Questions tagged [philosophy]

Philosophical approaches in theology and relationship between philosophy and faith.

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Philosophy - is there any point exploring?

I am on the brink of studying philosophy. When I asked on Philosophy Stack Exchange what the purpose of Philosophy is, I got a lot of answers about logic, reasoning, mental exercise, challenging ...
IanG's user avatar
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5 answers
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How can we infallibly know that the Catholic Church is infallible?

This argument from redeemed zoomer's twitter account. What is the catholic response to it? How can you infallibly know whether the true church is the Catholic Church or the Orthodox Church? If you ...
Wenura's user avatar
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How do Christian proponents of the Fine Tuning argument for God justify their probability estimates? [closed]

For reference, I am not a Christian but I am interested in hearing theistic perspectives on this. The fine tuning argument essentially goes that the probability of constants in physics resulting in ...
Baby_philosopher's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
257 views

What is the Biblical basis for Christians partaking in formal intellectual debates with atheists and skeptics?

Notable examples include: Does God Exist? William Lane Craig vs. Christopher Hitchens - Full Debate [HD] The God Debate II: Harris vs. Craig Does Math Point to God? William Lane Craig + Graham Oppy ...
Mark's user avatar
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How might a Christian persuade a naturalist non-theist that the universe cannot be a brute fact?

In contemporary philosophy, a brute fact is a fact that cannot be explained in terms of a deeper, more "fundamental" fact. There are two main ways to explain something: say what "...
Mark's user avatar
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Why God does what he does? [closed]

And God said, Let there be light: and there was light -Genesis 1:3 KJV The almighty God gets what he desires and what he wants is good indeed. I believe there's a ultimate goal for humanity (as a ...
ElectronSurf's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
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How do Christian advocates of the Fine Tuning argument for God's existence address the objection posed by the Anthropic Principle?

The anthropic principle, also known as the "observation selection effect", is the hypothesis, first proposed in 1957 by Robert Dicke, that the range of possible observations that could be ...
Mark's user avatar
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13 votes
6 answers
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Do Christians believe that God used mathematics to design the universe?

I would like to know if this is a common belief among Christians, and if so, is it grounded in the Bible? Does the Bible suggest that God created mathematics, and that He used mathematical principles ...
Mark's user avatar
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What are Christian responses to Graham Oppy's argument for atheism from naturalism?

Short version I'm specifically referring to Graham Oppy's paper An Argument for Atheism from Naturalism: Abstract This paper outlines an argument for atheism from naturalism that I have developed in ...
Mark's user avatar
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12 votes
4 answers
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How do Young Earth Creationists respond to the 'Last Thursdayism' objection?

Last Thursdayism (alternately Last Tuesdayism or Last Wednesdayism) is the idea that the universe was created last Thursday, but with the physical appearance of being billions of years old. It's also ...
Mark's user avatar
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In Christian epistemology, how is Reformed Epistemology different from mysticism?

Note: For context, please see my recently asked question Can Reformed Epistemology be considered a special variant of mysticism? on Philosophy Stack Exchange. It includes many useful references and ...
Mark's user avatar
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3 answers
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What extrabiblical arguments do Christians employ (i.e., utilize in apologetics) to defend the existence of spirits or souls?

According to the 2020 PhilPapers Survey results, when asked about their stance on Consciousness: identity theory, eliminativism, functionalism, dualism, or panpsychism?, only 20.98% leaned towards or ...
Mark's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
141 views

Are Christians theologically committed to believing that all evil and suffering in the world is non-gratuitous or necessary?

Arguments from evil, such as the logical problem of evil or the evidential problem of evil, aim to demonstrate that certain forms of suffering in the world are either unnecessary or gratuitous. ...
Mark's user avatar
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4 votes
5 answers
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What are Christian responses to William Rowe's formulation of the Evidential Problem of Evil?

Previously, I inquired on What are Christian responses to the Logical Problem of Evil?. Now, I would like to shift the focus to Christian responses to the Evidential Problem of Evil. For an in-depth ...
Mark's user avatar
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10 votes
8 answers
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What are Christian responses to the Logical Problem of Evil?

The following is a more succinct presentation of the Logical Problem of Evil based on the original presentation found in the introduction of the article Logical Problem of Evil | Internet Encyclopedia ...
Mark's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
184 views

Is there scriptural support for Pascal's wager?

Pascal contends that a rational person should adopt a lifestyle consistent with the existence of God and actively strive to believe in God. The reasoning behind this stance lies in the potential ...
Mark's user avatar
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In the Writings of the Ancient Greeks---"God is Everywhere Implied"

Elements of monotheism seem to have existed in the philosophies of at least several of the celebrated ancient Greek philosophers; e.g., Parmenides, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. A while back, I ...
DDS's user avatar
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Could God (if he wants) create a mountain that tall?

I assume, in theory, God could be able to create a mountain (if he wants to). I don't want to assume he wants to do it, it's just a speculation. If this mountain is tall enough, no people will be ever ...
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Were "All" of Hobbes' Works Placed on the Index of Prohibited Books?

According to Index of Prohibited Books, all of the works of Thomas Hobbes were placed on the Index of Prohibited Books in the year 1649. Thomas Hobbes wrote many more books after 1649, including his ...
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How are Romans 1:19-20 and Psalm 139:7-10 reconciled with the growing prevalence of the argument from divine hiddenness among atheists?

Romans 1:18-25 ESV 18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who by their unrighteousness suppress the truth. 19 For what can be known about ...
Mark's user avatar
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2 votes
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185 views

Are all Christians expected to have a "positively meaningful and reciprocal conscious relationship" with God?

For context, I'd recommend reading first the answers to What exactly would count as a "positively meaningful and reciprocal conscious relationship" between a person and a God? on Philosophy ...
Mark's user avatar
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-4 votes
1 answer
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Why is it rational to love my enemies?

Matthew 5:44 KJV But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you; In Buddhism, it is ...
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More examples of transubstantiation other than in the Holy Mass

Are there examples of transubstantiation that happens in other places/moments that are not in the celebration of Mass? I mean, somewhere in nature or in psychology, maybe philosophy. I am asking this ...
Bernardo Benini Fantin's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
139 views

Is it possible to be a worshiper of the true God without being reached/evangelized?

Upon reflecting on the answers to this question, HOW does the existence of the Universe make those who do not worship God to be "without excuse"?, I noticed that Romans 1:18-20 leaves ...
Mark's user avatar
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0 votes
5 answers
266 views

How to refute the argument that is is possible to be saved without Jesus and do apologetics for it

I've recently thought of an argument that might undermine Christianity but I'm not sure if I simply reinvented a super old argument that already has a refutation or it's a novel one (probably not), ...
setszu's user avatar
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4 answers
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Naive question: Origin of the Holy Ghost

I have heard that there is a lot of influence from the Greeks in the development of Christianity, the Stoics and Platonists, and the concept of logos, the Word, and Jesus. You can see this in the ...
Lina Jane's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
177 views

How does the Catholic Church reconcile its doctrine of a divine plan with the disorder and randomness of life?

In light of the teachings of the Catholic Church, which acknowledges that God created the universe according to a plan, and that everything that exists has purpose, can we understand why life, despite ...
bujals's user avatar
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9 answers
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How do proponents of the “free-will defense” against the problem of evil explain that God can be free and immune to moral evil at the same time?

The free-will defense is an argument commonly attributed to Alvin Plantinga, who developed it as a response to the logical problem of evil. However, in developing this argument Plantinga unwittingly ...
Mark's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
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Do Christians believe that God chose to create the "best possible world" among multiple/infinite alternatives, by maximizing a "Goodness" function?

Do Christians (or at least a well-known subset of them) believe that God chose to create the "best possible world" among multiple/infinite alternatives, and therefore, that we are living in ...
Mark's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
263 views

Can God ground his own parts?

One of the motivations behind the doctrine of divine simplicity (DDS) is that if God was composed of parts, God would depend upon those parts to exist and hence there would be something more ...
Bob's user avatar
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1 answer
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Have any prominent Christian Intelligent Design proponents discussed the issue of a potential infinite regress of intelligent designers?

We can arrive at an infinite regress of designers as follows: Suppose that X is so complex that it's considered to show evidence of design. Accordingly, we infer that an intelligent designer must be ...
Mark's user avatar
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11 votes
2 answers
2k views

Is there a name for the belief that some individuals would always freely reject salvation no matter the world in which they are created?

When God created the world, He had to accept the fact that some of His creatures would sin and ultimately fail to repent and be saved (I'm assuming that universalism is false, to be clear). For ...
Mark's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
95 views

What is the difference between Christian Hedonism and Utilitarianism?

In my previous question What are counterexamples to the position that Christian morality is ultimately utilitarian (i.e., that God is utilitarian)?, someone in the comments referred me to this article:...
Mark's user avatar
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0 votes
4 answers
342 views

What are counterexamples to the position that Christian morality is ultimately utilitarian (i.e., that God is utilitarian)?

I personally believe that Christian morality is ultimately utilitarian. I see God as a utilitarian genius that is doing His best to guide His creation towards maximum utility, subject to certain ...
Mark's user avatar
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0 votes
4 answers
152 views

Why does God punish us for our will?

This is a huge question. Do let me know if its immensity makes it off-topic for this site. I will start out my question with a quote from Schopenhauer: A man can do what he wills, but not will what ...
user110391's user avatar
-3 votes
4 answers
145 views

What is the third moral principle that forbids gender change?

Shortly after the beginning, Cain kills Abel. (Genesis 4:8) In light of this, God sees it fit to create a new moral rule for all of humanity. "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.&...
Fomalhaut's user avatar
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3 answers
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According to Christians who believe that God is a utilitarian, why is homosexuality suboptimal? [closed]

I'm addressing this question to Christians who believe that God is a utilitarian, that is, that God has designed His creation and attempts to guide His creatures with the aim of maximizing some divine ...
Mark's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
85 views

About the spiritual soul: can animals apprehend universals?

I'm struggling with this question for a while: It seems like dogs do know what dogs are. Is it possible for a dog to only recognize individuals and not grasp the universal concept of dog? I thought ...
hellofriends's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
297 views

Is there a single human nature or there are multiple human natures?

This question arose from the understanding that God being one nature and three persons. Though (I am trinitarian myself), I observe that in these discussions it is presupposed that humans have one ...
ohteepee's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
156 views

How does Catholicism appropriate Aristotle's notion of the 'transcendent third'?

I was reading Bishop Robert Barron's article Silence and the Meaning of the Mass and came across Aristotle's "transcendent third": The Mass is the act by which the Son of God, in union with ...
GratefulDisciple's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
343 views

Did Philo influence the contents of the New Testament?

Internet Encyclopedia (IE) article on Philo claims that Philo “laid the foundations for the development of Christianity … as we know it today.” It says, “Philo’s primary importance is in the ...
Andries's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Are any Christian philosophers working on an argument from causation that works with Quantum Physics?

A chat yesterday informed me that Aquinas' argument from causation was "too Newtonian" to work for modern atheists and only works in our friendly neighborhood eminently perceivable dimension....
Peter Turner's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
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What are the correct pairings between the soul's faculties and the 3 transcendentals?

The three transcendentals and imago dei Medieval scholastic theology inherited the notions of transcendentals from Greek metaphysics. CCC 41, interpreting Wis 13:5, teaches that our soul has the ...
GratefulDisciple's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
86 views

Is the study of God like philosophy?

I don't believe God is real. However, I figured out that it is as if God exists. I want just a yes no answer. Otherwise, I won't be able to understand the answer. It was only recently that I figured ...
Timothy's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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Are people who have a closer unity to God called to act by the divine?

It seems from observation that one of the hallmark signs of a higher being (one that is in close unity with the divine with respect to their actions and thoughts) is that they tend to have a ...
user63143's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
607 views

What has Jerusalem to do with Athens?

Today's reading on Exodus 90 said: The early Church writer Tertullian (~155–220 A.D.), known as the father of Western theology, once posed the question, “What has Jerusalem to do with Athens?” The ...
Peter Turner's user avatar
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3 votes
4 answers
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Has any Christian philosopher ever argued that naturalism can be shown to be false?

From Wikipedia: In philosophy, naturalism is the idea or belief that only natural laws and forces (as opposed to supernatural ones) operate in the universe.[1] Naturalism is not so much a special ...
user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
136 views

Are WLC's arguments against Relative Identity Trinitarianism valid?

In his book Philosophical Foundations for a Christian Worldview, William Lane Craig offers three arguments against Relative Identity. The first argument regards the alleged "spurious" nature ...
Bob's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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Are there Christian groups or denominations that believe that direct doxastic voluntarism is true (i.e. that atheists can choose to believe in God)?

From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doxastic_voluntarism: Doxastic voluntarism is a philosophical view that people elect their own beliefs.[1] That is, that subjects have a certain amount of control ...
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23 votes
13 answers
7k views

Believing that Christianity is "probably" true vs. being fully convinced that Christianity is definitely true?

Most apologetic arguments for theism/Christianity are probabilistic (i.e. they are abductive in nature, rely on premises that are not necessarily true, etc.), meaning that a rational person who is ...
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