Questions tagged [judaism]

The religion, philosophy, and culture of Jewish people, based on the Hebrew Bible, especially the Torah, and on other ancient Jewish texts and traditions.

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What is the Testament of Hezekiah? I know it exists, but I can't locate it

I am currently reading up on of apocryphal and pseudopigagraphical literature, and I see on a list that the Testament of Hezekiah is enumerated as one of them. However, I cannot locate a source or any ...
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Is the context of Mark 7:19 eating bread without ceremonial handwashing (Ref. Mark 7:1, Matt 15:2) or about unclean animals?

The contemporary Christian interpretation of the passage found in Mark 7:19 seems incompatible with the greater context of the chapter as a whole. How can this be about unclean meat? Mark 7:19 NASB ...
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Has any comparative study been made on Jewish and Islamic perceptions of Christianity?

Christians see Jesus as the only Son of God who incarnated as a human being to redeem mankind from sin in fulfilment of the prophesies made in the Old Testament. The Qur'an refers to Jesus as one of ...
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How much of the Catholic Mass is inherited from the Jewish Shabbat service?

I was watching this Shabbat video (a service to mark the beginning of the Sabbath, in Friday night), and there seems to be several similarities with the Mass rite (at least the Catholic one). (Notice ...
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What is the origin of the Pharisees and Sadducees?

I understand that Sadducees were upper-class wealthy men who made up the Jewish aristocracy. Pharisees came from all economic classes but were distinguished by their rigid adherence to behaviour as ...
5 votes
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How Did the Earliest Church Define Salvation?

This question came up for me in a discussion of the meaning of "saved" in Acts 15:1. But certain ones having come down from Judea were teaching the brothers, "Unless you are ...
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What evidence is there that God as father was a common concept for Jesus's first century Jewish audience?

Many Christians believe that Jesus' teaching about the Fatherhood of God was new and even revolutionary. Previously, Jews thought of God as "Lord" but not as Father. However, we can indeed ...
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Does Catholic Church believe that Jews suffered because of the curse of their forefathers at Matthew 27:25?

We read in Matthew 27: 24-25: So when Pilate saw that he could do nothing, but rather that a riot was beginning, he took some water and washed his hands before the crowd, saying, “I am innocent of ...
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How did the disciples' view of the messiah evolve?

Numerous miracles and theophanies in the New Testament make clear the Christ was perceived to be divine. A range of epithets were used across the books, such as "Son of the Living God" ...
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Are Zerachiel and Sariel the same angel (according to orthodox churches)?

I know that Zerachiel and Sariel are both rather tied to Judaism as they are most prevalently found in the book of Enoch. In most denominations of christianity this book is not recognized as a canon, ...
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Is there Christian scripture or literature absolving the old Jewish laws of usury?

Most people are aware that Jewish law forbade earning interest from the lending of money to another. As Christianity gained momentum in the early first and second century, many of the Mosaic laws were ...
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Do Christians believe that Jews must still follow the Mosaic law?

Deuteronomy 13:1-4 states: All this word which I command you, that shall ye observe to do; thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it. If there arise in the midst of thee a prophet, or a ...
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Is there a traditional belief in Christianity or Judaism on the cause of death of Moses?

Deut 34:5-7 say that when Moses died at the age of 120 years, his eyesight or strength had not diminished. That implies that he did not die of age-related ailments. One is left to assume that Moses ...
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Is Christianity an ethnic religion?

It's well-known that in the Bible God mentioned all about Israel and its people like Judaism. Judaism and Christianity believe in the same Bibles also. So Judaism is an ethnic religion according to ...
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Who could have watched the veil of the temple tear when Jesus died?

A professor today made the claim that the following claim is spurious: And the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom. Mark 15:38 (NRSV) His rationale is that no-one but the ...
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Which is closer to traditional Christian doctrine: Judaism or Mary Baker Eddy?

Regarding the existence of the evil side in every individual, Judaism and Christian Science teach two conflicting doctrines. Judaism teaches that the evil side (Heb. yetzer hara) is an essential and ...
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Proof of the Messiah’s Role?

I am struggling with Judaism and Christianity on the role of the Messiah. I have been taught that the Messiah is not some divine figure, but a righteous leader who will castigate nations for their ...
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Why did Origen oppose birthdays? Was this a Jewish belief?

I found this quote of Origen condemning birthdays as the practice of the gentile sinners. ...of all the holy people in the Scriptures, no one is recorded to have kept a feast or held a great banquet ...
3 votes
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Did different Jews have different canons?

During the time of Jesus Christ and even before the time of Christ there existed different sects of Jews (the Pharisees, the Sadducees and the Hellenistic Jews) but did they different sect of Jews ...
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Did any Jews have the same canon as Jesus during the time of Christ and did the early church ever quote from it?

Orthodox Christians have a much larger canon than both Roman Catholic and Protestant Christians, this includes books such as 3 Maccabees. During the time of Jesus there were different sects of Jews. ...
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Does Christianity have any explicit position on Jewish matrilineality?

Among denominations which recognize infant baptism, in my experience, Christians — even those who are otherwise not really practicing — baptize their children as a matter of course. In cases where the ...
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Did any in the Early Church require a kosher diet?

In the Early Church, we see statements suggesting that the dietary laws of clean/unclean meats from Old Testament passages such as Leviticus 11 are no longer binding. For example: As for their [the ...
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How do New Perspective proponents respond to Robert Cara's 3 critiques on NPP?

A Gospel Coalition short essay (Justification and the New Perspective on Paul) by Robert J. Cara, author of the 2017 book Cracking the Foundation of the New Perspective on Paul: Covenantal Nomism ...
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How do Christians respond to the criticism that Jesus of Nazareth did not bring world peace?

One criticism I've heard of Christianity repeatedly by devout Jews is that Jesus of Nazareth did not usher in a time of peace - there are still wars, internal strife, and so on. Here is an example, ...
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When was the Old Testament Canon defined?

When was the Old Testament Canon defined? I wonder if it was defined in the days when Jesus was crucified
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How can it be defended that all Israel is Jewish?

Many texts, publications, teachers, preachers etc. refer to ALL of Israel as Jewish. I'm forgoing putting links herein as there are many references online quickly and easily found. For example, &...
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What was the relationship between Jesus and the Pharisees?

A casual reader of the Gospels usually sees the Pharisees as Jesus' implacable enemies. After all, they often accused him of breaking the Laws of the Torah and Jesus frequently denounced them as ...
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Whom or what did Azazel signify in the Old Testament?

We read of the name Azazel on three occasions in the OT: Lev 16:8 and Aaron shall cast lots on the two goats, one lot for the Lord and the other lot for Azazel. Leviticus 16:10 but the goat on ...
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How ancient were the Jewish Targums?

Did they precede the time of Jesus or were they compiled around the time of Jesus? Also, is it true that they were only an oral tradition at first?
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Did the Jews in Our Lord’s time or earlier believe in a form of purgatory?

Purgatory is most often dismissed as being nothing more than a Roman Catholic belief, but does Judaism have a form of purgatory? (ie a place where our remaining sins are purged) or to quote from the ...
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Does any denomination commemorate the Weaning Ceremony of Infant Jesus?

We read in Gen 21:5-8: Abraham was a hundred years old when his son Isaac was born to him. Now Sarah said, “God has brought laughter for me; everyone who hears will laugh with me.” And she said, “...
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What is the purpose of the title "King of the Jews"?

Jesus is named the "King of the Jews" both at his birth and at the end. It seems to me that this term has meaning, and I would like to ask what do you think is its meaning ? Does it mean any ...
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What is the basis for believing that 40 lashes would be deadly (especially in Roman law or jurisprudence)?

I have commonly heard that 40 lashes were thought to be deadly and thus 39 were issued. It seems as though neither 40 nor 39 lashes had anything to do with the deadliness of the punishment in Jewish ...
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Does Jesus' descending into hell in the Apostles Creed have any reference to the scapegoat's descend in the Jewish tradition?

The Creed of the Apostles say that Jesus descended into hell after his death on the cross. He is referred to as the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world. In this context, it would be ...
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How do believers in post-mortal consciousness respond to objections by the Jewish Encyclopedia article on the immortality of the soul?

I'm specifically referring to this article: https://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/8092-immortality-of-the-soul -- Some quotes IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL (late Hebrew, "hasharat ha-nefesh"...
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Why did Christianity not follow Philo of Alexandria's definition of logos?

Philo of Alexandria (20 BC – 50 AD), a Hellenized Jew, used the term Logos to mean an intermediary divine being, or demiurge. Philo followed the Platonic distinction between imperfect matter and ...
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Is Abraham in heaven? [duplicate]

If Jesus brought everlasting life and Abraham died before the coming of Jesus (and in fact before Judaism), would we therefore expect to see Abraham in heaven? What passages in the bible direct us to ...
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Is the practice of seeking the intercession of Rachel admonished in the New Testament?

Some modern Jews claim that seeking the prayers and intercession of Rachel is an ancient tradition. See https://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/rachel-bible More than a hundred years after the exile of ...
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Why was the revelation that God has the Only Begotten Son not given in the Old Testament?

Of course, we have many indications to that truth in the Old Testament, but it was only with the coming of Jesus Christ that it was spoken to humans in plain language that God has the Only-begotten ...
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What is the the difference between the monotheism of Trinitarian Christianity and Judaism?

If both Judaism and Trinitariansm are monotheistic, Jesus being a jew, do both faiths have the same God? If the word mono means one, single how can it be explained logically that 3 is 1 and 1 is 3? ...
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According to Catholic Church, did Jesus belong to the Essenes sect of Judaism?

According to Josephus, there were four prominent sects of Judaism at the time of Jesus'ministry namely, Essenes, Pharisees, Sadducees and Zealots. In the NT we come across a number of people ...
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Did Jesus believe that the human soul lived on after death? [closed]

Jesus was deeply Jewish and practiced Judaism which, in Jesus's time, did not recognize separation of soul and body. So did Jesus believe that the human soul lived on after death?
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What do Jews and Christians agree with in the Bible?

What is the bible such that contains the intersection, of agreement in the word, between Jews and Christians? It seems that it's the Torah, is this correct? Are there more books? I said intersection ...
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What reason is there to believe that 1st C Jews thought that being the Son of God = God?

One poster ask me the above question. Does anyone have a scriptural answer? I have one and will post it soon.
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What were the views of the Church Fathers on Jews and Judaism during the Patristic Era?

I am currently learning about the holocaust in History class right now. It was mentioned that during the Middle Ages, some Christians were anti-semitic. I wondered how the Early Church (Pre-Schism) ...
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How widespread was the observance of the Jewish Sabbath among Christians during Early Christianity (A.D. 30–324)?

Question How widespread was the observance of the Jewish Sabbath among Christians during Early Christianity (A.D. 30–324)? Further Details As a reminder, the Jewish Sabbath is defined as: [...] the ...
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Does the concept of Godhead (one God, but multiple persons) predate Christianity? Can we find evidence of this concept in Judaism before 0 A.D.?

Was the concept of Godhead (one God, but multiple persons) known by the Jews prior to the advent of Christianity? Were there Jews that held a Binitarian, Trinitarian or similar "Godhead" ...
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How do Christians argue about Jewish objections against Jesus being the Messiah

Traditional / Orthodox Jews argue that Jesus was not the Messiah, because we don't live in a Messianic Age. In the Messianic Age All Jews would be living in Israel (Isa. 11:12, 27:12-13); Israel ...
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Do Catholics violate Torah laws? [duplicate]

As is well-known, Judaism rejects all statues based on the Torah. The Presbyterian Church and Protestants reject making statutes but Roman Catholics made many statues of Jesus, Mary, Peter, and Paul. ...
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Were Jews in Jesus' day binitarian?

Is it true that Jews during Jesus' lifetime were binitarian, that is believing that God was one being in two persons similar to how Christians have historically believed and taught that God is ...