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A branch of Protestantism emphasizing the sovereignty of God and his covenants with humanity. Also known as Calvinism.

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Promises of God that help us partake in His divine nature

What are the promises referred to by Peter in 2 Peter 1:4 through which we can partake of the divine nature and escape the corruption that is in the world by lust? What are the views regarding this ...
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Calvinist Disagreement with Valentinian Gnosticism on Predestination

For the record, I do not believe Calvinists are cryto-Valentinians. I do not believe Calvinists are Gnostics, so please understand my question knowing I am not trying to paint anyone in a good or bad ...
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According to Calvin, how can God be loving if he created people to go to hell?

I struggle with John Calvin writing that God created people to go to the lake of fire (Institues, Volume 3, Chapter 21, Section 5). How could a loving, merciful, and gracious God create people so that ...
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In Reformed theology, what exactly does the doctrine of “limited atonement” actually assert?

I have found it quite confusing to try and understand what traditional Reformed circles mean precisely in their doctrine of "limited/definite atonement", particularly as not all theologians describe ...
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Are there sola scriptura inerrantists who reject sensus unum as a general hermeneutic?

I have noticed that adherers to sola scriptura that defend biblical inerrancy nearly always argue from a sensus unum understanding of scripture as opposed to a sensus plenior understanding of ...
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Limited Atonement and Perseverance of the Saints in Light of 1 Corinthians 8:11 (Calvinism)

The acronym T.U.L.I.P summarizes five core doctrines of Calvinism concerning salvation. I hope I've summarized them accurately enough for the question's purpose. T. Total Depravity — The doctrine ...
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Did the authors of the Westminster Standards accept Roman Catholic baptisms as valid?

In the original version of the Westminster Standards, a highly regarded Protestant doctrinal statement, there's a line that is particularly famous: There is no other head of the Church but the Lord ...
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According to Calvinists, does God command the non-elect to do what is for them impossible?

Question: Does God, according to Calvinism, command people He has specifically given neither the ability nor choice to do so to repent and believe in Christ or be damned?1, 2 And if so, why? ...
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Indwelled by the Holy Spirit — VS — not indwelled by the Holy Spirit according to the Calvinist?

I will quote a few points that I found from Regeneration in the Old Testament. It can be clearly demonstrated that regeneration is an occurrence in both the Old and New testaments But the ...
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What is the “gospel” in OT according to the Calvinist?

This question is following my question before. At my question there I have a quotation from Reformation Study Bible (2015) : Divine illumination and persuasion is necessary for the heart blinded ...
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What does “the Lord opened her heart” (Acts 16:14) mean, according to Calvinists?

Acts 16:13 (NIV) On the Sabbath we went outside the city gate to the river, where we expected to find a place of prayer. We sat down and began to speak to the women who had gathered there. I ...
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Is it true that no post-apostolic theologians before St. Augustine believed in Eternal Security / Assurance of Salvation?

According to Wikipedia in it's entry of 'perseverance of the saints', eternal security has its roots in Church Father St. Augustine of Hippo. Considering that Augustine lived centuries after the ...
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An explanation from Calvinist about why Cain's offering is not accepted by God?

This question is following the question before, where Calvin said : We must, however, notice the order here observed by Moses; for he does not simply state that the worship which Abel had paid ...
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Was Abel regenerated before the offering according to the Calvinist?

Genesis 4:4–5 [Berean Study Bible] (4) The LORD looked with favor on Abel and his offering (5) but He had no regard for Cain and his offering I'm in the middle of conversation with a Calvinist ...
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Calvinism: Does God force people to be saved?

Calvinists often object to the criticism that their doctrine teaches that God forces men to be saved against their will. From what I've read, Calvinism teaches that God changes a man's nature and ...
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Has 'Affirmation 2010' been adopted, generally, by those called 'Reformed'?

A few years ago, I was given a booklet called 'Affirmation 2010' in which several signatories, standing as 'Reformed', added their names to a list of doctrinal elements which sought to 're-affirm' ...
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Does the Associate Reformed Presbyterian church believe in replacement theology?

I belong to Associate Reformed Presbyterian church and would like to know if they believe in replacement theology . Do they believe in the prophecy and the thousand year reign of Christ on the earth??...
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How is the election of Adam and Eve according to the Calvinist?

The Westminster Confession : 3.1 "God from all eternity, did, by the most wise and holy counsel of His own will, freely, and unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass; yet so, as thereby ...
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To whom the Election applied according to the Calvinist (TULIP)?

A. To every human (including Adam and Eve) who will exist in the future. B. To every human (except Adam and Eve) who will exist in the future. C. To every human who will exist in the future after ...
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List of old heresies condemned by the Catholic Church now present in Lutheranism and Calvinism

The title says it all, I'd like a list of all heresies condemned by the Catholic Church before the Reformation. This time specifically those identified in Lutheranism and 5 point Calvinism.
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Calvinism: Dealing with paradoxes

In a video entitled "John MacArthur: Calvinism vs. Arminianism", Todd Friel of Wretched gives a short introduction before showing a clip of John MacArthur at some event several years ago, allegedly ...
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How do Calvinists argue that limited atonement is just and merciful?

Why is it just or merciful that God predetermines who is to be saved and who is to be damned, before they are even born? Does that not mean a murderer may be saved and a charity worker damned?
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What hard evidence is there that Charles Wesley was Arminian?

It is well-known that John Wesley was an adherent and defender of Arminian soteriology. I have noticed that it is often assumed, and occasionally explicitly asserted, that his brother Charles agreed ...
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What is the easy and less complicated definition of predestination [Calvinism]?

I am finding it difficult to understand the Calvinistic ideas of limited atonement and predestination. Does limited atonement mean that only a chosen people called the elect will attain salvation? If ...
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Did John Calvin believe that the grandchildren of a believer are entitled to infant baptism?

In Calvinism, the children of believers are considered "members of the covenant" and as a sign of that covenant, they are baptized as infants. Practically speaking, this means that if at least one ...
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Election, Gods Sovereignty and Is Cain Saved?

Does Calvinism (and those who believe in Unconditional Election) teach that Cain was elected to Salvation? This is my source for defining Unconditional Election. Unconditional Election: God does ...
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How do Lutherns and Reformers explain when God's Preceptive Will goes against His Decretive Will?

Is there any insight to understand how God Himself doesn't wish any to fall away (His preceptive will) and the fact that His decretive will states that some will? Further, Zachariah and Romans speak ...
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According to Reformed Covenant theology, how were the people of Israel “purchased” per Exodus 15:16?

In the triumphal song of Moses, it is mentioned in 15:15 that the people were purchased. Exodus 15:16 Terror and dread fall upon them; because of the greatness of your arm, they are still ...
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How did Aquinas and Reformation-era Protestants disagree on God's will?

Thomas Aquinas distinguished between God's antecedent and consequent wills. Meanwhile, the Reformed confessions (eg Westminster Confession) distinguished between God's decretive and revealed wills. ...
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Did any actual Puritan congregations impose scarlet letters on adulterers?

Nathaniel Hawthorne's (fictional) book, the Scarlet Letter, in my opinion, has seared a characterization in people's minds that Puritans were dour, hypocritical, legalistic, and shame-driven ...
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Calvinists: How to avoid justification from eternity?

I'm having trouble understanding how Calvinists avoid the doctrine of justification from eternity, which roughly states that the elect are justified either before the creation of the world or at the ...
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What was Van Til's view on the use and validity of historical proofs for the resurrection?

Cornelius Van Til was the pioneer of presuppositional apologetics, and was one of the founding members of Westminster Theological Seminary. The defenses of faith that he developed sought to apply the ...
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Does the Westminster Confession affirm or deny Luther's predilection for Paul's writings?

My understanding is that the Westminster Confession is the official defining document of "Reformed theology". That is, if someone is "Reformed" then they agree completely or almost completely with the ...
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Calvinism: limited atonement and the negative inference fallacy

All Biblical proof-texts that Calvinists use to provide evidence for the doctrine of limited atonement suffer from an objective logical fallacy informally known as the 'negative inference fallacy.' A ...
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According to Reformed Theology, what is the doctrinal basis for belief in New Testament tithing?

Most Reformed churches refer to "tithes and offerings" as an understanding of the giving structure in church. Reformed Theology as a theological framework is careful about ensuring there is a biblical ...
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A quote from Calvin about all five points?

I have heard that John Calvin either stated, or made reference to, the necessity of holding all 5 points of Calvinism. If one is dropped, the whole system collapses. I can't find this reference. If ...
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How is the atonement sufficient for salvation according to Calvinists?

Because there is not a single verse in the Bible that explicitly states that Christ laid down his life only for believers (the elect), Calvinists typically defend their doctrine of limited atonement ...
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According to Calvinism, if Catholicism might lead to salvation, why to remain a Calvinist? (Henry IV story)

In his 1786 book, "The History of Heresies and Their Refutation", (saint) Alphonsus Liguiri wrote: I think the danger of eternal perdition, by dying separated from the Church, should be a ...
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How do Covenant Theologians explain the Noahic covenant?

In Covenant Theology, the Covenant of Grace is a singular overarching covenant God makes with his people. The various Biblical covenants are understood to be expressions or administrations of this ...
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What does the Roman Catholic Church teach about covenant theology?

In Reformed theology, there are summary theological constructs termed the covenant of works, the covenant of grace, and the covenant of redemption. In short, the covenant of works encompasses the path ...
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Do conservative Presbyterians accept 4-point Calvinists?

I realize that many conservative Presbyterian churches (PCA, OPC, etc.) have fairly basic standards for membership, not requiring much more than baptism and a basic affirmation of faith, although ...
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According to Reformed Theology, how does omniscience relate to election?

If before the creation, God had planned everything from A to Z of the life on the earth since it's created until the end of day and every life of each individual from A to Z since he/she was born ...
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How do Arminians interpret God's reserving of a remnant in Romans 11:4?

Much has been written about Romans 9 and the differing Calvinist/Arminian interpretations of it. However, Arminians (and I consider myself an Arminian) usually argue that, read in context with the ...
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Perseverance of the Saints – Historical Interpretations before Calvin

When I read the writings of early Christians I am constantly seeing references to persevering to the end and absolutely nothing resembling this teaching. It is almost as if everything taught prior to ...
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“Holy man / saints” in the point of view of God according to the Calvinist?

I was in the middle of a discussion in a Christian Forum, where the Calvinist member say that : "holy man / saint" can only exist only after Jesus died. Before Jesus died, all the OT people are ...
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From a Calvinist perspective, if Adam refused the fruit what would happen to their descendants?

And the woman saw that the tree was good to eat, and fair to the eyes, and delightful to behold: and she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave to her husband who did eat. Genesis 3:6 What ...
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For those who deny the Immaculate Conception, why did Jesus not have original sin?

The Westminster Confession (8:2) says Jesus is of the substance of Mary: The Son of God, the second person of the Trinity, being very and eternal God, of one substance and equal with the Father, ...
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What does “God is just” mean according to Calvinists?

In our world, what we understand about "justice" is not just a verdict between guilty or not guilty, because it also balances the punishment on the severity of the crime. Here is an illustration: ...
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If Christ had a complete human nature, how come his human nature wasn't totally depraved as ours is?

I understand the reformed doctrine of total depravity to be that the human nature is such that it is utterly unable to choose to follow God. Another way I've heard it put is that men are by nature ...
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Who is “you” in Genesis 3:15 according to the Calvinist?

I have a "connected" question before in here. And I think I made a mistake to ask a question like that directly. So, I will start here first : Genesis 3:15 I will put enmity between you and the ...