Questions tagged [reformed-theology]

A branch of Protestantism emphasizing the sovereignty of God and his covenants with humanity. Also known as Calvinism.

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When did Jesus assume human nature?

Did Jesus Christ, the second person of the Trinity, only assume impersonal (anhypostatic) human nature (body and soul), during incarnation, in which he was born of Mary? Or, did he already have human ...
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Why in the Reformed tradition the 7 spiritual gifts mentioned in Isaiah 11:1-3 are no longer taught?

Two lists of the Gifts of the Holy Spirit: Protestant vs. Catholic In the Evangelical church circles, when they do retreats / workshops, when they talk about the Gifts of the Holy Spirit, they usually ...
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In the Sanctification stage (Reformed perspective) are believers truly becoming more like Christ ("infusion" not imputed)?

Believers who have been born again (regenerated) should have the desire to be conformed to Christ completely and should mourn when we find out that there are sins STILL to repent during the walk in ...
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Whose is the 'grace of God that bringeth salvation' ? (Titus 2:11)

This question is in the context of Protestant Trinitarianism. There are two schools of thought within Protestant Trinitarianism : one, founded mainly in the Westminster Confession (or Savoy ...
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Historical origins of the doctrine of God's self glorification

Within the Reformed tradition, it is a considered a fundamental principle of doctrine that the 'Chief End' of Man, of Creation and most importantly of God Himself is His own self glorification. We see ...
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By Reformed Theology, Which Beliefs Accompany Saving Faith?

Which articles do Reformed Theologians say are always part of our salvation? (For instance, I have heard recognized figures teach that saving faith will always carry with it a recognition of the Deity ...
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How do Calvinists explain God's wanting no one to perish and electing some to judgement?

I have two ideas that have support in the bible, but seem to contradict! Please help! I am looking for a Calvinist/Evangelical answer. These two verses have the general effect that God does not want ...
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What is the current Reformed and Protestant view of the 'image of the beast' (Revelation 13: 14 &15)?

The traditional view of previous centuries after the Reformation focused on the religious authority of the time and its political affiliations (corresponding to the first, sea, beast and the second, ...
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What is the appeal of John Piper (Desiring God Ministries)?

This question is not a slight or belittlement of the pastor but I simply don't understand. He is the most referenced and watched pastor at my college, even among those that wouldn't identify as ...
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Are the weaknesses in man intended by God? What are those weaknesses? Are they sinful?

In the scriptures, it says in Romans 8:20 For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope. I also remember Paul saying in 2 Corin. 12:9 that: ...
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According to Calvinism does God both issue commands AND withhold the ability to obey?

Although this question regarding 1 Corinthians 10:13 is thematically closely related it differs in specifics to what I am asking. It asks about God's provision of a way to escape and endure ...
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What does the Roman Catholic Church teach about covenant theology?

In Reformed theology, there are summary theological constructs termed the covenant of works, the covenant of grace, and the covenant of redemption. In short, the covenant of works encompasses the path ...
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How do Arminians reconcile free will with God's omnipotence logically?

I just finished reading Mere Christianity and was blown away by some of the statements Lewis makes. He mentions "even [God] cannot produce [a changed heart] by a mere act of power …. It is ...
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Basis for believing services are for the regenerate?

This is actually needed for an upcoming communication. I’ve heard several Reformed Theology preachers criticizing the focus some modern Protestant churches have on using services largely or even ...
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Calvinist Regeneration, Interpreting Colossians 2:12

I am convinced that the scriptures teach of a God who is completely sovereign in salvation. I am a monergist. I can cite several passages that make me think this way. I think if you look at some of my ...
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Did C.S. Lewis misunderstand or did he truly repudiate the Reformed / Anglican doctrine of Total Depravity?

In the book The Problem of Pain CS Lewis said explicitly that he disbelieved the doctrine of Total Depravity despite his dedicating the whole chapter 4 (Human Wickedness) with 8 very good insights ...
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Does John 6:64-65 prove total depravity?

John 6:64-65 reads: “But there are some of you who do not believe.” For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were who did not believe, and who it was who would betray Him. And He was saying “For ...
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What is the biblical basis used by Reformed theologians to argue that all those dying in infancy are saved?

In American Presbyterianism and Reformed theology more generally, one of the controversial issues has been the fate of children dying in infancy. The Westminster Confession of Faith reads: Elect ...
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According to the Calvinist, why "believe" if something is known absolutely true?

From this link: Christians have said Scripture is infallible because they have believed that God’s Word is incapable of erring and thus contains no errors The above sentences maybe to everyone ...
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What is the Reformed perspective on how the Holy Spirit is present or is growing a church at the institutional level?

With my Pentecostal friends I often hear comments like these: There is God's presence in the church worship today. The Holy Spirit has moved from church A to church B since church B is growing ...
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Does Calvinism recognize that it has God working at cross purposes to His stated desire?

Just to set the stage for this question, Jesus said that the gate is narrow and there are few that find it. As this question has to do with the Calvinist understanding of Election (and the flip side ...
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How is 1 Corinthians 9:27 reconciled with the teaching that losing salvation is impossible?

This question is aimed at those Christians who believe that someone saved can't become "unsaved" later. At least in 1 Corinthians 9:27 apostle Paul says he is not sure whether he will be saved or not ...
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Is the doctrine of "Particular Election" synonymous with that of "Unconditional Election"?

I learned today, from The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, that the phrase "Damned if you do and damned if you don't" was coined by Lorenzo Dow, the 19th century American preacher. According ...
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What heresies have required (since the Reformation) 'rejection' after the 'first and second admonition' (Titus 3:10)?

But avoid foolish questions, and genealogies, and contentions, and strivings about the law; for they are unprofitable and vain. A man that is an heretick after the first and second admonition reject; ...
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How are the Decretive, Preceptive, and Permissive wills of God defined?

I've heard people talk about the Decretive, the Preceptive, and the Permissive wills of God, but I don't entirely understand them. What do they mean and what makes them distinct from each other?
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What does Paul mean by "divine nature", as revealed through creation?

In Romans 1, the Apostle Paul says 18 The wrath of God is being revealed from heaven against all the godlessness and wickedness of people, who suppress the truth by their wickedness, 19 since what ...
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Who is a Reformed substitute for Catholic Marian Doctrine in exemplifying the new dignity accorded women?

A pattern I see in scripture is that God performs a literal act in history, then makes it into the concrete support for a doctrinal principle, a fitting example. He creates the world and all of ...
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In Reformed Theology what mechanisms and practices does God provide a believer to help fight temptation?

In Reformed Theology what mechanisms and practices does God provide a believer to help fight temptation? Common answers are grace, prayer, Holy Spirit, and possibly others. But how does God make ...
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According to Calvinists, how could Adam and Eve fall? How could Satan fall?

Under Calvinism, men under grace are guaranteed to choose God and be saved. If God's holy influence is so convincing, that it is impossible for free thinking creations to choose against it, why did ...
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Why Many Who Believe That “All Are Born Sinful” Hold That “None Are Born Gay Or Trans”?

Many Protestants, though not technically or officially Reformed, are nevertheless strongly influenced by Calvinistic theology; as such, they espouse the doctrine of total depravity, teaching that all ...
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What did the early church fathers have to say about “eternal security” or “assurance of salvation”

I am trying to find out what the early church fathers had to say about “eternal security” or “assurance of salvation”. By that, I refer to the following Bible verses: To Him who is able to keep you ...
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Why did Jesus submit to the authority of God while Jesus was a man?

The Bible tells us that Jesus emptied himself and set aside his heavenly glory and submitted himself to the will of his Father (God). In order to do the will of his Father (God) who sent him, and to ...
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Is the "righteousness of God" more than a life of perfect submission?

Many reformed protestants believe in "double imputation" - the idea that our sin is imputed to Christ, and his righteousness is imputed to us. 2 Corinthians 5 is often the source quoted for ...
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What was Van Til's view on the use and validity of historical proofs for the resurrection?

Cornelius Van Til was the pioneer of presuppositional apologetics, and was one of the founding members of Westminster Theological Seminary. The defenses of faith that he developed sought to apply the ...
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How do monergists respond to Bible verses that support the doctrine of synergism?

How do Lutherans, Calvinists and other protestants that believe in monergism respond to biblical passages that seem to support synergism such as these? For example: "Be perfect, therefore, as ...
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What is the most authentic Reformed 'ordo salutis'?

This question follows on from a comment made in the previous closed question. The Wikipedia article on the subject of ordo salutis quotes and lists the following, in the following order, as '...
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In Reformed theology, where are baptism and the Lord's supper in the ordo salutis?

Baptism and the Lord's supper are means of grace in Reformed theology, but yet we don't see it explicitly mentioned in Calvinist ordo salutis. According to one Reformed pastor writing for the ...
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Why don't Reformed Christians consider it necessary to confess to a priest?

Reformed Christians, like Presbyterians differ from the Catholic and Orthodox Church in their understanding of forgiveness of ones' sins. One way in which they differ is not having the sacrament of ...
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How do reformed theologians reconcile John 15:2 with “once saved always saved"?

Every branch in me (εν έμοι ) that beareth not fruit, he taketh it away: and every branch that beareth fruit, he [the Father, v1] cleanseth it, that it may bear more fruit. (John 15:2, ASV) Some ...
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Did John Calvin teach that God creates certain souls only to be destroyed?

From what I understand, Calvin not only taught, but effectively systematized the doctrine of "predestinarianism," which holds that: God for His own glorification, and without any regard to original ...
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How would Reformed Christians deal with homosexual marriage of individuals prior to their conversion to Christianity?

I've been pondering this for several weeks and I believe that the reformed church (really, the church in general) is woefully unprepared to answer the following question: How would the church deal ...
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Do Calvinists believe that God does not love the world, but only the elect?

I seem to remember hearing somewhere that at least some Calvinists believe that, contrary to what seems to be a literal reading of John 3:16 and other verses, that God, in fact, does not love the ...
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How did Richard Baxter support his arguments against John Owen (in 1649 and thereafter)?

In 1648 John Owen (1616-1683) published his definitive work The Death of Death in the Death of Christ which produced an almost immediate response, in the next year, from Richard Baxter (1615-1691) and ...
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Is this a Calvinistic or Arminian statement of faith?

We believe in the Holy Trinity consisting of God the Father, Jesus Christ, His only begotten Son, and the Holy Spirit. We believe this triune God to be perfect in every way and worthy of our complete ...
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What do Reformed Christians understand by God's foreordination?

The reformed, Westminster Confession of faith, reads in chapter three: God from all eternity, did, by the most wise and holy counsel of His own will, freely, and unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes ...
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Who compiled the Canons of Dort?

I have found many articles and discussions online regarding the Canons of Dort but have yet to find who was actually instrumental in formulating this document. Can anyone tell me or link to some ...
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What is the Biblical basis for Limited Atonement?

Calvin, among his other points, includes the point that Atonement is Limited; i.e., that Christ's death was sufficient for all but only effective for the elect. What is the Biblical basis for this ...
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What is the Biblical Basis for the belief that Christ's death was not for everyone (The notion called Limited Atonement)? [duplicate]

Im not asking for an overview of different denominations' views, but rather scriptural evidence for the view held by Calvinists that Christ's death was not for everyone. I'm very familiar with alleged ...
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In Reformed theology, what exactly does the doctrine of "limited atonement" actually assert?

I have found it quite confusing to try and understand what traditional Reformed circles mean precisely in their doctrine of "limited/definite atonement"/"particular redemption", especially as not all ...
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Calvinism and Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit

Matthew 12:31 says blasphemy of the Holy Spirit is an unforgivable sin. Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit in the ESV Study Bible, says that it is, "This sin is committed today only by unbelievers who ...

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