Questions tagged [christology]

The branch of Christian theology relating to the person, nature, and role of Christ. For questions about the life of Jesus, use [life-of-jesus].

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What is the biblical basis for Jesus having two natures?

A comment by Nigel: The dual nature of Jesus Christ is such that Deity and humanity meet in one Person. The natures neither mingle, nor merge, nor 'switch'. They are two distinct things. They meet ...
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Does the phrasing in Nicene Creed cast doubt on the eternality of The Son of God?

The Nicene creed phrase “God of God” or “God from God” refers to The Word, Jesus. It seems that being of or from God indicates a beginning. Jesus,The Word,would not thus be eternally existing. How do ...
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Do Latter-day Saints consider Jehovah's Witnesses, Biblical Unitarians and any other groups that deny the divinity of Jesus to be 'true Christians'?

Is belief in the divinity of Jesus an essential feature of a true Christian, according to Latter-day Saints? If so, would that imply that Christian denominations or groups that deny the divinity of ...
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What is the biblical basis for Jesus having one nature only, a human nature?

To be perfectly clear, by Jesus having a human nature, it must be remembered that he is, and was, at all times, without sin. He was made like us in every way, so the only difference would seem to be ...
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What does the Chalcedonian Creed mean by person?

The creed says: the distinction of natures being by no means taken away by the union, but rather the property of each nature being preserved, and concurring in one Person and one Subsistence, not ...
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Does Jesus ever claim to be God, or the son of God?

While I understand there are many potential passages in the Bible of Jesus claiming to be a messiah (which I understand to mean "anointed"), a king, or one through whom it is necessary to know God, I'...
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How do deniers of Jesus' preincarnate existence interpret John 17:5?

`And now, glorify me, Thou Father, with Thyself, with the glory that I had before the world was, with Thee; [John 17:5, YLT] And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory ...
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According to Evangelicalism when did Jesus become the High Priest?

In the Aaronic Priesthood, priests come and go but Jesus is a priest forever. Hebrews 7:23-25 (MSG) 23-25 Earlier there were a lot of priests, for they died and had to be replaced. But Jesus’ ...
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What is the biblical basis for Jesus not being the logos in John 1:1-3?

1In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God. 2he was in the beginning with God. 3All things came into being through him, and without him not even one thing came ...
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How do Biblical Unitarians respond to translations of Hebrews 1:8 which have God calling the Son 'God'?

A typical translation of Hebrews 1:8 is "But about the Son He says: “Your throne, O God, endures forever and ever, and justice is the scepter of Your kingdom." (Berean Study Bible) The 'He'...
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How do Biblical Unitarians respond to passages like 2 Peter 1:1 and Titus 2:13, which seem to call Jesus 'God'?

2 Peter 1:1 says "Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who through the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ have received a faith as precious as ours" (...
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According to Jehovah’s Witnesses, in what way is Jesus human?

From what I understand, Jehovah’s Witnesses believe in a form of Arianism that claims Jesus is “the son of God”, but he is inferior to “God the Father”, as he is usually understood as “God’s first ...
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Are there any surviving Acta Diurna copies mentioning Jesus' trial or other aspects of his life?

I recently learned about Acta Diurna, which are official notices created by Roman authorities describing legal proceedings and the outcome of trials. It occurred to me that the trial of Jesus before ...
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What answer did Arius and Eusebius have to Melchisedec being a representative likeness having ‘no beginning of days’ (Hebrews 7:3)?

Origen of Alexandria 184-253 taught that the relationship between the Father and the Son was one of an ‘eternal begetting’ but Arius 256-336 argued that ‘the Logos had a beginning and that the Son, ...
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Did God the Son become flesh?

I read here somewhere that 'the logos IS the ever-living Son'. This is conjecture as no biblical text seems to support this construct. The bible reveals nothing about an ever-living 'God the Son' ...
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How do those who believe that Jesus is a created being understand the verses which say everything that was created was created by him?

There are some people who claim that Jesus is a created being, but this claim is nowhere confirmed, rather the Bible says: Everything became through the Word, and without the Word did not become one ...
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What is the Biblical basis that Jesus could sin?

We have many scriptures about Jesus' humanity. Several specific verses about his total dependence on the Father, his God, for all his needs, his words and his ability to perform miracles etc. Jesus ...
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How do Trinitarians understand what Jesus said in the garden of Gethsemane?

Let me preface this by saying that I don't assume the Trinitarian viewpoint is any more or less reasonable than any other, this is a question out of curiosity brought up by things I read in another ...
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Relationships between God the Father, Mary and the two natures of Jesus Christ

Would it be okay to say this: Jesus Christ is both God and Man, which means that He possesses both divine and human nature. Divine nature in Him is from God the Father and the human nature in ...
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How do Jehovah's Witnesses interpret verses like Isaiah 9:6 which call the messiah 'God'?

For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, THE MIGHTY GOD, The everlasting Father, The ...
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What is the Biblical Basis for Christ returning with a physical body at the Second Coming?

I've heard Christians claim that at the Second Coming Christ will return with a physical human body, what is the Bible basis for this belief? It is clear that he has a physical flesh body once: And ...
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How did the early church fathers refute Adoptionism?

Adoptionism is a Christological heresy which denies the pre-existence of Jesus, and therefore denies Jesus's title as "God the Son" in the Trinitarian conception of the Christian God. See the ...
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According to Trinitarians, is Jesus the begotten Son of God the Father, or the begotten Son of God?

A typical translation of a line from the Nicene Creed from the First Council of Constantinople (381) is "And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father" ...
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What is an overview of how different denominations interpret Colossians 1:15 - that Jesus is "the firstborn of all creation"?

Jesus is called the firstborn multiple times. In Colossians 1:15-20 (ESV): 15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 16 For by him all things were created, in heaven and ...
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How do Trinitarians explain verses where Jesus claims to have a God?

According to orthodox trinitarian doctrine, the Father is God, Jesus is God, and the Holy Spirit is God. Jesus is co-eqaul, eternally begotten, not made. With that in mind, how could Jesus have a ...
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How do deniers of Jesus' preincarnate existence interpret 2 Corinthians 8:9?

2 Corinthians 8:9 (ESV): 9 For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sake he became poor, so that you by his poverty might become rich. A related ...
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Is there any historical evidence of Early Church Christians denying the divinity of Jesus during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD?

I'm essentially asking the counter-question to this one. Is there any historical evidence of Early Church Christians (post-New Testament) openly denying the divinity of Jesus in the 1st and 2nd ...
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How do believers in Jesus' deity explain that Jesus is never claimed to be God/divine in the Old Roman Creed and the Didache?

In an answer to a previous question of mine, a user argued against the historicity of the belief in the divinity of Jesus in the early stages of Christianity, by pointing out the fact that Jesus is ...
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What is the difference between Jesus "resurrected body" and Mary's "glorified body"?

Jesus is Ascended into Heaven with a "resurrected body". Mary was Assumed into Heaven with a "glorified body? Revelation 21:27 "Nothing defiled shall enter the Kingdom..." I ...
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Do Biblical Unitarians believe that Christians can pray to Jesus and, if so, that he can answer a prayer in which he is asked about his divinity?

I personally believe that there are biblical grounds for praying to Jesus (e.g. this and this), and, as far as I'm aware, many Christians believe the same. However, I'm currently in ignorance with ...
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How do Trinitarians explain Jesus' response to the scribes and Pharisees at Luke 5:20-24?

Luke 5:20-24 has Jesus forgiving the sins of a paralyzed man. "When Jesus saw their faith, He said, “Friend, your sins are forgiven.” 21 But the scribes and Pharisees began thinking to ...
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According to Trinitarians, are the Jews correct at John 5:18 in claiming Jesus is "making Himself equal with God"?

John 5:18 says "Because of this, the Jews tried all the harder to kill Him. Not only was He breaking the Sabbath, but He was even calling God His own Father, making Himself equal with God." ...
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How do Biblical Unitarians contextually explain Thomas' exclamation at John 20:28?

John 20:28 has Thomas saying "My Lord and my God!" For Trinitarians, this line is fairly straightforward - Thomas is recognizing that Jesus is not just Lord but also God. How do Biblical ...
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Why is it not enough for Jesus to be human to be the perfect sacrifice, why must he be God?

Regardless of whether Jesus is God or not, why do some stridently hold to, 'Jesus can only cover sin by His own death as God'? Until Jesus' perfect sacrifice/offering, the law required an animal to ...
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How do deniers of the personal pre-incarnate existence of the Son of God interpret John 3:31-32?

He that cometh from above is above all: he that is of the earth is earthly, and speaketh of the earth: he that cometh from heaven is above all. And what he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth; and ...
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How is the resurrected Jesus related to the Trinity?

The Doctrine of the Trinity is affirmed by the Catholic Church and more in general by the large majority of Christian denominations, Orthodox, "mainline" Protestant etc., with some relevant ...
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How do Trinitarians respond to syllogistic arguments against the divinity of Jesus?

In a previous question in which I asked for evidence of early Christians denying the divinity of Jesus, a user posted an answer that, among other things, presents sixteen very interesting syllogistic ...
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How do Trinitarians understand Peter's response to Jesus at Matthew 16:16?

At Matthew 16:15-17, Jesus asks his disciples who they think he is, and Peter responds. "“Who do you say I am?” 16 Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” 17 Jesus ...
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What is an overview of the early Church's viewpoints on Christology at the time of the Apostolic Era?

What were the beliefs of the early Church regarding the nature of Jesus during the Apostolic Era? By Apostolic Era, I mean the time of the Apostles and their immediate successors who knew them ...
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How do Biblical Unitarians interpret Malachi 3:1-5?

Malachi 3:1-5 (ESV): “Behold, I send my messenger, and he will prepare the way before me. And the Lord whom you seek will suddenly come to his temple; and the messenger of the covenant in whom you ...
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How do Jehovah's Witnesses explain Thomas's exclamation, "My Lord and my God"?

In John 20, Jesus is resurrected and is showing Thomas the wounds in his hands, to prove that he is risen. In John 20:28–29, we see Thomas's response: 28 Thomas answered him, “My Lord and my God!” ...
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From where do Jehovah's Witnesses derive the doctrine that Jesus was and now is Michael the Archangel?

According to some Watchtower literature, it is taught that Michael the Archangel is Jesus and that Jesus, after He ascended into heaven, resumed the name of Michael. "It proves Michael the ...
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How do Trinitarians understand what it means for Jesus to grow 'in favor' with God?

Luke 2:52 says "And Jesus grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man." (Berean Study Bible) From a unitarian perspective, the idea that Jesus, who is a man, grew in favour ...
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How did Arius interpret Colossians 2:9?

Colossians 2:9 HCSB For the entire fullness of God’s nature dwells bodily in Christ, NASB: For in Him all the fullness of Deity dwells in bodily form, How did Arius interpret Colossians ...
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What analogies have been suggested for kenosis?

I was trying to represent the word "Kenosis" (Philippians 2:5-8) in a graphic way in order to understand it better. I know it sounds strange, but I imagine this concept as an almost empty ...
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Is there any historical evidence that the early church believed in the divinity of Jesus?

Is there any historical evidence that the early church believed in the divinity of Jesus? What about the first century? What about the second century (and so on)? Was the belief in the divinity of ...
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Who (or what) died on the cross? [duplicate]

Scripture informs that God is immortal (1 Tim 6:16) God the (eternal) Son cannot experience death, yet the human incarnation, Jesus, did. John 3:16 "...God gave His only Son..." Am I missing ...
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What is the biblical basis for Jesus' eternal pre-existence (as opposed to having been created a long time ago)?

I know that many verses can be cited to argue for Jesus' pre-mortal existence (e.g. here). I'm also perfectly aware that a question asking for the biblical basis for Jesus being God incarnate has ...
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Which Christian denominations do NOT believe that Jesus existed prior to his conception?

Basically the title: Which Christian denominations do NOT believe that Jesus existed in some manner before his conception? If there are way too many, a reasonable answer listing the most notable ones ...
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How do Biblical Unitarians understand what some theologians refer as the Kenosis in Philippians 2?

Philippians 2:5-9 describes the attitude of humility, love, and service which Christ Jesus possessed while on earth: Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus, who, though he ...

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