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Theologians and church leaders of the post-apostolic period up to the 7th century.

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Early Christians who Defended Licitness of Non-Procreative Sex?

Were there any early Christians who defended non-procreative sex as licit?
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Salvation “Forced” on a Person

Which early church fathers (including those now considered heretics like Origen) pre 1054 taught that "all will be saved", including all of the dead without "hearing and believing"? In other words, ...
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259 views

Was universalism the majority belief of the early church?

I recently came upon an article that made this statement: According to historical records, Universal Reconciliation was the majority belief of the church during the first five centuries of the ...
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65 views

What are the most striking disagreements between Clement of Alexandria and Irenaeus?

What are the most striking disagreements (if any) between Clement of Alexandria and Irenaeus? The unanimity of the early Church Fathers is something that is often presented as an indisputable fact. ...
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2answers
136 views

What are the most striking disagreements (if any) between the early Church Fathers of the second century?

What are the most striking disagreements (if any) between the early Church Fathers of the second century? EDIT: The unanimity of the early Church Fathers is something that is often presented as an ...
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1answer
83 views

When and from whom is the source that for Christians, God dwells in buildings you go to, rather than in believers?

The question of when Christians started attending church at a building rather than their homes led to a few answers and comments. One got me to thinking and asking this question. When did the ...
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2answers
177 views

Was there a non-Augustinian response to universalism in the early Church?

Most are aware of Augustine's abandonment of his universalism and his later adoption of eternal conscious torment in literal fire. His rejection of universalism is ultimately founded upon a ...
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3answers
92 views

Is “quasi-incarnation” been attributed to mystical union of the Holy Spirit and Mary?

The Logos or the Incarnate Word became flesh in what known to be "hypostatic union". Jesus Christ the Second Person of the Most Holy Trinity became flesh and dwelt among us having two nature both ...
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46 views

Is the dignity of man pertains to his soul only or to the wholeness of his being meaning body & soul?

The Teaching of Tradition that support the Council of Trent interpretation on death penalty cited the reflections or teaching of St.Thomas Aquinas and St.Augustine; "They will never be beasts, but ...
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2answers
205 views

Is the Latin Mass, when celebrated not in Full Communion with Rome, not pleasing & acceptable to God?

For brevity, I would clarify my question as relating to the Traditionalist groups who are in full opposition to Pope Francis and to the teachings of Vatican II but would still consider themselves as ...
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1answer
140 views

Is it true that no post-apostolic theologians before St. Augustine believed in Eternal Security / Assurance of Salvation?

According to Wikipedia in it's entry of 'perseverance of the saints', eternal security has its roots in Church Father St. Augustine of Hippo. Considering that Augustine lived centuries after the ...
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140 views

Does Catholicism or any church father make a connection between Eve and Mary in Genesis 2:18 and John 14:26?

Genesis 2:18 New International Version (NIV) "The Lord God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him.”(Genesis2:18) and John 14:26 New King ...
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69 views

Were any of the Apostolic Fathers Jews?

A simple question; I am reading the Apostolic Fathers and have noticed how they frequently refer to themselves as 'Gods Chosen' and speak of the Old Testament prophets as 'Our Forefathers'. This ...
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3answers
154 views

What is the difference between Jesus “resurrected body” and Mary's “glorified body”?

Jesus is Ascended into Heaven with a "resurrected body". Mary was Assumed into Heaven with a "glorified body? Revelation 21:27 "Nothing defiled shall enter the Kingdom..." I put a question ...
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2answers
103 views

What is the meaning of “Advocata Nostra” according to Catholic Tradition & Teaching?

The famous hymn "Salve Regina" in Latin contains the words "Advocata Nostra" and it is recited at the end of the Holy Rosary. What is the meaning of that phrase "Advocata Nostra" according to Church ...
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146 views

Jesus said I am the Way, how does the Catholic Church best explain this passage?

John 14:6 New International Version (NIV) "Jesus answered, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me." This passage from St.John Gospel had a strong ...
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72 views

What are the important gifts and graces given to Mary to become Mother of the Church?

Catholic Church Tradition already embraced the view of Mary's role as Mother of the Church. It says Saint Augustine and Pope Saint Leo the Great both reflected on the Virgin Mary’s importance in the ...
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130 views

Are the Seven Sorrows of Mary the seven pillars in Proverbs 9:1?

Proverbs 9:1 English Standard Version (ESV) "Wisdom has built her house; she has hewn her seven pillars." "HEWN" (Thesaurus) Adj. 1. hewn - cut or shaped with hard blows of a heavy cutting ...
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2answers
193 views

Was Mary’s appearance to St.James the Greater in year 40 AD an apparition or bilocation?

Tradition has it that the Blessed Virgin Mary, sometime before her bodily Assumption into heaven, appeared to the Apostle St. James the Elder while he was living and preaching in Spain. After ...
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1answer
127 views

What is the source of this quote from St. Augustine?

In a sermon many years ago a priest (now dead) quoted a phrase from St Augustine : God was drawn down from heaven by the weight of his love. I realise that this is a translation from Latin & ...
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2answers
128 views

Church Fathers on the Queenship of Mary

My Question: Which Church Fathers thought of Mary as a Queen? The Church Fathers can be both early and late(max 500AD).
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1answer
146 views

Has the term “born again” always been synonymous with baptism with the Christians of the Early Church?

Has the term "born again" always been synonymous with baptism with the Christians of the Early Church? St. Irenaeus (202) wrote the following in 185, which many claim it refers to infant baptism: ...
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2answers
257 views

What do Protestants think about canon laws given by the Church Fathers?

In the seven ecumenical councils, and throughout early Christian history, various Church Fathers gave certain canon laws, or rules that the clergy and laity had to follow. What do Protestants think ...
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95 views

Ancient Western Christianity & Indian Christians

India is well outside the bounds of Roman influence, but there is evidence of Christianity in India very early. After the faith reached India, how much contact was there with Christianity in the ...
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2answers
62 views

Trouble finding these quotes from St. John Chrysostom

I stumbled upon the following quotations from St. Alphonsus' book "The History of Heresies and their Refutation": Gratia Dei semper in beneficiis priores sibi partes vindicat. (St. Chrysos. Hom. ...
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56 views

Quotation from Desert Fathers

I am looking for a particular quotation that I believe comes from the desert fathers. I searched the Philokalia but didn't find it. I don't think it was from there anyway, but I looked. In the ...
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0answers
40 views

What was the socioeconomic makeup of early Christian Gnostic sects?

There is ample evidence that early Christianity was socioeconomically very inclusive, being made up of the poor, the wealthy, men, women, the educated, uneducated, etc. For example, Pliny the ...
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72 views

Identify this story about the end times from the Desert Fathers

I heard a story similar to the following at some point, but for the life of me I can't find an authoritative source. I believe that it's one of the Desert Fathers, but I'm not certain of that, either. ...
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1answer
202 views

Did any Church Fathers believe that angels could still choose to become demons?

The Scriptural teaching regarding the nature and origin of the devil and demons has been summarized by the Orthodox theologian Michael Pomazanski: According to the testimony of the word of God, the ...
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3answers
370 views

What did early Christians say about apostolic succession?

Did early Christian writers teach apostolic succession or reject it? How do their teachings on this topic compare with contemporary and significant historical understandings of apostolic succession?
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1answer
161 views

What is the Adventist response to Justin Martyr?

Justin Martyr described Christians worshiping on Sunday twice in his first apology. And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place But ...
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1answer
125 views

What was the general opinion of the Early Church Fathers concerning the giants/nephilims?

What was the general opinion of the Early Church Fathers concerning the giants/nephilims, described in the following verses? Genesis 6:4 4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and ...
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81 views

Where are the manuscripts of Dean John Burgon?

Dean John Burgon (1813-1888) says in his book 'Revisions Revised' that he had catalogued 86,000 references to the scriptures in the early church fathers (such as Jerome, Eusebius, Augustine etc) in ...
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1answer
80 views

Where is it documented that some people didn't want Gospel of John to be included as canonical?

I have heard in some debates that the Gospel of John had some push back from people (Church Fathers?) from being included into the Canon. Can someone shed some light on this topic? Or provide a book ...
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1answer
148 views

Who was Theophylact?

As mentioned in this question, this commentary mentions one "Theophylact" who was apparently a contemporary of Athanasius. Wikipedia only provides a list of figures who lived well past Athanasius's ...
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1answer
179 views

What are the historical arguments against a literal interpretation of Luke 22:44?

This question led me to reread Luke 22:44 in various translations, and I noticed that all of them used a comparison, as if Jesus’s sweat was similar to great drops of blood, but not actually great ...
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Why did so many early church fathers say that sex was a consequence of the Fall?

According to an Orthodox that replies to someone else in an exchange regarding marital sex, he states "remember the words of Psalm 50" (Psalm 51 in Masoretic-based Bibles): I was conceived in ...
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302 views

Early Church Fathers and “Q”

Starting with the early church, a large portion of Christian tradition has held the Augustinian hypothesis which believes that Matthew's Gospel was the first to be written, then Mark's, then Luke's, ...
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285 views

Did any church fathers after Chrysostom believe that Mary committed sin?

The belief that Mary never committed sin has been around a long time, much longer than the final formulation of the doctrine of her immaculate conception (which happened around the 13th century). ...
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110 views

What Defines an Early Church Father?

There are a number of early writings about Christianity apart from Scriptures (the NT 27 books per this question). Some of those authors are considered by some to be what are called Early Church ...
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How old was St. Joseph when he married the Blessed Virgin Mary?

According to the Church Fathers or other Catholic theologians, how old was St. Joseph when he married the Blessed Virgin Mary?
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156 views

Did any of the Church Fathers think the current-day Gospels were not inspired?

I heard that some of the Church Fathers referred to the Gospels using terminology which indicates maybe they didn't think they were "inspired". Is there any statement by one of them that indicates ...
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Do any early Church Fathers record the event of the ceasing of spiritual gifts?

A central belief held by an overwhelming majority of Cessationists is that the "supernatural spiritual gifts" (e.g., tongues, prophecy, healing, miracles, etc.) ceased with the end of the apostolic ...
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1answer
640 views

What did the fathers of the early church think of Tertullian?

Today, Tertullian (c. AD 155–240) has something of a mixed reputation in many Christian circles. He's recognized as a significant thinker and a major contributor to the doctrine of the Trinity. But ...
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1answer
225 views

Is there any extra-biblical evidence of tongues from the first, or even second, century?

This is not a question whether tongues exist, yesterday or today, but I'm looking for extra-biblical writings on the existence thereof. Is there any documentation outside of the Bible, either from ...
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1answer
406 views

Why was the epistle of Clement to Corinth not considered canonical?

I'm wondering on this one. I'm reading Eusebius and he states that at least one letter from the Bishop Clement (c. 35 AD - 99 AD) to Corinth was considered worthy to be read and was circulated among ...
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2answers
128 views

What is a good starting point for a study of the early Church? [closed]

I'm very interested in the Early Church (after Christ's Ascension) and was wondering what Orthodox writings are available? So far, I have found Eusebius, Papias, Irenaeus, James the Martyr and Philo ...
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Which church father first taught the perpetual virginity of Mary?

Reformed theologian Herman Bavinck, in his Reformed Dogmatics, III, §366, briefly deals with Mary's perpetual virginity, and touches on the doctrine's history: We do not yet find this idea of Mary'...
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1answer
350 views

Why were Pseudo-Dionysius's works accepted as authentic for so long?

Pseudo-Dionysius was a 5th/6th century Christian theologian who claimed to be the Dionysius that Paul converted in Acts 17:34. This claim was widely accepted for almost a millennium, which afforded ...
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107 views

Did the ante-Nicene Church fathers write in uncials?

It’s certain that the earliest manuscripts of the New Testament (e.g., Codex Sinaiticus) were written in uncials, but what about non-biblical manuscripts written by the earliest of the “Early Church ...