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Questions tagged [medieval-church]

The church of the 5th to 15th centuries, following the early church and leading up to the Reformation.

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Church Fathers on life beyond the earth?

Are there any church fathers or medieval Christian writers who gave their opinion on extraterrestrial lives?
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Hugh of Saint-Cher's complete Bible commentary (Postillæ in totam Bibliam)?

"Hugh of Saint-Cher († 1263) was the second Dominican Master of Theology in Paris, and the first Dominican cardinal" (n. 39) who, "through the persuasion of Master [St.] Albert [the ...
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Who consecrated Scipione Rebiba?

His Eminence Scipione Rebiba is considered as the last bishop most Roman Catholic bishops can trace their episcopal lineages from. Who consecrated Scipione Rebiba? If we don't know, are there at least ...
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Where can I find an online copy of Dietrich Kolde's "The Mirror of a Christian Man"?

On the eve of the Reformation, The Mirror of a Christian Man (1470) by Dietrich Kolde was one of the most popular Catholic catechism in the German language (German title: "Kerstenspiegel" or ...
GratefulDisciple's user avatar
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3 answers
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Did Christian church find it difficult to accept Nicolaus Copernicus' heliocentric theory?

Explain the reasons for which the Christian church found it difficult to accept Nicolaus Copernicus' heliocentric theory.
Simanga Celucolo Sihlongonyane's user avatar
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What medieval theologians debated whether angels are male or female?

Hildebrand, Man, Woman, and the Meaning of Love, § "Friendship Between Man & Woman", §§ "There are many spiritual differences between the sexes" claims: In the Middle Ages the ...
Geremia's user avatar
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Why was "lay investiture" condemned?

What was the Investiture Controversy and lay investiture, and why exactly was it condemned? Fr. Hardon, S.J., defines "lay investiture": The act by which a sovereign, in the Middle Ages, ...
Geremia's user avatar
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Is there any evidence that in the middle ages (France and maybe Spain), there was a wafer/bread given to the priests as a gift for the priest?

Is there any evidence that in the middle ages (specifically in France and maybe Spain), there was a wafer/bread given to the priests as a gift for the priest and not given to be used for Eucharist?
Reb Chaim HaQoton's user avatar
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Why were the mystical works of Richard of St. Victor called "Benjamin"?

Richard of St. Victor (d. 1173) wrote two treatises in mystical theology, sometimes called Benjamin Minor and Benjamin Major. But where do those titles come from? It seems the first one has something ...
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The Middle Ages as a Model for the Orderly Society?

I'm interested in finding books and studies (both for and against) the idea that Medieval European society had a kind of order that's desirable. Foundationally, there's a clear religious order--...
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Roughly how many churches were built in each century?

Christians build churches - it's what we do. Are there any estimates of how many physical church buildings Christians have built over the centuries, broken down by century? Suitable proxies: number ...
Paul Chernoch's user avatar
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On ferias, feria 2, feria 3

I'm trying to get clarification on how this word is used. 'On ferias at Terce' - does that mean any day of the week Sun->Sat? All days except Sunday? All days except Saturday and Sunday? All days ...
R. B. Jawad's user avatar
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Did any medieval Catholics believe in the possibility the repentance was possible immediately after death?

Did any medieval Catholics have a pious belief that immediately after death, God gave people a last chance to repent of their sins and thus save their immortal soul from going to hell for all eternity?...
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Are there any Catholic medieval directives (rubrics) about what to do/pray/think during Eucharist Adoration?

Are there any medieval (from the 5th to the 15th century) directives (some kind of manual or rubrics) about what to do/pray/think during Eucharist Adoration?
Thom's user avatar
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Historical Apologetic used by 7th Century Christians towards Early Muslims Regarding the Hypostatic Union and Jesus' Title "Son of God"

According to my research Jesus is called the Son of God about 40 times in the NT. When interacting with Muslims, a common objection they give against Christ's deity, and the Trinity is that the Quran ...
WnGatRC456's user avatar
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What have old Christian writers opined about a couple living with in-laws during marriage?

I understand a question has been asked and was closed on this topic previously, but I wanted to more specifically ask about Christian writings on it, preferably early ones. Often people today use ...
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Who were the Black Canons on the Augustinian Priory of Inchmahome in Scotland?

Recently, while on holiday in Scotland, I visited the ruins of the Augustinian Priory of Inchmahome on the Lake of Mentieth, near to Aberfoyle and Loch Lomond. The priory was founded in 1238 by the ...
Lesley's user avatar
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Is the Church a business? [closed]

In most churches, believers generate revenues and cash for the promotion of the faith in churches. In medieval times, people had to pay 10% of their income to the church. So is it quite reasonable to ...
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What theological problem in the Henoticon triggered the excommunication of the Patriarch Acacius, by the Bishop of Rome in the fifth century?

As I read through Oman's treatment of the Dark Ages, I am struck again and again by his references to Catholics (which seems in a contextual sense to mean Christian orthodoxy writ large) and what I ...
KorvinStarmast's user avatar
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What were the doctrinal differences behind the Great Schism of 1054?

What were the doctrinal differences that caused the split of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Catholic Church in 1054?
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When was the festival of the see of Peter in the 6th Century?

I've been researching the Decrees of the second Council of Tours (AD 567), specifically Canon XXI: Some still hold fast the old error, that they should honour the 1st of January. Others, on the ...
Charlie Tizzard Ó Kevlahan's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
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Did the two sides anathematize each other in the East–West Schism of 1054?

In the East–West Schism, did the two sides anathematize each other, stop considering each other brothers in Christ and members of the Body of Christ?
brilliant's user avatar
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When was the tripartite (body, soul, and spirit) view of man officially rejected by a church council?

The trichotomy of man (or his trichotomous or tripartite nature) is the belief that man was created with three "parts" – body, soul, and spirit. This is a popular viewpoint among many Christians, but ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
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1 answer
113 views

Is Gertrude the Great's mariology considered erroneous in modern Catholicism?

Gertrude the Great (1256–1302) was a German nun who is recognized as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, but was never formally canonized. I don't know if it's related, but apparently her views on ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
4k views

How did Pope Urban II justify the first Crusade?

According to the ten commandments, you shall not kill anyone. How did Pope Urban II justify from a theological standpoint the First Crusade? Since it was successful, Pope Urban II must have had to ...
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1 answer
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How was Queen Keran, wife of Leo II of Armenia, able to become a nun?

Queen Keran (or Kir-Ann, d.1285) bore her husband Leo II (d.1289) fifteen or sixteen children. By all accounts, she was a loyal and devoted wife. This article on http://enacademic.com/ states: Many ...
Lars Bosteen's user avatar
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1 answer
2k views

What is the basis for saying that Aquinas accepted the Immaculate Conception?

It's commonly said that Thomas Aquinas did not accept the doctrine of the immaculate conception of Mary. For example, Wikipedia says: Saint Thomas Aquinas refused to concede the Immaculate ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
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1 answer
112 views

Did the church use stories like the Holy Grail to attract pagans?

Sorry if this has been asked before, but I am avid watcher of the History Channel series on the Templar Knights. In one episode, the character playing the Pope announces that stories like the Holy ...
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What did the commisioning of the preaching of crusades involve?

I was reading about St. Bernard of Clairvaux, and this appears: The pope commissioned Bernard to preach a new Crusade A similar phrase appear in the respective Wikipedia article. I get what it ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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In Western communion services, when was the origin of the practice of consistently offering only the bread to the laity?

The practice of "communion in both kinds" by the laity, that is, both the eating of the bread and drinking of the cup, seems to have been the typical practice in the early church. 1 Corinthians 11:28 ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
11 votes
1 answer
310 views

Which 20th-century Orthodox Christians said that the crusades were more oppressive than the Marxist anti-religious campaigns?

Everett Ferguson, in Church History, I, 23.I.D, discusses the brutality of the crusades in the early 13th century, when Constantinople was sacked. One point I found particularly interesting was a ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
200 views

What was the difference between Berengar's view of the Eucharist and that of Zwingli?

Berengar of Tours played a major role in the Second Eucharistic Controversy, which took place in the 11th century. He opposed the increasing acceptance of proto-transubstantiation doctrines, arguing ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
193 views

Have cardinals ever been deprived of revenue or rations for taking too long to elect a pope?

Yesterday I asked a general question about the pope's ability to revoke decrees of an ecumenical council, in the context of the Second Council of Lyon (1274). In order to ensure that new popes were ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
1k views

When and how can a pope revoke the decrees of an ecumenical council?

I recently learned that Pope John XXI revoked a decree passed at the Second Council of Lyon (1274). The Catholic Encyclopedia reads: Gregory X, to avoid a repetition of the too lengthy vacancies ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
285 views

What was the difference between Ratramnus's view of the Eucharist and that of Calvin?

In the First Eucharistic Controversy (ninth century), Paschasius Radbertus wrote a monograph arguing that the elements in communion were nothing less than the physical flesh and blood of Jesus. He ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
13 votes
2 answers
279 views

What role do the people of Rome play in the election of a pope?

Everett Ferguson, in Church History, I, 20.I, describes the process for papal election set down in the Lateran decree of 1059 (In nomine Domini) as follows: The election of the pope was to be by ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
142 views

What was the basis for saying that 11th-century Greek churches were "rebaptizing" Latins?

In the run-up to the fateful excommunications of 1054, accusatory letters were exchanged between the Patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularius, and Pope Leo IX. Each had issues with the other's ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
14 votes
0 answers
290 views

What is the status of Humbert's views on the efficacy of sacraments in Catholicism?

Humbert of Silva Candida was an important medieval theologian, best known for his involvement in the excommunication of the Patriarch of Constantinople in 1054. He was also a vocal proponent of a ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
799 views

According to Roman Catholicism, was the 1054 excommunication of the Patriarch of Constantinople valid, in light of Leo IX's death?

The excommunications of 1054 have long been seen as a pivotal moment in the Great Schism. But recently I found that some people apparently doubt that the excommunication of the Patriarch of ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
425 views

What impact did the False Decretals have on Gratian's collection of Canon law?

In the ninth century, a series of elaborate forgeries were written under the pseudonym of Isidore Mercator, which are now known as the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals (or simply the False Decretals). ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
191 views

How is the "perpetual" excommunication of Acacius by Felix III currently understood in Catholicism?

Around AD 485, the patriarch of Constantinople, Acacius, was excommunicated by Pope Felix III, in a dispute over both theology and authority. This excommunication, however, seems unique in that it ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
128 views

Was the Second Council of Quierzy (853) controlled by Hincmar against the Augustinians?

In a lecture, Reformed theologian and church historian Douglas Kelly says: Hincmar controlled a council – it was not a really representative council. He stacked it. […] The semi-Augustinian, proto-...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
778 views

Why were Pseudo-Dionysius's works accepted as authentic for so long?

Pseudo-Dionysius was a 5th/6th century Christian theologian who claimed to be the Dionysius that Paul converted in Acts 17:34. This claim was widely accepted for almost a millennium, which afforded ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
649 views

Were plenary indulgences issued during the crusades, as indicated by Dan Brown?

In Dan Brown's novel, The DaVinci Code, if my memory serves me correctly, Leigh Teabing asserts that Crusaders were given plenary indulgences to commit unspecified sins with impunity whilst on crusade....
Mick's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
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What's the main contribution of William of Ockham?

I heard a Catholic Bishop talking about William of Ockham (Robert Barron) but I'm still not quite sure of some things: What is the contribution of William of Ockham to the Church? What would sum up ...
Dan's user avatar
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9 votes
1 answer
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Did John Wycliffe accept extreme unction?

According to Bruce Shelley, in Church History in Plain Language, John Wycliffe, the early dissident in Catholicism, accepted the sacrament of extreme unction: He retained belief in purgatory and ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
476 views

Where can I find the text of the documents produced at the Council of Quiercy (853)?

The Catholic Encyclopedia has an article about the "Councils of Quierzy", and indicates that at the 853 council, Hincmar wrote decrees about predestination, universal redemption, free will, and grace. ...
user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
267 views

What, if any, were the Catholic orders that opposed the Catholic Inquisition?

During the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, Dominicans and Franciscans were the main church inquisitors. I was wondering if there were other religious orders that, as a whole, opposed the Inquisition. ...
freethinker36's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
450 views

What is the evidence that Thomas Aquinas was assassinated?

Reading the Wikipedia article on Thomas Aquinas, I stumbled on something rather peculiar. Apparently he fell ill and died at the age of 49 on his way to the Second Council of Lyon, where he had been ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
2k views

Why did the medieval church become involved with marriage?

It seems, through my research, that the Christian Western marriage was created during the Middle Ages (cf. this question). So, does that mean that before the Middle Ages, the Western Christian church ...
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