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Questions tagged [medieval-church]

The church of the 5th to 15th centuries, following the early church and leading up to the Reformation.

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Is the Church a business? [closed]

In most churches, believers generate revenues and cash for the promotion of the faith in churches. In medieval times, people had to pay 10% of their income to the church. So is it quite reasonable to ...
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29 views

What theological problem in the Henoticon triggered the excommunication of the Patriarch Acacius, by the Bishop of Rome in the fifth century?

As I read through Oman's treatment of the Dark Ages, I am struck again and again by his references to Catholics (which seems in a contextual sense to mean Christian orthodoxy writ large) and what I ...
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157 views

What were the doctrinal differences behind the Great Schism of 1054?

What were the doctrinal differences that caused the split of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Catholic Church in 1054?
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1answer
34 views

When was the festival of the see of Peter in the 6th Century?

I've been researching the Decrees of the second Council of Tours (AD 567), specifically Canon XXI: Some still hold fast the old error, that they should honour the 1st of January. Others, on the ...
3
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1answer
71 views

Did the two sides anathematize each other in the East–West Schism of 1054?

In the East–West Schism, did the two sides anathematize each other, stop considering each other brothers in Christ and members of the Body of Christ?
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1answer
90 views

When was the tripartite (body, soul, and spirit) view of man officially rejected by a church council?

The trichotomy of man (or his trichotomous or tripartite nature) is the belief that man was created with three "parts" – body, soul, and spirit. This is a popular viewpoint among many Christians, but ...
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1answer
74 views

Is Gertrude the Great's mariology considered erroneous in modern Catholicism?

Gertrude the Great (1256–1302) was a German nun who is recognized as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, but was never formally canonized. I don't know if it's related, but apparently her views on ...
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2answers
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How did Pope Urban II justify the first Crusade?

According to the ten commandments, you shall not kill anyone. How did Pope Urban II justify from a theological standpoint the First Crusade? Since it was successful, Pope Urban II must have had to ...
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1answer
121 views

How was Queen Keran, wife of Leo II of Armenia, able to become a nun?

Queen Keran (or Kir-Ann, d.1285) bore her husband Leo II (d.1289) fifteen or sixteen children. By all accounts, she was a loyal and devoted wife. This article on http://enacademic.com/ states: Many ...
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1answer
695 views

What is the basis for saying that Aquinas accepted the Immaculate Conception?

It's commonly said that Thomas Aquinas did not accept the doctrine of the immaculate conception of Mary. For example, Wikipedia says: Saint Thomas Aquinas refused to concede the Immaculate ...
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52 views

Did the church use stories like the Holy Grail to attract pagans?

Sorry if this has been asked before, but I am avid watcher of the History Channel series on the Templar Knights. In one episode, the character playing the Pope announces that stories like the Holy ...
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1answer
93 views

What did the commisioning of the preaching of crusades involve?

I was reading about St. Bernard of Clairvaux, and this appears: The pope commissioned Bernard to preach a new Crusade A similar phrase appear in the respective Wikipedia article. I get what it ...
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1answer
418 views

Did any church fathers after Chrysostom believe that Mary committed sin?

The belief that Mary never committed sin has been around a long time, much longer than the final formulation of the doctrine of her immaculate conception (which happened around the 13th century). ...
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76 views

In Western communion services, when was the origin of the practice of consistently offering only the bread to the laity?

The practice of "communion in both kinds" by the laity, that is, both the eating of the bread and drinking of the cup, seems to have been the typical practice in the early church. 1 Corinthians 11:28 ...
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180 views

Which 20th-century Orthodox Christians said that the crusades were more oppressive than the Marxist anti-religious campaigns?

Everett Ferguson, in Church History, I, 23.I.D, discusses the brutality of the crusades in the early 13th century, when Constantinople was sacked. One point I found particularly interesting was a ...
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106 views

What was the difference between Berengar's view of the Eucharist and that of Zwingli?

Berengar of Tours played a major role in the Second Eucharistic Controversy, which took place in the 11th century. He opposed the increasing acceptance of proto-transubstantiation doctrines, arguing ...
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1answer
127 views

Have cardinals ever been deprived of revenue or rations for taking too long to elect a pope?

Yesterday I asked a general question about the pope's ability to revoke decrees of an ecumenical council, in the context of the Second Council of Lyon (1274). In order to ensure that new popes were ...
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2answers
597 views

When and how can a pope revoke the decrees of an ecumenical council?

I recently learned that Pope John XXI revoked a decree passed at the Second Council of Lyon (1274). The Catholic Encyclopedia reads: Gregory X, to avoid a repetition of the too lengthy vacancies ...
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1answer
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What was the difference between Ratramnus's view of the Eucharist and that of Calvin?

In the First Eucharistic Controversy (ninth century), Paschasius Radbertus wrote a monograph arguing that the elements in communion were nothing less than the physical flesh and blood of Jesus. He ...
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2answers
210 views

What role do the people of Rome play in the election of a pope?

Everett Ferguson, in Church History, I, 20.I, describes the process for papal election set down in the Lateran decree of 1059 (In nomine Domini) as follows: The election of the pope was to be by ...
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1answer
105 views

What was the basis for saying that 11th-century Greek churches were “rebaptizing” Latins?

In the run-up to the fateful excommunications of 1054, accusatory letters were exchanged between the Patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularius, and Pope Leo IX. Each had issues with the other's ...
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What is the status of Humbert's views on the efficacy of sacraments in Catholicism?

Humbert of Silva Candida was an important medieval theologian, best known for his involvement in the excommunication of the Patriarch of Constantinople in 1054. He was also a vocal proponent of a ...
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120 views

According to Roman Catholicism, was the 1054 excommunication of the Patriarch of Constantinople valid, in light of Leo IX's death?

The excommunications of 1054 have long been seen as a pivotal moment in the Great Schism. But recently I found that some people apparently doubt that the excommunication of the Patriarch of ...
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2answers
153 views

What impact did the False Decretals have on Gratian's collection of Canon law?

In the ninth century, a series of elaborate forgeries were written under the pseudonym of Isidore Mercator, which are now known as the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals (or simply the False Decretals). ...
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How is the “perpetual” excommunication of Acacius by Felix III currently understood in Catholicism?

Around AD 485, the patriarch of Constantinople, Acacius, was excommunicated by Pope Felix III, in a dispute over both theology and authority. This excommunication, however, seems unique in that it ...
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Was the Second Council of Quierzy (853) controlled by Hincmar against the Augustinians?

In a lecture, Reformed theologian and church historian Douglas Kelly says: Hincmar controlled a council – it was not a really representative council. He stacked it. […] The semi-Augustinian, proto-...
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1answer
397 views

Why were Pseudo-Dionysius's works accepted as authentic for so long?

Pseudo-Dionysius was a 5th/6th century Christian theologian who claimed to be the Dionysius that Paul converted in Acts 17:34. This claim was widely accepted for almost a millennium, which afforded ...
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1answer
224 views

Were plenary indulgences issued during the crusades, as indicated by Dan Brown?

In Dan Brown's novel, The DaVinci Code, if my memory serves me correctly, Leigh Teabing asserts that Crusaders were given plenary indulgences to commit unspecified sins with impunity whilst on crusade....
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0answers
237 views

What's the main contribution of William of Ockham?

I heard a Catholic Bishop talking about William of Ockham (Robert Barron) but I'm still not quite sure of some things: What is the contribution of William of Ockham to the Church? What would sum up ...
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1answer
156 views

Did John Wycliffe accept extreme unction?

According to Bruce Shelley, in Church History in Plain Language, John Wycliffe, the early dissident in Catholicism, accepted the sacrament of extreme unction: He retained belief in purgatory and ...
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1answer
191 views

Where can I find the text of the documents produced at the Council of Quiercy (853)?

The Catholic Encyclopedia has an article about the "Councils of Quierzy", and indicates that at the 853 council, Hincmar wrote decrees about predestination, universal redemption, free will, and grace. ...
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1answer
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What, if any, were the Catholic orders that opposed the Catholic Inquisition?

During the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, Dominicans and Franciscans were the main church inquisitors. I was wondering if there were other religious orders that, as a whole, opposed the Inquisition. ...
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1answer
191 views

What is the evidence that Thomas Aquinas was assassinated?

Reading the Wikipedia article on Thomas Aquinas, I stumbled on something rather peculiar. Apparently he fell ill and died at the age of 49 on his way to the Second Council of Lyon, where he had been ...
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3answers
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Why did the medieval church become involved with marriage?

It seems, through my research, that the Christian Western marriage was created during the Middle Ages (cf. this question). So, does that mean that before the Middle Ages, the Western Christian church ...
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3answers
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Are there any followers of Catharism today?

I'm interested by Catharism. Is there anywhere in Christendom where this faith has reappeared since being suppressed in the Middle Ages? I know that today some people in France, near Spain, are ...
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2answers
324 views

Could a lowborn during the middle ages read the bible?

I'm starting to read about the christian faith with more effort and this question popped up in my head. I've read that the bible at that time were really expensive because it was handmade but, could a ...
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2answers
519 views

Was Emperor St. Justinian an Aphthartodocetist?

Ss. Eutychius of Constantinople and Anastasius of Antioch were deposed and exiled because they openly opposed Emperor St. Justinian's edict in 564 on Aphthartodocetism, the belief that Christ's body, ...
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1answer
274 views

Did the Bull, Unam Sanctam, authorize/promote Christian aggression by the “temporal sword”?

Pope Boniface VIII promulgated the Papal bull entitled, Unam Sanctam. In it, he speaks of two swords: the spiritual sword (gladius spiritualis) and the temporal sword (gladius temporalis). We are ...
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2answers
3k views

When and why did the Catholic Church stop the Crusades?

When and why did the Catholic Church stop the Crusades? Was there a specific reason why they stopped? Or were they no longer necessary at some point in time?
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3answers
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What is the case against seeing the Medieval Catholic Church as oppressive? [closed]

I have a professor who keeps mentioning a false claim regarding the Catholic Church during the Medieval Times that I know is historically untrue but I do not know how to give a concise counter-...
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1answer
104 views

Did medieval European monasticism provide a release from certain societal pressures?

I seem to recall a science fiction/fantasy author (possibly Marion Zimmer Bradley in the context of her Darkover series) stating that monasticism provided a means of relieving social pressures by ...
10
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1answer
246 views

Where can I find sources showing ecclesiastical vestments of the 1200s?

In 1215 at Runneymeade, barons and clerics gathered to get King John to set his seal to the Barons' Charter. According to Roger of Wendover, among them were the pope's representative, Master (bishop) ...
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2answers
1k views

Why was heliocentrism such a threat to Roman Catholic leaders that their proponents were threatened to be burnt at the stake?

Truth-seekers on a mission of scientific inquiry who turned out to be right were threatened to be burnt to the stake by Roman Catholic leaders in Medieval Europe. Why should a difference in opinion ...
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2answers
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Were the medieval popes examined on a toilet-lid-like chair to establish their masculinity?

Is one of the consequences of the Pope Joan story, whether it was true or false, the use of a marble chair with a large, toilet-like hole in its seat? As the picture above shows, it seems that that ...
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1answer
10k views

What passages of Scripture were used by the popes and crusaders to justify the Crusades?

What passages of Scripture were used by the popes and crusaders to justify the Crusades? I am specifically interested what the individuals that were contemporary to the crusades were saying. For the ...
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How did the Crusades affect the Pope's power and authority?

How did the Crusades affect the Pope's power/authority, during and after the Crusades? The Crusades, from Wikipedia The Crusades were a series of religiously sanctioned military campaigns, called ...
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2answers
451 views

How could a seventh-century heretic have possessed papal infallibility?

More specifically: How does the Roman Catholic Church reconcile the doctrine of Papal Infallibility with the Sixth Ecumenical Council's pronouncement regarding Pope Honorius? The Sixth Ecumenical ...
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4answers
10k views

Why was the Bible not available to common people in the Medieval period?

The Bible was not available in the hands of common people in Medieval times (5th - 15th century). Which of these possible reasons are plausible? The common people were poor and could not afford to ...
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3answers
2k views

Persecution of Jewish people by Christians in Middle Ages?

I want to apologize ahead if my questions sound disrespectful to anybody. This isn't my intent. I grew up in East Asia which has very few Christians, but I have been very interested in the history of ...
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3answers
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What is the “city of seven hills” in St. Malachy's Popes Prophecy?

Reading through St. Malachy's Popes Prophecy, I couldn't understand a particular phrase: Peter the Roman, who will nourish the sheep in many tribulations; when they are finished, the city of ...