Questions tagged [reformation]

The separation of Catholic and Protestant churches in the 16th century

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Did reformation leaders throw out the Summa Theologica?

St. Thomas Aquinas's seminal work the Summa Theologica was an attempt to catalog all the theological arguments ever conceived. Much of the reasoning is rooted in the Natural Law and it's what ...
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Why were Deuterocanonical books rejected in the Reformation?

The Deuterocanonical books were included in the Septuagint, but not the Hebrew Bible. They are mostly included in the Catholic Old Testament, but not in the Protestant one. I understand the choice ...
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Did the church fathers or OT talk about the visible and invisible church?

In the Reformation, the doctrine of the distinction between the visible and invisible church was important in the Reformers' claim not to have started a rogue church. I am wondering... Given that it ...
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What's the basic premise behind "restorationist" movements?

To the untrained ear, the labels used in Christian circles for some groups of churches as either "reformational" or "restorationist" don't seem that different. If the label "reformed" is a direct ...
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What was Martin Luther's perspective on the early Christian church?

Was Luther's belief that the church's foundation was faulty to begin with, or that through time it fell into an apostate state and needed to be reformed back?
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What of Augustine's ecclesiology was rejected in the Reformation?

BB Warfield is famous for saying that the Reformation was a triumph of Augustine's soteriology over his ecclesiology. For those who believe that Augustine's ecclesiology was rejected in the ...
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What are the protestant arguments against a sacramental economy?

Given that all the 7 sacraments (Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Marriage, Holy Orders Anointing of the Sick and Reconciliation) are each explicitly mentioned in the Bible as commands put forth ...
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What were the reformers' views of biblical inerrancy?

I have never researched but am very curious what views of Biblical Inerrancy did the reformers generally hold, such as Luther and Calvin? I found these description about different kinds of views: ...
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Did John Calvin ever read Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica?

I've read in a few places online (here, for example), that John Calvin did not have access to Thomas Aquinas's great treatise, Summa Theologica. This is mind-blowing. Consider: The last edition of ...
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What did Luther have against Zwingli?

According to 131 Christians Everyone Should Know:* [Martin Luther] mocked fellow reformers, especially Swiss reformer Ulrich Zwingli, and used vulgar language in doing so. What was Luther's ...
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Was Martin Luther wrong about baptizing infants?

Toward the end of his life, Martin Luther was extremely critical of the Anabaptists and considered them to be heretics. This inspired terrible treatment of the Anabaptists at the hands of the German ...
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Did Martin Luther ever admit that his approval of Philip's bigamy was wrong?

I recently learned that in 1540, Martin Luther secretly approved of the bigamous marriage of Philip of Hesse. Philip had married for political purposes, and then fell in love with someone else. ...
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Why did Luther curse those who oppose indulgences?

In the 95 Theses, Luther makes a stand against corruption in the Catholic church of that day. This resulted in events leading to the separation between the Catholic and Protestant churches. It seems ...
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Did Martin Luther believe the Church needed to be reformed before the Great Schism of 1054AD, or after?

I think its safe to say that Martin Luther, being one of the fathers of Protestantism, was primarily at odds with the Roman Church. He posted his 95 theses to confront what he thought to be ...
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Why was Thomas More canonized?

Thomas More was canonized in 1935 by the Catholic Church. During his chancellorship between 1525-1529 in the campaign against the reformation people were killed and tortured in his name, for example, ...
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Why did the reformers include the book of Hebrews in the canon?

Related: Why was Hebrews included in the canon? It's widely known that Hebrews has been in the canon of most of Christendom for a long time, originally on the basis of Pauline authorship (see the ...
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What were the major disagreements between Erasmus and Luther during the Protestant Reformation?

Although Erasmus inspired many of Luther's ideas, they disagreed on many subjects, such as whether the Catholic Church should have a moral reform or a reform of beliefs. Did Erasmus disagree with ...
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Why did Luther not support iconoclasm like some other reformers?

During the Reformation, Protestant reformers such as Huldrych Zwingli and John Calvin promoted Iconoclasm among their followers. I have found information about Luther opposing it, but little about why....
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What is the biblical basis against Sola Fide (salvation by faith alone, apart from works)?

One of the key points of the Reformation was the doctrine of Sola Fide: that salvation is by faith alone, apart from works. The Reformers thought this was in contrast to the doctrines of the Catholic ...
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Was "love your enemies" ever included among the evangelical counsels?

In Institutes of the Christian Religion, John Calvin accuses his scholastic opponents of considering the commandment "Love your enemies" to be optional. Specifically, he says that they call it an ...
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What was first, sola scriptura or sola fide?

I just watched a video with an Orthodox professor, in which he said that "Sola Scriptura" came first, and then "Sola Fide". Is that true? The best I can gather from the Wiki articles on these two ...
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Was there ever a "Martin Luther" or a reformation in the Eastern Orthodox Church?

The protestant reformation had a large impact on the Catholic Church, but even know much of the reformers concerns apply to the Eastern Orthodox Church as well, it seems that there never was a ...
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Was Tetzel robbed by a man who had preemptively bought an indulgence?

Wikipedia recounts a story told by Martin Luther about Johann Tetzel. It goes a little something like this: Tetzel was in Leipzig selling indulgences. After collecting a large sum of money, Tetzel ...
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On Bishops Who Refused to Sign Henry VIII's Oath of Succession?

The 1534 Oath of Succession made Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, heir to the throne rather than Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. The oath also recognized the ...
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Who won the Leipzig Debate between Martin Luther and Johann Eck?

Who won the Leipzig debate between Martin Luther and Johann Eck? What was the final conclusion? How did it affect to the Reformation? Is a transcript of the debate available online?
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In what ways did early Jansenists believe that their doctrine of salvation differed from that of Calvinism?

The soteriology of Jansenism appears to bear some resemblance to that of Calvinism, as both emphasize doctrines like original sin, predestination, and irresistible grace. The two movements also share ...
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4 votes
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The Middle Ages as a Model for the Orderly Society?

I'm interested in finding books and studies (both for and against) the idea that Medieval European society had a kind of order that's desirable. Foundationally, there's a clear religious order--...
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Did the original reformers believe in a Magisterium?

I have seen the original reformers referred to as the "Magisterial reformers" a couple of times over the past few years, and I'm only now wondering what the significance of that phrase is. Does it ...
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