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Questions tagged [reformed-theology]

A branch of Protestantism emphasizing the sovereignty of God and his covenants with humanity. Also known as Calvinism.

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According to the Puritans, at what time did the Sabbath start and end?

In college, many of my Presbyterian brothers wouldn't study on Sunday, seeing that as a violation of the Christian Sabbath. But I heard that at least one of them, if he had a test on Monday morning, ...
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How did John Calvin reconcile killing followers of opposing religious views with the New Testament?

I was reading about persecutions by Christians and was wondering if the persecutors justified their violence with passages of the bible and how they reconciled that with the teachings of Jesus. In ...
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Is Jonathan Edwards's view of “philosophical necessity” compatible with the Westminster Standards?

Jonathan Edwards (1703–1758) was a major 18th century theologian who, though rooted in Reformed theology, innovated in some important ways. According to J. V. Fesko, in The Theology of the ...
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From the Reformed Perspective, What are “The Secret Things that Belong to the Lord”?

Given: Romans 11:33 (NIV) Oh, the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable his judgments, and his paths beyond tracing out! Isaiah 55:9 (NIV) As the heavens are ...
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What is the basis for Lutheran single predestination, as opposed to double predestination?

I was reading this question, What were the main doctrinal disagreements between Luther and Calvin?, and one of the differences between the two was Calvin believed in double predestination, while ...
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What is the basis for Calvinist double predestination, as opposed to single predestination?

I was reading this question, What were the main doctrinal disagreements between Luther and Calvin?, and one of the differences between the two was Calvin believed in double predestination, while ...
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How can there be Five Sola's (Solae) in Reformed theology?

Reformed soteriology usually centers on Five Sola statements. Literally, this Latin "Sola" means "alone" or "only" in translation. So how can 5 things that save us be, by name, alone or the only ...
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What is the basis for saying that B. B. Warfield believed in theistic evolution?

B. B. Warfield is commonly cited as a leading conservative Reformed theologian during the period leading up to the Fundamentalist/Modernist controversy of the early 20th century. One of the issues of ...
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When did Jesus assume human nature?

Did Jesus Christ, the second person of the Trinity, only assume impersonal (anhypostatic) human nature (body and soul), during incarnation, in which he was born of Mary? Or, did he already have human ...
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In Federal Vision theology, what is the difference between decisional regeneration and presupposed regeneration?

In some Reformed/Calvinist circles, a theological framework called the Federal Vision (FV) has led to significant internal debate over the true nature of the covenant between God and man, and, by ...
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In Reformed theology, are Christians still “totally depraved”?

In 2012, Calvinist pastor Tullian Tchividjian wrote an article, "Are Christians Totally Depraved?", in which he applied the language of total depravity to both non-Christians and Christians. He ...
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According to reformed theology, who or what will the saints reign over during the millenium?

Regarding the 1000 years, Revelation 20:6 states: Blessed and holy is the one who takes part in the first resurrection. The second death has no power over them, but they will be priests of God ...
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According to reformed theology, who or what will the saints reign over in eternity?

Revelation 22:5 states: Night will be no more, and they will not need the light of a lamp or the light of the sun, because the Lord God will shine on them, and they will reign forever and ever. ...
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What is the biblical basis used by Reformed theologians to argue that all those dying in infancy are saved?

In American Presbyterianism and Reformed theology more generally, one of the controversial issues has been the fate of children dying in infancy. The Westminster Confession of Faith reads: Elect ...
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What is an overview of Reformed beliefs about hell?

Could somebody please provide an overview of the various beliefs that the Reformed churches hold regarding hell? If possible, but not required for an accepted answer, it would be great if they could ...
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According to Reformed theology, is teaching a false Trinitarian concept considered blasphemy?

There are several people that do not understand the trinity. I hear things such as "God is like water. He is liquid, steam, and solid". This analogy actually comes with a longer explanation about how ...
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What is the distinction between Justification and Salvation? (Reformed point of view)

As a practicing Christian, my only hope is for salvation through Jesus Christ. I note that scripture addresses salvation from a variety of perspectives and analogies, but also I find that in Paul's ...
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According to Reformed theology, where is the Scriptural evidence for homoousion?

The Westminster Confession of Faith says: The whole counsel of God, concerning all things necessary for his own glory, man’s salvation, faith, and life, is either expressly set down in scripture, ...
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Why have conservative Presbyterians objected to chapters on the Holy Spirit and the Gospel in the Westminster Confession?

In the United States, the mainline Presbyterian denomination (the PCUSA), along with several other Presbyterian bodies, include two chapters that were first added to the Westminster Confession in 1903....
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Did Pentecostalism lead to Cessationism in the modern Reformed churches?

I understand that several theologians throughout church history believed that the gifts of the Spirit had ceased or mostly ceased. It didn't seem like a huge point of contention for them as it is ...
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How does Reformed Theology reconcile Jesus' meaningful temptation and impeccability?

According to Reformed Theology (the predominant view or an overview of slight variations within), how is the impeccability of Jesus reconciled with the idea that his temptations were authentic to the ...
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Why have some conservative Reformed churches objected to the Belhar Confession?

Among the reasons given by several Reformed Church in America churches in the midwestern US when leaving the denomination are issues with the Belhar Confession, a document emphasizing reconciliation ...
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How do various traditions define the term “sufficient grace”?

I have read various polemics on the topics of Augustinianism, Calvinism, Jansenism, Pelagianism, Arminianism, and Catholicism which seem to use the term "sufficient grace" in different ways. For ...
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In what ways did early Jansenists believe that their doctrine of salvation differed from that of Calvinism?

The soteriology of Jansenism appears to bear some resemblance to that of Calvinism, as both emphasize doctrines like original sin, predestination, and irresistible grace. The two movements also share ...
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What are the practical differences between German Lutheran and Swiss Reformed traditions?

I know very little about the German Lutheran church and what set them appart from the religion I've been raised in, Swiss Reformed. However, my understanding is that they are closer to Catholics, and ...
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What is the basis of God's Goodness/Righteousness? [closed]

I would like an Answer from a Reformed/Calvinist Perspective. There are many instances in scripture that affirm GOD is good (Psalm 119:68, 1 Tim 4:4). And that God is Righteous (Psalm 48:10, ...
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How should Reformed people deal with Wrong doctrine? [closed]

Question for Calvinists/Reformed people! There are some teachers in my Evangelical church who teach Salvation by works to the children in the church. Their Justification for this is make the ...
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What major changes have American Presbyterians made to the Westminster Confession of Faith?

As someone who generally affirms the Westminster Confession of Faith, one comment I hear periodically is that I therefore must believe that the Pope is the Antichrist. However, the Confession ...
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According to Reformed theology, what is an infant's first sin?

From what I understand, every human that has ever lived is "born into sin", which means we all carry a "sin nature". Saul says: "For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God" Romans 3:23 ...
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According to Reformed churches, is the trinity a finalized doctrine?

From 325 AD at the Council of Nicea up to about the 8th century, councils have been held to determine the correct nature of God. It was eventually decided that the bible reveals a triune god- one god ...
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How do Calvinists explain God's wanting no one to perish and electing some to judgement?

I have two ideas that have support in the bible, but seem to contradict! Please help! I am looking for a Calvinist/Evangelical answer. These two verses have the general effect that God does not want ...
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In the Christian Reformed Churches, who evaluates the pastor's theological beliefs?

Note: This question is admittedly a bit technical, but I hope it serves to clarify differences in polity between two distinct but related Reformed traditions in the US. In the brand of ...
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If unconditional election is true do we worship God in vain?

According to the teaching of Unconditional Election, God has already chosen who is saved and who is condemned. If we have no control over whether we receive or reject grace, someone can never truly ...
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Why did Huldrych Zwingli oppose music in the worship service?

Three of the most influential reformers, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Huldrych Zwingli, took very different approaches to music in corporate worship. Of the three, Zwingli was the most accomplished ...
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According to Reformed theology, how should Christians react when a non-believer dies? [duplicate]

Several of the Scriptures seem to indicate that God's judgement is righteous, wonderful, and something to long for. Here are a few examples: "Yea, in the way of thy judgments, O YHVH, have we ...
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Why do some adherents to the Westminster Standards sing hymns, rather than just psalms?

The Westminster Confession of Faith, 21.5, in its list of elements that are "parts of the ordinary religious worship of God," includes the: singing of psalms with grace in the heart The Confession ...
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According to Reformed Theology do non-trinitarians go to hell?

According to Reformed theology, if one believes that Yeshua (Jesus) is the Messiah and the son of God (but they deny that he is God and the second person of a triune god), is this person sent to an ...
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What does TULIP stand for?

I came across this acronym when reading about Calvinism. What does it stand for in reference to theology in general?
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Which specific canons of the Second Council of Constantinople do Lutherans and Calvinists reject?

The Wikipedia article on the Second Council of Constantinople (the fifth Ecumenical Council) claims that Lutherans and Calvinists accept only the first four Ecumenical Councils as being canonical. My ...
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Did John Calvin discourage harmonies in congregational singing?

In many traditional Reformed churches, the songs found in hymnbooks and psalters (collections of Psalms set to music) are written with four parts: a melody/soprano line on the top, and alto, tenor, ...
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Is penal substitutionary atonement most prevalent among Calvinists?

I've been looking at penal substitutionary atonement and am finding that although Calvinists and Arminians seem to affirm it, it appears to be Calvinists who affirm it most strongly. Is this accurate?...
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In Presbyterianism, what is the basis for a parallel between the office of deacon and Christ's priestly office?

In Presbyterianism, there are three "titles" that can be given to officers of a church: Teaching elder (e.g., pastors) Ruling elder Deacon Last weekend I heard something rather novel, at least to ...
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Is Jesus seen as both the Passover Lamb and Goat(s) of the Atonement in any Protestant Theology? [closed]

It is often said that Jesus fulfilled the Jewish spring feasts when he first came and the expectation is that he will fulfill the fall feasts when we returns. Also, that Jesus died at the time of ...
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Is there a recognised soteriology that combines selective election for some and general election for everyone else?

Are there any Christian groups or denominations that hold a belief in selective election to salvation, in that some individuals are specifically and irresistibly called (Noah, Moses, 12 desciples, ...
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How does Reformed Theology consider passages that may imply that God is the “subject of sufferings”?

In A Dissertation Concerning the End for which God Created the World, John Edwards makes the following statement, Because it is evident, by both Scripture and reason, that God is infinitely, ...
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How do Calvinists interpret 1 John 2:2 in light of Limited Atonement?

1 John 2:2 (ESV) He is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world. Understanding the "ours" as referring to the universal church of believers, ...
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In Calvinism, why does free will to accept salvation seem to take away from God's glory?

Background: We are unable to accept Christ without His work in us. God gives every man, life, faith, breath, and everything else needed to come to Him. "And you hath he quickened, who were dead in ...
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Who first said, “We are all born Pelagians?”

In What Is Reformed Theology? R. C. Sproul attributes the following quote to Roger Nicole, a 20th century Reformed theologian: We are all born Pelagians. (source) By this, Sproul means to say that ...
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What is the Calvinist and Hyper-Calvinist understanding of the “whosoever will” from Rev. 22:17?

And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that hears say, Come. And let him that is thirsty come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely. (Rev. 22:17 KJV) I've heard that ...
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From a Reformed perspective, does retroactive prayer makes sense?

From a reformed perspective, that God is outside of time, does it make sense to pray for something that already happened? Or, can a prayer cause God to impact time in a retroactive way? An example ...