Questions tagged [reformation]

The separation of Catholic and Protestant churches in the 16th century

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Who are called Catholics in the Early Church?

I saw recently that some protestants are trying to label themselves as authentic Catholics. “Protestants: The Most ‘Catholic’ of Christians.” Reforming Catholic Confession Who are called Catholics in ...
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What is a brief history of the term "reformed" as in Reformed churches and Reformed theology?

Why do theologies and churches based on the teaching of Calvin consistently self-identify using the term "Reformed" even down to the 21st century, such as the 2019 Reformed Systematic ...
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Would the Anglican Church consider themselves Protestant?

I tend to use “Protestant” as a broad definition to refer to anyone that does not hold to the doctrine of the Catholic or [eastern] Orthodox Church. However, in my conversations with many Lutherans ...
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Why did Luther reject every sacrament except Baptism and Communion?

Upon splitting from the Catholic Church, Luther rejected 5 of the 7 sacraments, including confirmation, Reconciliation, Anointing on the Sick, Matrimony, and Holy Orders. Why did he reject these, and ...
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Who are these people in this Catholic Reformation meme that are considered more influential than Martin Luther?

I've seen this meme running around from some Catholic folks responding to Reformation Day Who are these people, and what did they do that (in the minds of Catholics) reformed the Catholic Church more ...
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Was Martin Luther wrong about baptizing infants?

Toward the end of his life, Martin Luther was extremely critical of the Anabaptists and considered them to be heretics. This inspired terrible treatment of the Anabaptists at the hands of the German ...
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What Christian denominations profess that they remain with 'that which was from the beginning' rather than 'progress' to a 'further revelation'?

That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled, concerning the Word of life ... That which we have seen ...
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How do Protestants answer the Catholic accusation of historicity?

The Roman Catholic Church has a claim of apostolic succession, from St. Peter transited by the laying on of hands. Most Protestants reject this understanding of apostolic succession, and instead teach ...
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The Middle Ages as a Model for the Orderly Society?

I'm interested in finding books and studies (both for and against) the idea that Medieval European society had a kind of order that's desirable. Foundationally, there's a clear religious order--...
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Do Reformed theologians understand the Catholic Church and the Papacy to have been true heirs of Peter until the Reformation?

In other words, say, in the fourth century, were they "on track" and the legitimate heirs of the reins of Christianity, so to speak but then went off track toward the middle ages? Or do they ...
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Is there a book that details what the popes said against reformation leaders?

Can anyone recommend a book that have all the declarations, laws, statements, etc of popes during the times of reformers like Tyndale, Luther, etc.?
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Is ”sola scriptura” the first appeal of "Ecclesia Reformata, Semper Reformanda?"

"Sola scriptura" & "Ecclesia Reformata, Semper Reformanda" (a church reformed and always to be reformed according to the Word of God) are the "two mottos" among others, from the early church and ...
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How did Catholic Church adapt after the Black Plague in Europe if at all any adaptation occurred?

Correct me if I am wrong here. There were various reformations in the Catholic Church for example the reformation led by St. Catherine of Cienna, the reformation led by St. Theresa of Avila, Second ...
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Was there ever an Anabaptist movement in the Eastern Orthodox Church?

Since the original Great Schism, the Orthodox church has seemed pretty unified (at least compared to the Catholic Church). During the radical reformation, Anabaptists were persecuted throughout ...
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If the Geneva Bible was the Bible of the English reformation, then why did the KJV become so widely used?

If the Geneva Bible was the bible of the reformation, Why is the KJV used more widely than the Geneva Bible? And (if applicable) what would be the main differences between the two bibles (in terms of ...
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Cardinal Cajetan and Martin Luther

Recently, I read (in this pamphlet) that Martin Luther had some disputes with prominent thomist and Cardinal Thomas Cajetan. why did these two intellignet man not come to an agreement and dispute ...
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Historical origins of the doctrine of God's self glorification

Within the Reformed tradition, it is a considered a fundamental principle of doctrine that the 'Chief End' of Man, of Creation and most importantly of God Himself is His own self glorification. We see ...
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Was there ever a "Martin Luther" or a reformation in the Eastern Orthodox Church?

The protestant reformation had a large impact on the Catholic Church, but even know much of the reformers concerns apply to the Eastern Orthodox Church as well, it seems that there never was a ...
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Was Martin Luther's marriage to Katharina von Bora due to their love for each other?

The documentary series This Changed Everything: 500 Years of the Reformation includes a section in episode 1 about Martin Luther's marriage to Katharina von Bora. Dr. Frank James (President and ...
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Were the actions of the 3rd Duke of Alba in the 16th Century considered a Catholic Crusade?

Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba was sent by Philip II of Spain to Belgium where he waged war against the protestants in the area. As a bit of history, Belgium in the 16th Century started ...
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What was Samuel Rutherford's view on the role of pastors in wedding ceremonies?

Samuel Rutherford was an important 17th-century Presbyterian theologian who had significant influence in the drafting of the Westminster Standards, still widely used as a part of the constitutions of ...
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Is the incarnation of Jesus permanent, according to reformers like Luther or Calvin?

Before, I thought that by the time Jesus died, that's the end of His incarnation state after He fulfilled His role, spilling His blood for the forgiveness of sins. Below is an article I found in this ...
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What did Protestant reformers think about the date and authorship of the New Testament?

Biblical scholars state that the different books of the New Testament were written between 49 and 120 AD, approximately. This means - rather uncontroversially - that the activity of the Church (i.e. ...
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Is there any truth to the story that Martin Luther claimed he "bought" hell from a priest?

We have this in our country, I googled it but didn’t find something like this, just found that Martin Luther had something to do with Indulgences. So is it true or is just some nice writing and good ...
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Why did Luther not support iconoclasm like some other reformers?

During the Reformation, Protestant reformers such as Huldrych Zwingli and John Calvin promoted Iconoclasm among their followers. I have found information about Luther opposing it, but little about why....
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Were celebrations for the 400th Anniversary of the Reformation held in Germany during World War I?

The 400th anniversary of Luther posting his 95 Theses was October 31, 1917. At this point, Germany was suffering heavy losses in World War I, and the war would continue until November 11th of the ...
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Was Tetzel robbed by a man who had preemptively bought an indulgence?

Wikipedia recounts a story told by Martin Luther about Johann Tetzel. It goes a little something like this: Tetzel was in Leipzig selling indulgences. After collecting a large sum of money, Tetzel ...
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Did Martin Luther ever admit that his approval of Philip's bigamy was wrong?

I recently learned that in 1540, Martin Luther secretly approved of the bigamous marriage of Philip of Hesse. Philip had married for political purposes, and then fell in love with someone else. ...
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Are Catholics allowed to celebrate the Reformation?

This is going to be published in my local Catholic parish's bulletin this week. A SPECIAL EVENT: REFORMATION 500 COMMEMORATION Wednesday, April 26 @ 7:00pm In honor of the 500th Anniversary of the ...
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Where did Roman Catholicism connect modern heresies with the Reformation?

Protestant theologian R. C. Sproul, in his series Contemporary Theology, comments on Rome's view of the connection between the Reformation and modern heresies: In the latter part of the 19th ...
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Request: Christian demographic statistics at the time of the reformation

I suspect I won't be able to get any good answers but I think it's worth asking anyway. I'm curious about what Christian demographics looked like at different points in history. For example what ...
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5 votes
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Did anyone who was a part of the Counter reformation consider Luther to be the Antichrist?

Were there any writings from the counter-reformation which had arguments in support of the idea that Martin Luther was a/the Antichrist? He seems to fit the bill. He initiated a great apostasy from ...
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4 votes
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Did the original reformers believe in a Magisterium?

I have seen the original reformers referred to as the "Magisterial reformers" a couple of times over the past few years, and I'm only now wondering what the significance of that phrase is. Does it ...
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11 votes
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Why did the reformers include the book of Hebrews in the canon?

Related: Why was Hebrews included in the canon? It's widely known that Hebrews has been in the canon of most of Christendom for a long time, originally on the basis of Pauline authorship (see the ...
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Who influenced anabaptist teachings the most and where did anabaptist teachings come from?

I know that Switzerland and southern Germany was the birthplace of anabaptism, did it come from Ulrich Zwingli? Or was there another more influential person out of the reformation that encouraged ...
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What was first, sola scriptura or sola fide?

I just watched a video with an Orthodox professor, in which he said that "Sola Scriptura" came first, and then "Sola Fide". Is that true? The best I can gather from the Wiki articles on these two ...
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Did any Jesuit opponents of early Jansenism argue that Augustine was wrong on any points?

Cornelius Jansen is known as the intellectual father of Jansenism, a movement not unlike Calvinism in a few respects, like its emphasis on original sin and predestination. Jansen's book, Augustinus (...
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In what ways did early Jansenists believe that their doctrine of salvation differed from that of Calvinism?

The soteriology of Jansenism appears to bear some resemblance to that of Calvinism, as both emphasize doctrines like original sin, predestination, and irresistible grace. The two movements also share ...
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Why did Huldrych Zwingli oppose music in the worship service?

Three of the most influential reformers, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Huldrych Zwingli, took very different approaches to music in corporate worship. Of the three, Zwingli was the most accomplished ...
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10 votes
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Did John Calvin help Nicolas Cop write his infamous inaugural address?

Early in John Calvin's career, he was involved in a controversy that forced him to flee Paris and live in hiding for a time. Calvin's friend, Nicolas Cop, delivered an address that many considered ...
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What day and year was the first public and general confession held in the Church of England?

What day and year was the first public and general confession held in the Church of England? Was it prescribed in the Act of Supremacy of 1532?
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Did Luther consider Erasmus an unbeliever, and if so, why?

The introduction to Luther and Erasmus: Free Will and Salvation mentions that Luther called Erasmus an unbeliever: [Luther's] letters and the gossip of his Table Talk are littered with scorn of ...
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11 votes
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What were the major disagreements between Erasmus and Luther during the Protestant Reformation?

Although Erasmus inspired many of Luther's ideas, they disagreed on many subjects, such as whether the Catholic Church should have a moral reform or a reform of beliefs. Did Erasmus disagree with ...
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Did John Calvin ever read Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica?

I've read in a few places online (here, for example), that John Calvin did not have access to Thomas Aquinas's great treatise, Summa Theologica. This is mind-blowing. Consider: The last edition of ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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What reforms did Erasmus seek for the church?

I've long wondered about this. Wikipedia's article on Erasmus notes: While he was critical of the abuses within the Church and called for reform, he kept his distance from Luther and Melanchthon ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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Which Reformation theologians used the analogy of water and ink for sin?

On page 98 of Miroslav Volf's Free of Charge: Giving and Forgiving, he says: But even if all of us are sinners from head to toe, none of us is a sinner through and through, with nothing good ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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What did Luther have against Zwingli?

According to 131 Christians Everyone Should Know:* [Martin Luther] mocked fellow reformers, especially Swiss reformer Ulrich Zwingli, and used vulgar language in doing so. What was Luther's ...
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22 votes
2 answers
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Why, according to the Catholic Church, did the Reformation happen?

Has the Catholic church ever put forth a theological theory or statement as to why the Reformation happened? Please note.... I'm not asking about how the Reformation happened. History is what it is....
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6 votes
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What contemporary criticism was given to Belloc's claim that the Protestant Reformation was the work of a few oligarchs?

I've just returned from the 33rd Conference of the American Chesterton Society with exciting news, apparently Protestantism is a sham inflicted upon us by the corporate elite! Hehehe, well who ...
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When did Martin Luther begin to see the church as entirely apostate?

Related to Martin Luther: "Therefore it is not a Christian Church either"? and What was Martin Luther's perspective on the apostasy of the early Christian church? and Is it true that ...
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