Questions tagged [christology]

The branch of Christian theology relating to the person, nature, and role of Christ. For questions about the life of Jesus, use [life-of-jesus].

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According to Trinitarians, is Jesus the begotten Son of God the Father, or the begotten Son of God?

A typical translation of a line from the Nicene Creed from the First Council of Constantinople (381) is "And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father" ...
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What is an overview of how different denominations interpret Colossians 1:15 - that Jesus is “the firstborn of all creation”?

Jesus is called the firstborn multiple times. In Colossians 1:15-20 (ESV): 15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 16 For by him all things were created, in heaven and ...
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How do deniers of Jesus' preincarnate existence interpret 2 Corinthians 8:9?

2 Corinthians 8:9 (ESV): 9 For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sake he became poor, so that you by his poverty might become rich. A related ...
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Do Biblical Unitarians believe that Christians can pray to Jesus and, if so, that he can answer a prayer in which he is asked about his divinity?

I personally believe that there are biblical grounds for praying to Jesus (e.g. this and this), and, as far as I'm aware, many Christians believe the same. However, I'm currently in ignorance with ...
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How do Trinitarians explain Jesus' response to the scribes and Pharisees at Luke 5:20-24?

Luke 5:20-24 has Jesus forgiving the sins of a paralyzed man. "When Jesus saw their faith, He said, “Friend, your sins are forgiven.” 21 But the scribes and Pharisees began thinking to ...
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According to Trinitarians, are the Jews correct at John 5:18 in claiming Jesus is “making Himself equal with God”?

John 5:18 says "Because of this, the Jews tried all the harder to kill Him. Not only was He breaking the Sabbath, but He was even calling God His own Father, making Himself equal with God." ...
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How do believers in Jesus' deity explain that Jesus is never claimed to be God/divine in the Old Roman Creed and the Didache?

In an answer to a previous question of mine, a user argued against the historicity of the belief in the divinity of Jesus in the early stages of Christianity, by pointing out the fact that Jesus is ...
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How do Biblical Unitarians contextually explain Thomas' exclamation at John 20:28?

John 20:28 has Thomas saying "My Lord and my God!" For Trinitarians, this line is fairly straightforward - Thomas is recognizing that Jesus is not just Lord but also God. How do Biblical ...
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How is the resurrected Jesus related to the Trinity?

The Doctrine of the Trinity is affirmed by the Catholic Church and more in general by the large majority of Christian denominations, Orthodox, "mainline" Protestant etc., with some relevant ...
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How do Trinitarians understand Peter's response to Jesus at Matthew 16:16?

At Matthew 16:15-17, Jesus asks his disciples who they think he is, and Peter responds. "“Who do you say I am?” 16 Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” 17 Jesus ...
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How do deniers of the personal pre-incarnate existence of the Son of God interpret John 3:31-32?

He that cometh from above is above all: he that is of the earth is earthly, and speaketh of the earth: he that cometh from heaven is above all. And what he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth; and ...
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How do Trinitarians respond to syllogistic arguments against the divinity of Jesus?

In a previous question in which I asked for evidence of early Christians denying the divinity of Jesus, a user posted an answer that, among other things, presents sixteen very interesting syllogistic ...
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How do Biblical Unitarians interpret Malachi 3:1-5?

Malachi 3:1-5 (ESV): “Behold, I send my messenger, and he will prepare the way before me. And the Lord whom you seek will suddenly come to his temple; and the messenger of the covenant in whom you ...
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How do Trinitarians understand what it means for Jesus to grow 'in favor' with God?

Luke 2:52 says "And Jesus grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man." (Berean Study Bible) From a unitarian perspective, the idea that Jesus, who is a man, grew in favour ...
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What is an overview of the early Church's viewpoints on Christology at the time of the Apostolic Era?

What were the beliefs of the early Church regarding the nature of Jesus during the Apostolic Era? By Apostolic Era, I mean the time of the Apostles and their immediate successors who knew them ...
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Is there any historical evidence of Early Church Christians denying the divinity of Jesus during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD?

I'm essentially asking the counter-question to this one. Is there any historical evidence of Early Church Christians (post-New Testament) openly denying the divinity of Jesus in the 1st and 2nd ...
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What analogies have been suggested for kenosis?

I was trying to represent the word "Kenosis" (Philippians 2:5-8) in a graphic way in order to understand it better. I know it sounds strange, but I imagine this concept as an almost empty ...
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What is the biblical basis for Jesus' eternal pre-existence (as opposed to having been created a long time ago)?

I know that many verses can be cited to argue for Jesus' pre-mortal existence (e.g. here). I'm also perfectly aware that a question asking for the biblical basis for Jesus being God incarnate has ...
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How do deniers of Jesus' preincarnate existence interpret John 17:5?

`And now, glorify me, Thou Father, with Thyself, with the glory that I had before the world was, with Thee; [John 17:5, YLT] And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory ...
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Is there any historical evidence that the early church believed in the divinity of Jesus?

Is there any historical evidence that the early church believed in the divinity of Jesus? What about the first century? What about the second century (and so on)? Was the belief in the divinity of ...
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Which Christian denominations do NOT believe that Jesus existed prior to his conception?

Basically the title: Which Christian denominations do NOT believe that Jesus existed in some manner before his conception? If there are way too many, a reasonable answer listing the most notable ones ...
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How do Biblical Unitarians understand what some theologians refer as the Kenosis in Philippians 2?

Philippians 2:5-9 describes the attitude of humility, love, and service which Christ Jesus possessed while on earth: Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus, who, though he ...
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How do deniers of Jesus' divinity explain that the angel at Revelation 22:9 did not include Jesus in the list of beings that can be worshipped?

Note: this is an adaptation of a question asked on Hermenutics.SE. Check it out if interested in answers from different viewpoints. When John fell down to worship the angel that had just showed him ...
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What is the Biblical Basis for Christ returning with a physical body at the Second Coming?

I've heard Christians claim that at the Second Coming Christ will return with a physical human body, what is the Bible basis for this belief? It is clear that he has a physical flesh body once: And ...
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If Christ Has Been Given All Authority Why Does He Need to Make Intercession For Us?

The bible tells us both that Jesus has been given all authority but he also is ever making intercession for us with God the Father. Has there ever been any theological explanation by anyone on why ...
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What is an example of a deductive argument that Biblical Unitarians would present to prove that Jesus is not God?

I'm interested in learning about how Biblical Unitarians arrive at the conclusion that Jesus is not God from a deductive reasoning standpoint (for examples of deductive arguments, see this question). ...
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For Biblical Unitarians, are there divine attributes that the Father has but the Son doesn't?

I've seen multiple times (biblical) unitarians claim that being divine does not imply being God, and that we can view Jesus as divine (i.e. as having divine attributes) without being "God" ...
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What is the biblical basis for Jesus' pre-incarnate existence?

Basically the opposite of this question. What are the most notable biblical passages that believers in the pre-incarnate existence of Jesus resort to to defend their position? How do they usually ...
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How do non-trinitarians interpret Philippians 2:5-8?

Philippians 2:5-8 (NRSV): 5 Let the same mind be in you that was in Christ Jesus, 6 who, though he was in the form of God, did not regard equality with God as something to be exploited, 7 but emptied ...
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How do those who reject the divinity of Jesus understand Hebrews 1:6 (“Let all God’s angels worship him.”)? [duplicate]

My understanding is that God is a jealous God and does not tolerate that anyone else be worshiped (Exodus 20:4-5; Luke 4:8). Yet, Hebrews 1:6 (NIV) says: 6 And again, when God brings his firstborn ...
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Did God create Jesus' soul?

This is one of a series of questions I have regarding the Christian notion of the Trinity. Assuming Jesus soul was created, and that Jesus has a free will of his own, then any God-like attributes ...
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Why aren't Christmas and New Year's Day the same date?

As I understand it, the modern calendar is separated by Jesus's birth (B.C. for "before Christ" and A.D. for Anno Domini). Ignoring the fact that Christ was probably born between 6-4 B.C and ...
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Why is Jesus referred as the Son of God instead of God? [duplicate]

The bible never explicitly said that he's god. However, the bible referred Jesus as the son of god. The word "son of god" sounds as if he's not a god. Why is that the case?
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Since there is only one God who is not formed then how can the Jehovah’s Witnesses claim that Jesus is a created god?

If there is only one God, how can Jesus be another "god" as taught by the Jehovah's Witnesses? Isaiah quotes Jehovah in Isaiah 43:10-11 the very verse from which the Jehovah's Witnesses ...
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How does C.S Lewis come to the conclusion that Jesus is God? [closed]

NO REASON TO CLOSE THIS QUESTION The reason why this question is not opinion based, is because I am asking how C.S Lewis himself arrived to the conclusion of his dilemma. Because as it reads from this ...
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How do the Father and Son differ if they have the same particular essence?

My question assumes ousia in Christian orthodoxy means a particular (not universal) essence or form, and not a concrete instantiation (hypostasis). If the Father and Son have the same ousia, where are ...
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Was Jesus resurrected after or {within} three days of his death? [duplicate]

Was Jesus resurrected after complete 3 days, or he resurrected in the third day?. I mean if he had been resurrected in the third day, this means that he had spent less than 72 hours before his ...
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How do Trinitarians interpret Jesus's statement that “I live because of the Father”?

Just as the living Father sent me and I live because of the Father, so the one who feeds on me will live because of me (John 6:57) This statement by Jesus seems to insinuate that Jesus derives his ...
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Are these assertions about Christ correct?

I heard Fr. Rick Walsh say in this excerpt: "we are Christ", "Christ is a woman", "Christ is lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer" and "in Christ I am ...
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Was Jesus superior to man when he was in flesh? [closed]

I was asking myself this, while reading the Pauline epistles, was Jesus on earth able to do miracles or he was a man like us with our limits and depending only on God?
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How do Jehovah's Witnesses understand Galatians 1:11-12?

The Apostle Paul stated at Galatians 1:11-12 the following: Galatians 1:11-12: For I would have you know, brethern, that the gospel which was preached by me is not according to man. For I neither ...
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Which virtue did only Jesus teach and practice?

Almost all religions teach good morals and virtues to their followers. In the case of Christianity the Lord Jesus Christ is not only the center of Christianity, but also the highest perfect model that ...
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Is Christ androgynous? [closed]

What are the stances, if any, of the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Church on whether Christ was androgynous?
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Did arians have any kind of scriptural basis? [duplicate]

Did arians have any kind of scriptural basis for their teachings? If yes, what is it? What I am interested in here is the christology. Christ as created being.
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Christ 'made' sin - the Reformed, Protestant view?

Following on from both of the two recent questions regarding the inheritance or transmission of 'original' or 'inbred' sin, from generation to generation, I am interested in the Trinitarian, ...
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According to Jehovah’s Witnesses what does the name Immanuel mean in light of their belief that Jesus is a created being and not God?

This article goes on to say, Without accurate knowledge, we may become ensnared by false teachings promoted by God's opposer, Satan the Devil. Therefore, if a doctrine contradicts God's Word, if it ...
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What are the major problems that Chalcedonians have with Miaphysite Christology?

The Council of Chalcedon of 451 gave a clear definition of the Hypostatic Union, the doctrine that in the incarnation, the Son of God took on a full human nature, so that in this one person are united ...
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How did Old Testament saints show they were focused on God’s promises even though they did not know when or how their Redeemer/Messiah would appear? [closed]

I am preparing a message on the importance of eliminating distractions and making Christ and His crucifixion our focal point. These New Testament Scriptures illustrate the point: For I resolved to ...
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What is the nature of Dyothelitism according to the Council of Chalcedon?

What is the nature of Dyothelitism according to the Council of Chalcedon? At the Council of Chalcedon, the church taught that the Incarnate Lord Jesus Christ had two natures: divine and human, united ...
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Does transubstantiation teach that the Son regularly returns physically?

Is Catholicism's accidents and species/transubstantiation teaching that the Son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, returned or regularly returns physically, with a second, mute, nonhuman, physical ...

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