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Questions tagged [extra-biblical]

For questions asking for evidence from secular historical records or archaeology which corroborate the Bible

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What prophets came from Galilee?

This question talks about how in John 7:52, the Pharisees claimed that "no prophet comes out of Galilee." The accepted answer discusses how commentators often point out the Pharisees' mistake, and N.T....
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How to find out more about the the 12 disciples?

How can I find out more about the 12 disciples and their lives and families than is mentioned in the Scriptures? What did they give up and who they left behind, in order to follow Christ.
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Why does Satan collect souls that are subservient to him according to mainstream Christian scriptures?

Pardon my ignorance, I'm by birth a non-christian and just trying to learn...keeping up with the philosophy of this stack-exchange forum. According to Christian, Gnostic/Book of Q or other Abrahamic ...
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What's the first ancient document composed by a non-Christian denying the resurrection?

What is the first ancient document composed by a non-Christian denying the resurrection of Jesus that we have access to? I am specifically looking for a document actually penned by a non-Christian, ...
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Are there eyewitness accounts of Jesus Christ written during (or closely after) his lifetime?

In recent times, it has come to my understanding, that the New Testament was written in its entirety only after Jesus Christ has died. I ask for in the search of documents which date to Jesus' ...
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What is the earliest explicit mention of infant baptism?

The Bible describes several adults being baptized (notably Jesus and the Ethiopian eunuch that Phillip baptized). And while it mentions many others being baptized, it doesn't explicitly mention ...
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Is there extrabiblical first-century documentation of sadducee theology?

The Bible mentions a few things about the sadducees' beliefs, such as in Acts 23:8, but doesn't reveal much detail. Are there any documents aside from the Bible from the first century AD (or first few ...
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Was the First Apocalypse of James written after the Second Apocalypse of James?

The current version of the Wikipedia article for the First Apocalypse of James has the following sentence at the end of the article: One of the most curious features of the First Apocalypse of ...
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Do we have or know of additional writings from the four Gospel Evangelists? [duplicate]

The New Testament of the Christian Bible is commenced with four Gospels: Matthew's, Mark's, Luke's, and John's. Early church tradition has taught us that Matthew and John's Gospels were written by two ...
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Are there any universally accepted or non-Abrahamic based records in history that have mentions of longevity of prophets?

Reading from here and Genesis 5 we see that there are mentions of longevity among prophets: Adam – 930 Seth – 912 Enosh – 905 Jared – 962 Methuselah – 969 Noah – 950 Shem – 600 Eber – 464 Abraham – ...
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Mark and Romans: are these the same Rufus?

In Mark 15:21 (KJV), the account reads: And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross. In Romans 16:13 (KJV), ...
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Authenticity of the Pontius Pilate's letter to Tiberius Caesar?

Just looking to find out if this alleged Letter of Pontius Pilate to Tiberius Caesar is authentic or a later forgery? I don't care how it physically describes Jesus, just want to know how it was found ...
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Any research done on the Narrative of Zosimus & Lehi's “Tree of Life” Dream in 1 Nephi (LDS scripture)? Similarities? More info on N. of Zosimus?

The other day I overheard a professor briefly mention an ancient Hebraic document known as the "Narrative of Zosimus" that wasn't known to Western scholars until the late 1870's. As his reference ...
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How is the ‘Resurrection of the Holy Ones’ in Mt.27:51-53 understood by those who consider it a literal, historical event?

This question is very similar to a question I just asked, but it's not a duplicate (just hear me out). Since there are many ways to read the Bible, I wanted to understand multiple points of view, that ...
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How is the ‘Resurrection of the Holy Ones’ in Mt.27:51-53 understood by those who do NOT consider it a literal, historical event?

Since there are many ways to read the Bible, I wanted to understand multiple points of view, that being: 1) those who understand this as a non-literal, non-historical event (modern, liberal scholars, ...
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What are the main similarities and differences between the Genesis and other major ancient flood accounts? [closed]

Have any of you read the Atrahasis Epic? It's the Babylonian/Akkadian version of the Great Flood. I found it had striking similarities with the Flood Account in Genesis!! (Read it if you have not ...
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Did any of the Apostolic Fathers know Paul?

Is there any extra-biblical written evidence that any of the Apostolic Fathers (i.e., the early Christian theologians of the 1st and 2nd centuries) knew the Apostle Paul? If so, what is the written ...
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Is there any extra-Biblical 'evidence' of Herod's murder of babies?

When Herod heard of the news from the kings form east that there was a new king (Jesus) born, he ordered the killing of all boys younger than the age of two. So that would have been a great slaughter. ...
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Are there any surviving Acta Diurna copies mentioning Jesus' trial or other aspects of his life?

I recently learned about Acta Diurna, which are official notices created by Roman authorities describing legal proceedings and the outcome of trials. It occurred to me that the trial of Jesus before ...
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Are there any accounts of the wise men story outside of scripture?

The wise men were educated and would have documented their experience in detail. Also, they would have shared the Christmas story with everyone they came in contact with on their trip home. Once they ...
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The book of Jasher [duplicate]

Have any transcripts been discovered? Who wrote this book? The book is mentioned in Joshua and was apparently an important book during their days. What happened to the book?
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Is there is any external source about Demas, Paul's fellow worker?

Demas appears at Colossians 4:14 and Philemon 24 as a fellow worker of Paul's ministry, and maybe as Luke's partner like Mark was Aristharcus partner. But in 2 Timothy 4:10 he appears having ...
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Is Genesis 18 regarded as a Theophany of the Trinity by any denomination?

Abraham addresses the three visitors as LORD. Is there any group of Christians that understands this as a theophany of the Trinity? Genesis 18:1-2 NASB 1 Now the LORD appeared to him by the oaks of ...
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What is the earliest non-Judeo-Christian reference to Jesus? [duplicate]

I am looking for the earliest references to Jesus that are not Biblical. I am looking to identify historical documents unrelated to the Christian church (at the time of the writing). On the Jewish ...
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Sola Scriptura and the Biblical Canon

The basic argument of Sola Scriptura is that all Christian teachings and traditions are to be founded in and subservient to the Bible, and in nothing else. Obviously this does not mean that there are ...
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Where does the tradition come from that Noah's sons went separate directions?

I have heard in many places, and was even taught as a child, that Noah's sons, sometime after the Flood, separated and went North, South, and East to repopulate the Earth. The story is commonly used ...
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Is there extra-biblical evidence for the earth going dark at the Crucifixion? [duplicate]

From noon to three, the whole earth was dark. (Matt 27:45, MSG) Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour. (Matt 27:45, KJV) This is a bold claim that few ...
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6answers
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Is there Biblical support for Christians basing their beliefs on extra biblical texts?

Considering the prominence of the works of popular authors like C.S. Lewis, G.K. Chesterton and prominent theologians like Augustine and others in various Christian circles. Is there Biblical support ...
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Are there any secular historical references to the natural phenomena that occurred at the crucifixion and resurrection?

The Scriptures record that there was three hours of darkness during the crucifixion of Jesus. This is a pretty significant meteorological event. Furthermore, the morning of Jesus' resurrection, the ...
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How do mainstream Christians handle the Epistle of St. Barnabas' prophecy that Jesus will return in the next 50 years?

In the Epistle of Barnabas, it says Barnabas 15:3 Of the Sabbath He speaketh in the beginning of the creation; And God made the works of His hands in six days, and He ended on the seventh day, ...
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Which prophecies are fulfilled outside of Scripture? [closed]

In thinking over the "fulfillment" of certain prophecies in AD 70, it struck me that this is really the only prophecy (other than the Second Coming) that isn't fulfilled in Scripture. Even the ...
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What do 1st century extra-biblical sources say about hell?

Do we have any information about what 1st century Christians and Jews believed about hell? I know what the Bible says on the subject, and am curious about the extra-biblical context.
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What extrabiblical sources support the existence of Jesus in history?

What sources outside of the Bible give supporting evidence to the existence of Jesus and any of the events in His life?
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Was Jesus recorded on the census?

I've heard before that Jesus was recorded on the census that is mentioned in Luke 2:1, and that his name was the last name recorded. I've also heard that Herod would then use this census when he ...