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Questions tagged [penal-substitution]

A theory of atonement under which Christ was punished in the place of sinners to satisfy God's wrath

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If Jesus's death was not eternal, then how can it be substitutionary for the eternal deaths of humans?

Sinful humans are judged and sentenced to eternal death. But did Jesus experience eternal death? If so, how? If not, how then can it be considered substitutionary for our deaths? How do those who ...
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What is the Current Official View of the Catholic Church on the Redemptive Work of Christ?

This question is not about whether Catholics think salvation is a process or a one time thing, it is more nuanced than that. I am looking for precise theological interpretations of Christ's ...
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(LDS) What kind of payment can a murderer make to receive a pardon?

Related to this other question about whether murder is unforgivable according to the LDS Church. One of the answers to the question says that: Murder is a very serious sin, and while it can't be ...
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How does the Catholic Church view Penal Substitutionary Atonement?

How does the Catholic Church view Penal Substitutionary Atonement (as formulated within the Reformed tradition)? A comment on this question, states that PSA 'has been declared doctrinal heresy'. Is ...
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What is the biblical basis for the belief that Jesus' death made satisfaction for individual sins?

Among evangelical Protestants, especially, but also in various other quarters of Christianity, it is common to believe that "Jesus died for me" in the sense that Jesus' death made satisfaction for (in ...
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How and when did the penal substitutionary view become popular? How popular today is it? [closed]

It seems very popular among evangelicals today, is it the main theory? Do other Christians generally support this view, and have they supported it historically? Does it have historical support in the ...
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Did Philip Melanchthon teach penal substitution?

This question is a follow-up to my question, "Did Martin Luther teach penal substitution?" The Wikipedia article on Philip Melanchthon states in its opening paragraphs: Philip Melanchthon . . . (...
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1answer
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Who first clearly formulated the penal substitution theory of atonement?

The Wikipedia article on Penal substitution states in its opening paragraph: Penal substitution (sometimes, esp. in older writings, called forensic theory) is a theory of the atonement within ...
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Did Martin Luther teach penal substitution?

The Wikipedia article on Penal Substitution states (under the heading "Differing views"): Critics, however, argue that the theory of penal substitution is solely a later development, only forming ...
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According to proponents of penal substitutionary atonement, why do we still die?

According to the theory of atonement known as penal substitution, the sin of a person is atoned for by the work of Jesus – he paid the penalty for the sin himself when he died, satisfying the ...
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According to proponents of penal substitutionary atonement, were the Levitical sacrifices also penal substitutions?

I am not a proponent of penal substitutionary atonement. While considering this question, I considered whether my position is incorrect, and the language of Isaiah 53 necessarily implies penal ...
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How do opponents of penal substitutionary atonement theory handle Isaiah 53?

How do opponents of the penal substitution theory of atonement handle Isaiah 53? This seems to describe penal substitution quite well: 4 Surely he took up our pain and bore our suffering, ...
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686 views

What is the Biblical basis for the “penal” in penal substitutionary atonement?

I have been looking at different models of the atonement and am currently looking at penal substitutionary atonement. While I can see the substitution, I'm struggling somewhat with the idea of Jesus ...
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431 views

Is penal substitutionary atonement most prevalent among Calvinists?

I've been looking at penal substitutionary atonement and am finding that although Calvinists and Arminians seem to affirm it, it appears to be Calvinists who affirm it most strongly. Is this accurate?...
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Are there any Protestant denominations or churches that reject penal substitution?

I come from a background in Protestant/Evangelical churches. The trademark salvation message in those churches is that Christ bore the wrath of God for your sins to satisfy his justice that we have ...
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2answers
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What is the difference between “ransom theory” and “penal substitution”?

Ransom theory and penal substitution are two (of many) views about the exact nature of Jesus' atoning death on the cross. Both suggest that Jesus in some way paid a price on the cross for the benefit ...
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How do opponents of Penal Substitution explain God's declaration that He “will not leave the guilty unpunished”?

In referring to opponents of Penal Substitution theory, I'm referring specifically to those who view it as a false view of the Atonement, not merely that it is incomplete (eg those who hold to ...
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According to the penal substitutionary atonement view, why was Jesus' punishment not eternal?

Given Christianity believes that the "punishment for sin is death" (Rom. 6:23, etc.) and that punishment is eternal (2 Thes. 1:9, Matt. 25:41, Rev. 20:10, etc.), how was Christ's punishment a ...
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How is it just that Jesus, an innocent, would be punished for our sins?

From the perspective that Jesus' suffering on the cross was in fact a punishment for our sins, how is punishing an innocent (Jesus) for the sinners justified? Jesus was innocent but the people were ...
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When and where does the statement, “Christ paid the penalty for our sins” first appear?

The statement, "Christ paid the penalty for our sins" does not appear in the Bible. When in the history of Christian theology did this specific statement first appear? Who said it? Please provide ...
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How do Arminians understand the doctrine of Unlimited Atonement in a way that does not make God unjust?

The doctrine of unlimited atonement teaches that Christ died for all mankind, but only paid for the sins of those who believe in Him. If this is the case then either Jesus already knew who would ...