Questions tagged [christology]

The branch of Christian theology relating to the person, nature, and role of Christ. For questions about the life of Jesus, use [life-of-jesus].

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What is the biblical basis for the notional/ideal pre-existence of Jesus?

Some Christians believe that Jesus only pre-existed notionally/ideally in God's mind prior to his conception in Mary's womb (just like any other human being). What is the biblical basis for this view?
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Do Biblical Unitarians view John 1:14 and Philippians 2:5-8 as two complementary descriptions of the same event?

John 1:14 (YLT): 14 And the Word became flesh, and did tabernacle among us, and we beheld his glory, glory as of an only begotten of a father, full of grace and truth. Philippians 2:5-8 (YLT): 5 ...
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How do non-trinitarians explain Isaiah 43:11 taking into account its immediate context?

11“I, only I, am the LORD, And there is no savior besides Me. The OT especially has a strong emphasis on there being only one God, Yahweh, and there are only a few scattered and cryptic references to ...
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Is it Biblical to say that Jesus is God? [duplicate]

It seems that many Christians have a certain reluctance to say that "Jesus is God". There seems to even be some reticence about it in the New Testament, and he is usually described, even by ...
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According to Chalcedonian theology, did Jesus retain his human nature after his ascension, or did he return to being only divine?

The Epistle of Diognetes, regarded by some to be the earliest example of Christian apologetics, establishes Jesus’ divine role as Creator and even goes as far as to call him God. “As a king sends ...
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According to Trinitarians, is the Holy Spirit quenched and grieved by those who deny His personhood and Christ's deity?

According to Trinitarians, is the Holy Spirit quenched and grieved by those who deny His personhood and Christ's deity? If so, would that mean that people who do not believe in the deity of Christ and ...
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Which verses of the NT explicitly state that Jesus was born with a human mind in a human body?

We read in Phil 2: 5-7 : Let the same mind be in you that was in Christ Jesus, who, though he was in the form of God, did not regard equality with God as something to be exploited, but emptied ...
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Does the phrasing in Nicene Creed cast doubt on the eternality of The Son of God?

The Nicene creed phrase “God of God” or “God from God” refers to The Word, Jesus. It seems that being of or from God indicates a beginning. Jesus,The Word,would not thus be eternally existing. How do ...
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Do Latter-day Saints consider Jehovah's Witnesses, Biblical Unitarians and any other groups that deny the divinity of Jesus to be 'true Christians'?

Is belief in the divinity of Jesus an essential feature of a true Christian, according to Latter-day Saints? If so, would that imply that Christian denominations or groups that deny the divinity of ...
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What does the Chalcedonian Creed mean by person?

The creed says: the distinction of natures being by no means taken away by the union, but rather the property of each nature being preserved, and concurring in one Person and one Subsistence, not ...
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What is the biblical basis for Jesus not being the logos in John 1:1-3?

1In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God. 2he was in the beginning with God. 3All things came into being through him, and without him not even one thing came ...
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How do Biblical Unitarians respond to translations of Hebrews 1:8 which have God calling the Son 'God'?

A typical translation of Hebrews 1:8 is "But about the Son He says: “Your throne, O God, endures forever and ever, and justice is the scepter of Your kingdom." (Berean Study Bible) The 'He'...
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How do Biblical Unitarians respond to passages like 2 Peter 1:1 and Titus 2:13, which seem to call Jesus 'God'?

2 Peter 1:1 says "Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who through the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ have received a faith as precious as ours" (...
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What is the biblical basis for Jesus having one nature only, a human nature?

To be perfectly clear, by Jesus having a human nature, it must be remembered that he is, and was, at all times, without sin. He was made like us in every way, so the only difference would seem to be ...
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What is the biblical basis for Jesus having two natures?

A comment by Nigel: The dual nature of Jesus Christ is such that Deity and humanity meet in one Person. The natures neither mingle, nor merge, nor 'switch'. They are two distinct things. They meet ...
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What answer did Arius and Eusebius have to Melchisedec being a representative likeness having ‘no beginning of days’ (Hebrews 7:3)?

Origen of Alexandria 184-253 taught that the relationship between the Father and the Son was one of an ‘eternal begetting’ but Arius 256-336 argued that ‘the Logos had a beginning and that the Son, ...
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How do Trinitarians understand what Jesus said in the garden of Gethsemane?

Let me preface this by saying that I don't assume the Trinitarian viewpoint is any more or less reasonable than any other, this is a question out of curiosity brought up by things I read in another ...
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What is the Biblical basis that Jesus could sin?

We have many scriptures about Jesus' humanity. Several specific verses about his total dependence on the Father, his God, for all his needs, his words and his ability to perform miracles etc. Jesus ...
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According to Trinitarians, is Jesus the begotten Son of God the Father, or the begotten Son of God?

A typical translation of a line from the Nicene Creed from the First Council of Constantinople (381) is "And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father" ...
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What is an overview of how different denominations interpret Colossians 1:15 - that Jesus is "the firstborn of all creation"?

Jesus is called the firstborn multiple times. In Colossians 1:15-20 (ESV): 15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 16 For by him all things were created, in heaven and ...
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How do deniers of Jesus' preincarnate existence interpret 2 Corinthians 8:9?

2 Corinthians 8:9 (ESV): 9 For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sake he became poor, so that you by his poverty might become rich. A related ...
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Do Biblical Unitarians believe that Christians can pray to Jesus and, if so, that he can answer a prayer in which he is asked about his divinity?

I personally believe that there are biblical grounds for praying to Jesus (e.g. this and this), and, as far as I'm aware, many Christians believe the same. However, I'm currently in ignorance with ...
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How do Trinitarians explain Jesus' response to the scribes and Pharisees at Luke 5:20-24?

Luke 5:20-24 has Jesus forgiving the sins of a paralyzed man. "When Jesus saw their faith, He said, “Friend, your sins are forgiven.” 21 But the scribes and Pharisees began thinking to ...
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According to Trinitarians, are the Jews correct at John 5:18 in claiming Jesus is "making Himself equal with God"?

John 5:18 says "Because of this, the Jews tried all the harder to kill Him. Not only was He breaking the Sabbath, but He was even calling God His own Father, making Himself equal with God." ...
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How do believers in Jesus' deity explain that Jesus is never claimed to be God/divine in the Old Roman Creed and the Didache?

In an answer to a previous question of mine, a user argued against the historicity of the belief in the divinity of Jesus in the early stages of Christianity, by pointing out the fact that Jesus is ...
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How do Biblical Unitarians contextually explain Thomas' exclamation at John 20:28?

John 20:28 has Thomas saying "My Lord and my God!" For Trinitarians, this line is fairly straightforward - Thomas is recognizing that Jesus is not just Lord but also God. How do Biblical ...
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How is the resurrected Jesus related to the Trinity?

The Doctrine of the Trinity is affirmed by the Catholic Church and more in general by the large majority of Christian denominations, Orthodox, "mainline" Protestant etc., with some relevant ...
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How do Trinitarians understand Peter's response to Jesus at Matthew 16:16?

At Matthew 16:15-17, Jesus asks his disciples who they think he is, and Peter responds. "“Who do you say I am?” 16 Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” 17 Jesus ...
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How do deniers of the personal pre-incarnate existence of the Son of God interpret John 3:31-32?

He that cometh from above is above all: he that is of the earth is earthly, and speaketh of the earth: he that cometh from heaven is above all. And what he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth; and ...
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How do Trinitarians respond to syllogistic arguments against the divinity of Jesus?

In a previous question in which I asked for evidence of early Christians denying the divinity of Jesus, a user posted an answer that, among other things, presents sixteen very interesting syllogistic ...
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How do Biblical Unitarians interpret Malachi 3:1-5?

Malachi 3:1-5 (ESV): “Behold, I send my messenger, and he will prepare the way before me. And the Lord whom you seek will suddenly come to his temple; and the messenger of the covenant in whom you ...
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How do Trinitarians understand what it means for Jesus to grow 'in favor' with God?

Luke 2:52 says "And Jesus grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man." (Berean Study Bible) From a unitarian perspective, the idea that Jesus, who is a man, grew in favour ...
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What is an overview of the early Church's viewpoints on Christology at the time of the Apostolic Era?

What were the beliefs of the early Church regarding the nature of Jesus during the Apostolic Era? By Apostolic Era, I mean the time of the Apostles and their immediate successors who knew them ...
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Is there any historical evidence of Early Church Christians denying the divinity of Jesus during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD?

I'm essentially asking the counter-question to this one. Is there any historical evidence of Early Church Christians (post-New Testament) openly denying the divinity of Jesus in the 1st and 2nd ...
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What analogies have been suggested for kenosis?

I was trying to represent the word "Kenosis" (Philippians 2:5-8) in a graphic way in order to understand it better. I know it sounds strange, but I imagine this concept as an almost empty ...
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What is the biblical basis for Jesus' eternal pre-existence (as opposed to having been created a long time ago)?

I know that many verses can be cited to argue for Jesus' pre-mortal existence (e.g. here). I'm also perfectly aware that a question asking for the biblical basis for Jesus being God incarnate has ...
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How do deniers of Jesus' preincarnate existence interpret John 17:5?

`And now, glorify me, Thou Father, with Thyself, with the glory that I had before the world was, with Thee; [John 17:5, YLT] And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory ...
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Is there any historical evidence that the early church believed in the divinity of Jesus?

Is there any historical evidence that the early church believed in the divinity of Jesus? What about the first century? What about the second century (and so on)? Was the belief in the divinity of ...
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Which Christian denominations do NOT believe that Jesus existed prior to his conception?

Basically the title: Which Christian denominations do NOT believe that Jesus existed in some manner before his conception? If there are way too many, a reasonable answer listing the most notable ones ...
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How do Biblical Unitarians understand what some theologians refer as the Kenosis in Philippians 2?

Philippians 2:5-9 describes the attitude of humility, love, and service which Christ Jesus possessed while on earth: Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus, who, though he ...
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How do deniers of Jesus' divinity explain that the angel at Revelation 22:9 did not include Jesus in the list of beings that can be worshipped?

Note: this is an adaptation of a question asked on Hermenutics.SE. Check it out if interested in answers from different viewpoints. When John fell down to worship the angel that had just showed him ...
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What is the Biblical Basis for Christ returning with a physical body at the Second Coming?

I've heard Christians claim that at the Second Coming Christ will return with a physical human body, what is the Bible basis for this belief? It is clear that he has a physical flesh body once: And ...
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If Christ Has Been Given All Authority Why Does He Need to Make Intercession For Us?

The bible tells us both that Jesus has been given all authority but he also is ever making intercession for us with God the Father. Has there ever been any theological explanation by anyone on why ...
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What is an example of a deductive argument that Biblical Unitarians would present to prove that Jesus is not God?

I'm interested in learning about how Biblical Unitarians arrive at the conclusion that Jesus is not God from a deductive reasoning standpoint (for examples of deductive arguments, see this question). ...
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For Biblical Unitarians, are there divine attributes that the Father has but the Son doesn't?

I've seen multiple times (biblical) unitarians claim that being divine does not imply being God, and that we can view Jesus as divine (i.e. as having divine attributes) without being "God" ...
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What is the biblical basis for Jesus' pre-incarnate existence?

Basically the opposite of this question. What are the most notable biblical passages that believers in the pre-incarnate existence of Jesus resort to to defend their position? How do they usually ...
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How do non-trinitarians interpret Philippians 2:5-8?

Philippians 2:5-8 (NRSV): 5 Let the same mind be in you that was in Christ Jesus, 6 who, though he was in the form of God, did not regard equality with God as something to be exploited, 7 but emptied ...
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How do those who reject the divinity of Jesus understand Hebrews 1:6 (“Let all God’s angels worship him.”)? [duplicate]

My understanding is that God is a jealous God and does not tolerate that anyone else be worshiped (Exodus 20:4-5; Luke 4:8). Yet, Hebrews 1:6 (NIV) says: 6 And again, when God brings his firstborn ...
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Did God create Jesus' soul?

This is one of a series of questions I have regarding the Christian notion of the Trinity. Assuming Jesus soul was created, and that Jesus has a free will of his own, then any God-like attributes ...
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Why aren't Christmas and New Year's Day the same date?

As I understand it, the modern calendar is separated by Jesus's birth (B.C. for "before Christ" and A.D. for Anno Domini). Ignoring the fact that Christ was probably born between 6-4 B.C and ...

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