Questions tagged [reformation]

The separation of Catholic and Protestant churches in the 16th century

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-4 votes
1 answer
42 views

How successful has the Secretariat of State been in dealing with the Reformation?

After the Reformation got into swing and Rome started losing significant numbers of followers Rome responded with the Counter-Reformation. The basic plan was unfolded at the Council of Trent. After ...
-3 votes
2 answers
107 views

Have the Protestants really gained independence from the Bishop of Rome?

Given the phenomenon known as the High Church can it really be said that the Reformation led to complete independence from the Bishop of Rome? How much influence does Rome still have in the Anglican ...
25 votes
4 answers
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Why were Deuterocanonical books rejected in the Reformation?

The Deuterocanonical books were included in the Septuagint, but not the Hebrew Bible. They are mostly included in the Catholic Old Testament, but not in the Protestant one. I understand the choice ...
5 votes
3 answers
253 views

The Early Protestant Reformers largely venerated Mary, when did this sentiment change and why?

It seems that various famous reformers venerated Mary but in my experience there is a general disregard of Mary in modern Protestant denominations. When did this sentiment historically wane? I'm ...
7 votes
1 answer
124 views

What was Samuel Rutherford's view on the role of pastors in wedding ceremonies?

Samuel Rutherford was an important 17th-century Presbyterian theologian who had significant influence in the drafting of the Westminster Standards, still widely used as a part of the constitutions of ...
5 votes
2 answers
117 views

Were the reformers able to ordain other people to be elders, deacons, and bishops?

I know that the major reformers like Martin Luther, Zwingli, John Calvin, etc. were Roman Catholic priests that became Protestant. According to Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, priests can't ...
2 votes
3 answers
431 views

Did the Reformers accuse the Catholic Church of being "a pagan mixture"?

I saw a TikTok video saying that "The Catholic church is a pagan mixture" accusation entirely came after the 19th century and none of the 16th-century original reformers make that argument. ...
3 votes
0 answers
62 views

What is the general survey of Reformation era approaches to Scripture that dismissed troublesome passages?

In an article entitled, Bottoms Up! The meaning of “use a little wine…” (1 Tim 5:23) at the Orthodox Christian Theology website, the following comment is made: John Calvin, though not taking this ...
6 votes
1 answer
834 views

On Bishops Who Refused to Sign Henry VIII's Oath of Succession?

The 1534 Oath of Succession made Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, heir to the throne rather than Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. The oath also recognized the ...
1 vote
1 answer
127 views

Reformers on the visible church?

Did the reformers believe that Christ's church was visible?
21 votes
2 answers
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Who are these people in this Catholic Reformation meme that are considered more influential than Martin Luther?

I've seen this meme running around from some Catholic folks responding to Reformation Day Who are these people, and what did they do that (in the minds of Catholics) reformed the Catholic Church more ...
2 votes
1 answer
215 views

How did the western Church arrive at such a state of corruption by the sixteenth century?

I want to know what went wrong in the Church for it to end up corrupt by the 16th century.
5 votes
2 answers
702 views

Who won the Leipzig Debate between Martin Luther and Johann Eck?

Who won the Leipzig debate between Martin Luther and Johann Eck? What was the final conclusion? How did it affect to the Reformation? Is a transcript of the debate available online?
12 votes
3 answers
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Did the church fathers or OT talk about the visible and invisible church?

In the Reformation, the doctrine of the distinction between the visible and invisible church was important in the Reformers' claim not to have started a rogue church. I am wondering... Given that it ...
-1 votes
1 answer
54 views

Would "Diet of Worms" seem strange to English-Speakers at the time? [closed]

Today, the phrase brings to mind the eating of slimy invertebrates. Did it at the time of the Diet of Worms. Do we have any records from the time of people making clever comments about the phrase? I ...
3 votes
2 answers
206 views

Who are called Catholics in the Early Church?

I saw recently that some protestants are trying to label themselves as authentic Catholics. “Protestants: The Most ‘Catholic’ of Christians.” Reforming Catholic Confession Who are called Catholics in ...
3 votes
1 answer
135 views

What is a brief history of the term "reformed" as in Reformed churches and Reformed theology?

Why do theologies and churches based on the teaching of Calvin consistently self-identify using the term "Reformed" even down to the 21st century, such as the 2019 Reformed Systematic ...
2 votes
4 answers
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Would the Anglican Church consider themselves Protestant?

I tend to use “Protestant” as a broad definition to refer to anyone that does not hold to the doctrine of the Catholic or [eastern] Orthodox Church. However, in my conversations with many Lutherans ...
2 votes
3 answers
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Why did Luther reject every sacrament except Baptism and Communion?

Upon splitting from the Catholic Church, Luther rejected 5 of the 7 sacraments, including confirmation, Reconciliation, Anointing on the Sick, Matrimony, and Holy Orders. Why did he reject these, and ...
4 votes
1 answer
231 views

The Middle Ages as a Model for the Orderly Society?

I'm interested in finding books and studies (both for and against) the idea that Medieval European society had a kind of order that's desirable. Foundationally, there's a clear religious order--...
1 vote
3 answers
1k views

Was Martin Luther wrong about baptizing infants?

Toward the end of his life, Martin Luther was extremely critical of the Anabaptists and considered them to be heretics. This inspired terrible treatment of the Anabaptists at the hands of the German ...
9 votes
2 answers
676 views

The Servetus Controversy: What was Calvin's involvement?

The "Servetus Controversy" tells of a man named Michael Servetus who was burned at the stake for heresy -- not by Roman Catholic Inquisitors, but by Protestants in 16th century Geneva, France. Here ...
11 votes
2 answers
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What were the major disagreements between Erasmus and Luther during the Protestant Reformation?

Although Erasmus inspired many of Luther's ideas, they disagreed on many subjects, such as whether the Catholic Church should have a moral reform or a reform of beliefs. Did Erasmus disagree with ...
6 votes
2 answers
302 views

Historical origins of the doctrine of God's self glorification

Within the Reformed tradition, it is a considered a fundamental principle of doctrine that the 'Chief End' of Man, of Creation and most importantly of God Himself is His own self glorification. We see ...
16 votes
2 answers
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Did Martin Luther ever admit that his approval of Philip's bigamy was wrong?

I recently learned that in 1540, Martin Luther secretly approved of the bigamous marriage of Philip of Hesse. Philip had married for political purposes, and then fell in love with someone else. ...
2 votes
1 answer
116 views

What Christian denominations profess that they remain with 'that which was from the beginning' rather than 'progress' to a 'further revelation'?

That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled, concerning the Word of life ... That which we have seen ...
10 votes
3 answers
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How do Protestants answer the Catholic accusation of historicity?

The Roman Catholic Church has a claim of apostolic succession, from St. Peter transited by the laying on of hands. Most Protestants reject this understanding of apostolic succession, and instead teach ...
1 vote
2 answers
332 views

How did Catholic Church adapt after the Black Plague in Europe if at all any adaptation occurred?

Correct me if I am wrong here. There were various reformations in the Catholic Church for example the reformation led by St. Catherine of Cienna, the reformation led by St. Theresa of Avila, Second ...
5 votes
1 answer
662 views

Do Reformed theologians understand the Catholic Church and the Papacy to have been true heirs of Peter until the Reformation?

In other words, say, in the fourth century, were they "on track" and the legitimate heirs of the reins of Christianity, so to speak but then went off track toward the middle ages? Or do they ...
1 vote
1 answer
85 views

Is there a book that details what the popes said against reformation leaders?

Can anyone recommend a book that have all the declarations, laws, statements, etc of popes during the times of reformers like Tyndale, Luther, etc.?
9 votes
3 answers
1k views

Reformation objections to lectio divina?

It is becoming popular in Protestant circles to embrace traditional Roman Catholic (RC) mysticism, such as the practice of lectio divina. For example, see this page on the website of Timothy Keller's ...
19 votes
4 answers
11k views

What effect did the Reformation have inside the Catholic Church?

I confess my knowledge of church history branches at about the Reformation. I know a quite a bit about Catholicism today, and I have an idea of what it was before the Reformation. These are not at all ...
3 votes
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Is ”sola scriptura” the first appeal of "Ecclesia Reformata, Semper Reformanda?"

"Sola scriptura" & "Ecclesia Reformata, Semper Reformanda" (a church reformed and always to be reformed according to the Word of God) are the "two mottos" among others, from the early church and ...
3 votes
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189 views

Was there ever an Anabaptist movement in the Eastern Orthodox Church?

Since the original Great Schism, the Orthodox church has seemed pretty unified (at least compared to the Catholic Church). During the radical reformation, Anabaptists were persecuted throughout ...
14 votes
5 answers
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Why was Thomas More canonized?

Thomas More was canonized in 1935 by the Catholic Church. During his chancellorship between 1525-1529 in the campaign against the reformation people were killed and tortured in his name, for example, ...
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1 answer
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Is there any truth to the story that Martin Luther claimed he "bought" hell from a priest?

We have this in our country, I googled it but didn’t find something like this, just found that Martin Luther had something to do with Indulgences. So is it true or is just some nice writing and good ...
16 votes
1 answer
2k views

Why is the Bible said to be twisted like a wax nose?

The unusual image of a "wax nose" has been used in a few different ways, to describe some sort of "twisting" of the meaning of Scripture. It appears to have been used by both Protestants and Catholics,...
12 votes
1 answer
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Why did the reformers include the book of Hebrews in the canon?

Related: Why was Hebrews included in the canon? It's widely known that Hebrews has been in the canon of most of Christendom for a long time, originally on the basis of Pauline authorship (see the ...
10 votes
1 answer
665 views

Did John Calvin help Nicolas Cop write his infamous inaugural address?

Early in John Calvin's career, he was involved in a controversy that forced him to flee Paris and live in hiding for a time. Calvin's friend, Nicolas Cop, delivered an address that many considered ...
4 votes
2 answers
683 views

Cardinal Cajetan and Martin Luther

Recently, I read (in this pamphlet) that Martin Luther had some disputes with prominent thomist and Cardinal Thomas Cajetan. why did these two intellignet man not come to an agreement and dispute ...
2 votes
1 answer
350 views

If the Geneva Bible was the Bible of the English reformation, then why did the KJV become so widely used?

If the Geneva Bible was the bible of the reformation, Why is the KJV used more widely than the Geneva Bible? And (if applicable) what would be the main differences between the two bibles (in terms of ...
0 votes
2 answers
236 views

What day and year was the first public and general confession held in the Church of England?

What day and year was the first public and general confession held in the Church of England? Was it prescribed in the Act of Supremacy of 1532?
8 votes
1 answer
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Why did Huldrych Zwingli oppose music in the worship service?

Three of the most influential reformers, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Huldrych Zwingli, took very different approaches to music in corporate worship. Of the three, Zwingli was the most accomplished ...
7 votes
2 answers
1k views

Was there ever a "Martin Luther" or a reformation in the Eastern Orthodox Church?

The protestant reformation had a large impact on the Catholic Church, but even know much of the reformers concerns apply to the Eastern Orthodox Church as well, it seems that there never was a ...
25 votes
5 answers
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Did reformation leaders throw out the Summa Theologica?

St. Thomas Aquinas's seminal work the Summa Theologica was an attempt to catalog all the theological arguments ever conceived. Much of the reasoning is rooted in the Natural Law and it's what ...
7 votes
3 answers
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What was first, sola scriptura or sola fide?

I just watched a video with an Orthodox professor, in which he said that "Sola Scriptura" came first, and then "Sola Fide". Is that true? The best I can gather from the Wiki articles on these two ...
10 votes
2 answers
3k views

What did Calvin think about Knox's "Monstrous Regiment"?

Scottish Protestant reformer John Knox (1514-1572) is the author of the work of vile misogyny, The first blast of the trumpet against the monstruous regiment of women (1558). In the book, Knox rails ...
7 votes
1 answer
638 views

Was Martin Luther's marriage to Katharina von Bora due to their love for each other?

The documentary series This Changed Everything: 500 Years of the Reformation includes a section in episode 1 about Martin Luther's marriage to Katharina von Bora. Dr. Frank James (President and ...
2 votes
2 answers
199 views

Were the actions of the 3rd Duke of Alba in the 16th Century considered a Catholic Crusade?

Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba was sent by Philip II of Spain to Belgium where he waged war against the protestants in the area. As a bit of history, Belgium in the 16th Century started ...
10 votes
1 answer
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When did Martin Luther begin to see the church as entirely apostate?

Related to Martin Luther: "Therefore it is not a Christian Church either"? and What was Martin Luther's perspective on the apostasy of the early Christian church? and Is it true that ...