspicuous". On the other hand, most sources (like this one) ...

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